COURSE 2: Food Production, Nutrition and Health


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COURSE 2:
Food Production, Nutrition and Health
TRACKING THE SOURCE

CONTENTS
Project Overview............................................................................................................ 3
Lessons
Days 1-2: What is the relationship between bacteria and food safety?........................ 4 Day 3: (Project Roll-out) Do you understand the project?......................................... 8 Day 4: What is the difference between food intoxication and food infection?........ 10 Day 5: What is the prevalence of foodborne illness outbreaks in our state? ........... 12 Days 6-7: How are foodborne illness outbreaks investigated? ................................. 14 Day 8: How do you report and analyze data?............................................................. 17 Day 9: What is the difference between cleaning and sanitation?.............................. 19 Day 10: How do you know if new cases are related to the current outbreak?......... 22 Day 11: What foods and/or events are positively associated with the E. coli O157:H7 outbreak?...................................................................................................... 24 Day 12: How are pathogens detected in foods?......................................................... 26 Day 13: What do the lab results tell us about the outbreak?..................................... 28 Day 14: How do outbreaks happen? How could outbreaks be prevented?.............. 30 Days 15-17: What are the results of the investigation?............................................. 32 Day 18: What can we conclude about the E. coli O157:H7 outbreak?..................... 36 Days 19-20: How does the presence of a food pathogen affect the quality of the food?................................................................................................................... 38
Appendices
Appendix 1: Daily Bell-Work Journal........................................................................... 43 Appendix 2: Daily Exit Tickets..................................................................................... 44 Appendix 3: Bacteria Everywhere Data Table............................................................ 45 Appendix 4: Essential Question................................................................................... 46 Appendix 5: Project Management Log: Team Tasks.................................................. 47 Appendix 6: Venn Diagram.......................................................................................... 48 Appendix 7.1: Thousands may have been exposed to hepatitis A at Missouri restaurant....................................................................................................... 49 Appendix 7.2: Stores may have received tainted beef............................................... 50 Appendix 7.3: E. coli outbreak linked to sprouts; hummus, dips, walnuts recalled.... 52 Appendix 8: Interview Data......................................................................................... 54 Appendix 9: Actor Responses for Interviewees # 21- 27 to Complete Table 1....... 55 Appendix 10: Student Lab Sheet: Don't Cross Me..................................................... 56 Appendix 11: New Cases............................................................................................. 57 Appendix 12: Activity and Consumption Data........................................................... 58 Appendix 13: How are Pathogens Detected in Foods?.............................................. 59 Appendix 13.1: Detecting Pathogens Diagram.......................................................... 60 Appendix 14: Lab Data................................................................................................. 61 Appendix 15: Case Report Final Rubric....................................................................... 62 Appendix 16: Collaboration Rubric.....................................................................................63 Appendix 17: Project Presentation Audience Feedback............................................ 64 Appendix 18: Student Lab Sheet: Coliform Counts................................................... 65 Appendix 19: Self-Reflection on Project Work........................................................... 66

Project Overview

DAY CONCEPT/DESCRIPTION
1-2 Students determine the prevalence of bacteria. Students define GAPS and good manufacturing practices (GMPs).
3 Students define epidemiology. Students determine the scope and meaning of the project.
4 Students will distinguish the difference between foodborne intoxication and foodborne infection. Students identify toxin, viral, and parasitic forms of foodborne illness.
5 Students will interpret existing data related to foodborne illness and display data in a variety of formats.
6-7 Students develop interview questions for a specific audience and investigate a foodborne illness outbreak. Students explain the impact of sampling methods, bias, and the phrasing of questions asked during data collection and the conclusions that can rightfully be made. Students will conduct an interview.
8 Students analyze data and draw conclusions. Students display data in a variety of formats.
9 Students describe the difference between cleaning and sanitation.

DAY CONCEPT/DESCRIPTION
10 Students make predictions based on a specific data set. Students analyze the relationship between new and existing cases of foodborne illness.

11 Students calculate odds ratios from a given data set. Students will determine which foods/events are positively associated with the E. coli O157:H7 outbreak.

12 Students analyze food substances for pathogens.

13 Students will interpret gel electrophoresis results.

14 Students explain how food becomes contaminated. Students describe the consequences of a foodborne illness outbreak.

15-17

Students synthesize the findings of the case study. Students explain the cause of the foodborne illness outbreak. Students describe ways to prevent future outbreaks.

18 Students present findings of the case study.

19-20

Students define coliform. Students describe the relationship between coliform and food safety.

Course 2: Unit 1 | Tracking the Source 3

Lesson Plan: Day 1

1 Key Question of the Day:
DAY What is the relationship between bacteria and food safety?
(Each day the key question should be prominently displayed and used to open the lesson.)

Estimated Time
One 50-minute class period
Learning Objectives
As a result of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Determine the prevalence of bacteria.
• Define GAPS. • Define good manufacturing
practices (GMPs).
Required Materials
• Weekly Bell-Work journal – Appendix 1 – One for each student
• Daily Exit Ticket – Appendix 2 – One for each student
• Flip chart • Markers • Lab Data Table adapted from
Bacteria Everywhere - Lab adapted from Science and our Food Supply, page 18, by NSTA and FDA – Appendix 3 – One for each student • Lab materials: ›› Dissecting microscope
or hand lenses to view microbial colonies ›› Additional petri dishes with nutrient agar and covers for expanded tests ›› Disinfecting solution to disinfect lab surfaces (20 mL of liquid household bleach in 1 L of water) ›› For each team: »» 3 sterile Petri dishes with
nutrient agar and covers »» 2 cups sterile water »» Sterile cotton swabs »» Parafilm or masking tape
to seal the dishes »» Permanent marker »» Safety gloves

Bell-Work
(Each day the Bell-Work question should be prominently displayed and used to open the lesson)
• Provide students with the weekly Bell-Work sheet (Appendix 1)
• “List as many things as you can remember about bacteria.”
OPENING
(Designed to prepare students for learning. Students are prepared for learning by activating an overview of the upcoming learning experience, their prior knowledge, and the necessary vocabulary.)
• Read the Bell-Work question and solicit responses from the students.
• After students share their responses, remind the class that bacteria are microbes that are diverse and highly adaptive. They can encapsulate to survive in harsh environments, and some are motile and move around using filaments. Others are heterotrophic and use a variety of sources for nutrients, which allows them to thrive just about anywhere.
• Ask the class, “How does this relate to food safety?”
• Write student responses on a flip chart.
• Explain that if bacteria are everywhere, it’s likely in our food supply.
MIDDLE
(Designed to provide a structure for learning that actively promotes the comprehension and retention of knowledge through the use of engaging strategies that acknowledge the brain’s limitations of capacity and processing.)
• Assign students to teams of 3.
• Each team should select 4 to 6 areas to examine. They should try for as many different areas as possible. ›› Possible options include: hands, under fingernails, cell phone surface, computer keyboard, etc. ›› Hands and under fingernails should be tested by at least one team.

Tracking the Source 4

Lesson Plan: Day 1

• Next, each team should determine a hypothesis about which areas will have the most bacteria. Which will have the least? Why? How fast will the bacteria grow? Why?
• Each team should design an experiment to test their hypothesis. ›› For example, if the team decides to test the classroom doorknob, under a desk, computer keyboard, and hands, and they hypothesize that the computer keyboard will have the most bacteria and the doorknob will have the least amount of bacteria, then they should come up with a way to test this. One way students could create the experimental design is by determining the length of time (hours/days) they think it will take bacteria to grow.
• Teams will report out their hypothesis and lab design to the rest of the class.
• Ask the class, “How can you be sure that your agar isn’t contaminated?” ›› They should always have a control plate.
• Remind students how to swab a surface (on a dry surface using a moist swab) and inoculate a Petri dish.

• Give the class 10 to 15 minutes to gather their samples and inoculate their dishes. ›› Tape the dishes closed. ›› Place dishes in an incubator at 35°C (95°F) or let the dishes sit at room temperature for the appropriate amount of time. ›› Ask students to establish time parameters such as the number of hours or days it will take the bacteria to grow.
CLOSING
(Designed to promote the retention of knowledge through the use of engaging strategies designed to rehearse and practice skills for the purpose of moving knowledge into long-term memory.)
• Provide each student with the weekly Exit Ticket handout Appendix 2.
• Students will turn in their Exit Ticket for that day. They will respond to the following prompt: “Where do you expect to find the most bacteria?”
• Collect the Exit Ticket for the day as students leave the classroom.

• Before students begin, quickly review the lab safety for the handling of bacteria. ›› Unless they are the team swabbing their hands and fingernails, students should wash their hands thoroughly before starting the lab.

• Give each team 3 Petri dishes. ›› Students should label the dishes on the bottom (agar side). ›› Divide the control dish into thirds. Label the control plate: agar, wet swab, and dry swab. ›› Divide and label the other two dishes with the areas they want to test. ›› Label the dishes with the date, their team members, and class period (along the side on the Parafilm or tape).

Tracking the Source 5

Lesson Plan: Day 2

Key Question of the Day:
D2AY (WChoanttiinsuthaetiorenlaotfioDnasyhi1p)between bacteria and food safety?

Estimated Time
One 50-minute class period
Learning Objectives
As a result of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Determine the prevalence of bacteria.
• Define good agricultural practices (GAPs).
• Define good manufacturing practices (GMPs).
Required Materials
• Computers • Internet • Flip chart paper • Markers • Microscopes • Post-It notes • Lab Data Table – Appendix
3 – Bacteria Everywhere Lab adapted from Science and our Food Supply, page 18, by NSTA and FDA

Bell-Work
• Provide students with the weekly Bell-Work sheet (Appendix 1) • “What do you expect to see in your Petri dishes today?”

OPENING

5 minutes

• Read the Bell-Work question and solicit responses from the students.

• After students share their responses, remind them of the importance of not opening the Petri dishes for safety reasons.

MIDDLE

40 minutes

• Have students observe the bacterial growth and record the results. Students can use the data table in Appendix 3 to record their data. ›› The petri dishes should never be opened due to the fact that the microbes growing are unidentified and could be potentially very dangerous if exposed to the air. ›› Check with your local school district for instructions on how to properly dispose of the contaminated petri dishes. They should not be thrown in the trash.

• Students should draw their Petri dish on the back of the Data Table and illustrate the organisms that are growing.

• Students should analyze the results based on their observations, and respond to the following questions: ›› What do you see? ›› What do you notice about the colonies? ›› Why do they look different? ›› How can the different strains of bacteria be identified?

• As a class, discuss the responses to the questions. Explain that what they are seeing is colony morphology, which is recorded by size, color, edge, shape, and description of the colony height. This is unique to each organism. For example, molds are fuzzy and colorful. Yeast colonies cannot easily be distinguished from bacterial colonies.

Tracking the Source 6

Lesson Plan: Day 2

• Each team should report out to the class: ›› The areas they sampled ›› The number of organisms they observed ›› The characteristics of the organisms (size, shape, and color)
• Debrief the lab by discussing the following question with the class, “Were there any differences in your results compared to the other teams? How did your results support or reject your hypothesis?”
• Transition by explaining, “The point of this lab was to demonstrate that bacteria are everywhere. Bacteria are just one type of microbe that can sneak into our food supply and wreak havoc. As you learned in Course 1, there are all types of pathogens that can cause foodborne illness and impact food safety. There are two types of practices in place to help keep our food supply safe.”
• Post the acronym GAPs on a sheet of flip chart paper on one side of the room.
• Post the acronym GMPs on a sheet of flip chart paper on the other side of the room.
• Give each student three Post-It notes.
• Divide the class in half. ›› Half of the class will research GAPs and the other half will research GMPs.
• Students should determine what each acronym stands for, a brief summary of the purpose, and how it helps the food supply.
• The research part should take 5 to 10 minutes.
• Answers should be written on the Post-It notes, and when students are finished, they should stick their Post-It’s on the corresponding flip chart.
• Bring the class back together for a brief discussion of each term.

• The point to be made, “Even though we have producers such as GAPs and GMPs, we know that microbes are everywhere, and we know that nothing is perfect, sometimes contamination occurs. We’re about to learn more about what happens when food safety is compromised.”

CLOSING

5 minutes

• Students will turn in their Exit Ticket for that day. They will respond to the following prompt: “Describe the difference between GAPs and GMPs.”

• Collect the Exit Ticket for the day as students leave the classroom

Tracking the Source 7

Lesson Plan: Day 3

Key Question of the Day:
D3AY (DPoroyjoeuctuRnodlel-rostuatn)d the project?

Estimated Time
One 50-minute class period
Learning Objectives
As a result of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Define epidemiology. • Describe the purpose of the
project. • List the tasks and products
related to the project.
Required Materials
• Computer • Projector • Internet • Video - http://
www.youtube.com/ watch?v=YnC7Fbx5uSM (E. coli Outbreak Spurs Major Ground Beef Recall) • Project Description – Appendix 4 – One for each student • Project Management Log – Appendix 5 - One for each student • Venn Diagram – Appendix 6

Bell-Work
• Provide students with the weekly Bell-Work sheet (Appendix 1) • “What is epidemiology?”

OPENING

5 minutes

• Read the Bell-Work question and solicit responses from the students.

• Students may not be familiar with this term. They can use cell phones or any Internet device to look up the definition.

• Explain that, “According to Webster’s dictionary, epidemiology is a branch of medical science that deals with the incidence, distribution, and control of disease in a population.” üüTEACHER TIP! Students will create a portfolio at the end of the project (on the last day) where they will compile the bodies of evidence they have created throughout the project. Remind students to save important artifacts as they complete different tasks throughout the project. Feel free to determine the best way for students to create their portfolios based upon your particular situation (e.g., if your school/district has any specific requirements, etc.).

MIDDLE

40 minutes

• Show the video - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YnC7Fbx5uSM

• Ask the class, “What is the connection between the definition of epidemiology and this news report, which focuses on E. coli?”

• Distribute a copy of Appendix 6 to each student. They should fill in the diagram to compare and contrast epidemiology and E. coli.

• Have the class share their responses.

• Give each student a copy of the project description (Appendix 4). ›› Students should take about five minutes to read the project description.

Tracking the Source 8

Lesson Plan: Day 3

• Discuss the project components and answer any questions.
• You can assign teams or allow students to select their teams, but the students will work with the same team for the duration of the project. ›› The size of the team will depend on the number of students in the class. Teams of 2-3 would be ideal.
• Teams should determine a team name.
• Give each student a copy of the project management log (Appendix 5) and explain that students will keep track of work during the project using the log.
• Share the following information about the case investigation with the class once the teams are established, “Eleven patients are showing signs of recovery; however, 8 individuals are in reportedly in poor medical condition and another has since died due to kidney failure. Additional cases of severe gastroenteritis have been reported in the region. More people may become sick if you cannot identify the source quickly and recommend actions necessary to stop the outbreak. The public is counting on you to solve this case.” ›› This information is part of the project and is necessary for students to have the full understanding of the investigation.
• Ask students to recall what they recall about E. coli from Course 1.
• Have a discussion and remind students about the basics of E. coli, “Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an enterohemorrhagic human pathogen that is estimated to cause tens of thousands of cases of gastroenteritis in the U.S. per year and is the leading cause of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). It can colonize the gastrointestinal tracts of ruminant animals including cattle, sheep, deer, and goats without adverse health response in the animals. Outbreaks of E. coli O157:H7 in

humans have been associated with consumption of contaminated undercooked beef, raw milk, and produce including leafy greens and unpasteurized apple cider, despite its acidity. Infections have been acquired by direct contact, as in petting zoos, with animals shedding the bacteria in feces. Person-to-person transmission occurs through the fecal-oral route. E. coli O157:H7 produces shiga-like toxin(s) and is not to be confused with nonpathogenic E. coli which is part of the natural gastrointestinal microbiota of healthy individuals.” – from the case study background

CLOSING

5 minutes

• Students will turn in their Exit Ticket for that day. They will respond to the following prompt: “What questions do you have about the project?”

• Collect the Exit Ticket for the day as students leave the classroom.

Tracking the Source 9

Lesson Plan: Day 4

Key Question of the Day:
D4AY Wanhdaftoiosdthinefdeciftfieorne?nce between food intoxication

Estimated Time
One 50-minute class period
Learning Objectives
As a result of this lesson, students will be able to:
• Distinguish the difference between foodborne intoxication and foodborne infection.
• Identify toxin, viral, and parasitic forms of foodborne illness.
Required Materials
• Computers • Internet • Flip chart • Markers • Article 1 – Appendix 7.1 • Article 2 – Appendix 7.2 • Article 3 – Appendix 7.3

Bell-Work
• Provide students with the weekly Bell-Work sheet (Appendix 1)
• “Think back to the last time you were sick from something you ate. How did you know that your illness was caused by the food? What were your symptoms?”

OPENING

5 minutes

• Read the Bell-Work question and solicit responses from the students.

• As students share their experiences, have a discussion about foodborne illness and the causes.

• Explain that, “We know that foodborne illness stems from improper handling and/or storage. But there are categories of foodborne illness and we’re going to explore those today to help us gain some background information about the current case we are investigating.”

MIDDLE

40 minutes

• Begin by having students research the definition of foodborne intoxication and foodborne infection. They can use textbooks and/or the Internet to complete this research. ›› In addition to the definition, they should also find examples of each.

• When they are finished, bring the class back together for a brief discussion by having them share their findings.

• Record their findings on a sheet of flip chart paper. üüTEACHER TIP! Use the following information to guide the discussion if students are off base with their findings: ›› Foodborne intoxication – Occurs when consuming foods that contain poisonous toxins produced by a microorganism. It’s usually a toxin that causes illness. The microbe that produces the toxin is NOT the cause of the illness. Examples include: Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum (botulism), mold toxins (mycotixins), and aflatoxin.

Tracking the Source 10

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COURSE 2: Food Production, Nutrition and Health