Spatial Difference in Housing and Household Amenities between


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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022

www.irjet.net

p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Spatial Difference in Housing and Household Amenities between SC and Non-SC Category in Haryana, India (2011)

Sandeep

Research Scholar, Department of Geography, Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra

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Abstract –

compared to non-scheduled caste households in rural and

urban areas in all the 21 districts in Haryana. With

The basic need of human life is housing and household

permanent house availability, there are five selected basic

amenities. It is an important indicator of social welfare as

amenities such as availability of drinking water (within

well. The absence or low level of these amenities in an area

premises), kitchen (inside house), electricity, latrine

or in any section of society is the result of lack of financial

(within premises), and bathroom (within premises) have

resources the demand-supply gap and inefficiency of

been taken for analysis. The study is based on the

institutions. The present study work has tried to analyze the

secondary source of data obtained from the Census of

status of the availability of selected household amenities

India, 2011.

among scheduled caste households as compared to non-

scheduled caste households in rural and urban areas in all

The United Nations are given emphasis towards achieving

the 21 districts in Haryana. With permanent house

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) encompassing

availability, there are five selected basic amenities such as

employment opportunities, social protection, basic

availability of drinking water (within premises), kitchen

requirements, services access for all inclusively. And this

(inside house), electricity, latrine (within premises), and

can be achieved by strengthening governance and

bathroom (within premises) have been taken for analysis. In

updating the international policy and harnessing the

India, there have been many programs, plans, and initiatives

power of all stakeholders judiciously. Moreover, there

run by central and state governments to improve access to

should be no person left behind anywhere in this age of

basic household amenities. The present study is completely

technological advancement. There is not supposed to be

based on secondary data, collected from the Census of India

hungry, without shelter, clean water and sanitation, and

for 2011. Statistical techniques like standard deviation, Z-

access to basic health services and education. These basic

score, and composite index are used in the present study. The

amenities are human rights of people to have a decent life

result indicated that there is a significant difference between

[United Nations General Assembly, 2013].

scheduled castes and non-scheduled castes households in the

availability of housing and selected household amenities in

2. OBJECTIVE

both rural and urban areas in Haryana. And this has

happened despite of several schemes especially designed for

To analyze and make a comparison of access to housing

the welfare of scheduled castes in the state.

and selected household amenities between scheduled

caste and non-scheduled caste households in rural and

Key Words: Household, Amenities, Resources,

urban areas in Haryana.

Electricity, Sanitation

3. STUDY AREA

1. INTRODUCTION

The area of the present study is Haryana state. The state

The basic need of human life is housing and household

was established on 1st November 1966 and the capital of

amenities. It is an important indicator of social welfare as

the state is Chandigarh. It is a small state located in the

well. The absence or low level of these amenities in an area

northwest part of the country between 27 degrees 37' to

or in any section of society is the result of a lack of

30 degrees 35' latitude and between 74 degrees 28' to 77

financial resources, the demand-supply gap, and the

degrees 36' longitude. It comprises part of the Indo-

inefficiency of institutions. The present study work has

Gangetic plain. It is bounded by Uttar Pradesh in the east,

tried to analyze the status of the availability of selected

Punjab in the west, Himachal Pradesh in the north, and

household amenities among scheduled caste households as

Rajasthan in the south. It covers a geographical area of

© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 1

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022

www.irjet.net

p-ISSN: 2395-0072

44,212 sq. Km. with a population of 25,353,081 persons as per the 2011 Census of India.
4. DATABASE AND METHODOLOGY
The present study is completely based on secondary data, collected from the Census of India for 2011. Statistical techniques like standard deviation, Z-score, and composite index are used in the study. A set of indicators of housing and modern household amenities have been considered to determine the levels of development. These indicators fall into five categories like drinking water (within premises), electricity, latrine (within premises), bathroom (within premises), and kitchen (inside house) availability to scheduled caste households as compared to non-scheduled caste households in rural and urban areas. And this pattern has been examined at the district level in the study area.
In the first step, each variable that determines the spatial variation of levels of housing and modern household
5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

amenities has been computed into the standard score which is generally known as Z-score. The score quantifies the departure of individual observations, expressed in a comparable form. It may be expressed as:-

- σ

Where Zij = Standard value of the variable i in district j. Xij = Actual value of variable i in district j.

σ S

In the second step, the z-scores of all variables have been added district wise and the average has been taken out for these variables which may be called as the composite index (CI) for each district which may be expressed as:

C mp

x CI Σ N

Wh Σ

N = Number of indicators or variables.

Fig – 1: Composite Index of Quality of Housing and Household Amenities (Rural)

Fig. 1 shows that in rural areas Ambala, Kurukshetra, Karnal, Faridabad, Gurugram, Rewari, Sirsa, and Fatehabad districts have good scores of housing and household amenities with respect to scheduled caste households. While in non-scheduled cast households this decent level is maintained by Rewari, Rohtak, Jhajjar, Fatehabad, Sirsa,

Karnal, Yamunanagar, Kurukshetra, and Ambala districts. On the other hand, in terms of comparison between scheduled caste and non-scheduled caste households, Bhiwani, Yamunanagar, and Sonipat districts need to look upon in the availability of housing and household amenities.

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022

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p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Fig -2: Composite Index of Quality of Housing and Household Amenities (Urban)

Fig.2 exhibits that the spatial pattern of housing and household amenities in urban areas between scheduled caste and non-scheduled caste households emerged from the composite score is shown in the given maps. Exceptionally, three are ten districts reflect a composite score of greater than 0.40 under scheduled caste households in urban areas while eight districts standing in the same category under non-scheduled caste households. Rohtak, Panchkula districts seek focus while make comparison to scheduled caste and non-scheduled caste households.
6. CONCLUSIONS
Through the result, it could say that there is a considerable difference between scheduled castes and non-scheduled castes households in the availability of housing and selected household amenities in both rural and urban regions in Haryana. The insufficient availability of these certain household amenities in scheduled castes in a region is not only the outcome of illiteracy, low economic condition, lack of awareness, demand-supply gap but additionally it has been because of the shortage of financial resources, political interests, the inefficiency of the institution. The differences are observed in the availability of amenities in scheduled caste households throughout the districts also. In this modern era, this part of society is not completely developed yet.

Basically, the scheduled caste population in the state does

not have equal access to basic household amenities as non-

scheduled caste even after six decades of independence.

And it has happened despite several schemes particularly

designed for the welfare of scheduled castes. Results

highlight the need to take priority action towards

providing basic household amenities. With this, plan out

inclusive policy measures to reduce the increasing

disparities in access to basic amenities and take care of

weaker sections (socio-economic) of society for upliftment

the overall standard of life and well-being of them. This

fact needs the urgent attention of the state and other

welfare agencies. Because without attaining equality,

equitable and inclusive development would remain a

m

“ w h” w h p Th

government should be aware of these people about the

policies and plans that are beneficial for them so that the

scheduled caste population should take benefit from the

policies, plans, and facilities provided by the government.

© 2022, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.529 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 3

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET) e-ISSN: 2395-0056

Volume: 09 Issue: 05 | May 2022

www.irjet.net

p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Table 1: Composite Score of Quality of Housing and Household Amenities in Haryana, 2011

Rural

Urban

District

Scheduled Cast

Non-Scheduled Cast Scheduled Cast

Non-Scheduled Cast

Ambala

0.56

0.65

0.60

0.54

Bhiwani

-0.33

-0.10

-0.69

0.05

Faridabad

0.36

0.25

-0.49

-0.09

Fatehabad

0.44

0.41

0.02

0.46

Gurgaon

0.70

0.71

0.80

0.15

Hisar

-0.06

-0.04

-0.26

0.005

Jhajjar

0.15

0.38

0.76

0.08

Jind

-0.70

-0.67

-0.63

-0.34

Kaithal

-0.60

-0.40

-1.02

-0.74

Karnal

0.36

0.35

0.40

0.47

Kurukshetra

0.46

0.47

0.61

0.59

Mahendragarh

-0.64

-0.48

-0.79

-1.02

Mewat

-1.69

-2.65

-1.34

-2.94

Palwal

-0.83

-0.98

-0.22

-0.25

Panchkula

0.22

0.067

-1.07

0.38

Panipat

0.18

0.17

0.65

0.03

Rewari

0.33

0.33

0.69

0.40

Rohtak

0.01

0.15

-0.02

0.71

Sirsa

0.87

0.92

0.90

0.71

Sonipat

-0.11

0.15

0.51

0.42

Yamunanagar

0.29

0.31

0.63

0.38

Source: Compiled by the Author
REFERENCES
1) Census of India, (2011). Data Dissemination Wing Office of the Registrar General, Table-H Series: Haryana, New Delhi.
2) Kaur, Simrandeep and Meenakshi, (2015). SpatioTemporal Study of Housing and Household Amenities in Haryana. Scientific Society of Advanced Research and Social Change, 2 (1), 1-9.
3) Kumar, Arjun, (2015). Disparities in Access to Basic Amenities across Caste, Ethnicity, and Classes in Rural and Urban India. Social Change and Development, XII (1), 20-45.
4) Ministry of Urban Employment and Poverty Alleviation, (2005). Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission. Ministry of Urban Development, Government of India.

5) Nayar, K. R., (1997). Housing Amenities and Health Improvement: Some Findings. Economic and Political Weekly,32(22), 1275-1279.
6) Planning Commission, (2011). Faster, Sustainable and More Inclusive Growth: An Approach to the Twelfth Five Year Plan (2012-17). Planning Commission, Government of India.
7) Shaw, A., (2007). Basic Amenities in Urban India: Analysis at State and Town Level. Calcutta, Indian Institute of Management.
8) United Nations General Assembly. (2013). A life of dignity for all: accelerating progress towards the millennium development goals and advancing the United Nations development agenda beyond 2015. A Report of the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations.

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