Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment Lal wa Sar Jangal


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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment
Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment Lal wa Sar Jangal District
Ghor Province, Afghanistan
September/October 2016
Prepared by: Rosanna Keam, WASH Specialist, WV Afghanistan Supported by: Shoaib Wasiqi (M&E Officer), Anley Mihret Melesse (M&E and Program Quality Coordinator), Faraidoon Osmani (Associate Program Officer), Mojtaba Esmatzada (M&E Advisor), Fairadoon Barekzay (Badghis Zonal Manager) Dated: 5th December 2016
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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment
Acknowledgments
First and foremost, WV Afghanistan would like to acknowledge the community members, community and religious leaders, and partners who took part in the assessment. In particular, WV Afghanistan wishes to acknowledge the generous support of several organizations including Catholic Relief Services in Lal for providing office space and services during the field data collection phase of the assessment, Help International for providing Ms. Sima Soja and Mr. Zia Jafari to support the initial scoping and data collection for the assessment, and DACAAR for conducting water quality testing at survey sites. WV Afghanistan would like to recognize the technical Monitoring and Evaluation expertise of Shoaib Wasiqi (M&E Officer), Anley Mihret Melesse (M&E and Program Quality Coordinator), Mojtaba Esmatzada (M&E Advisor), and Abdullaq Zia (external M&E contractor) for their support for phases 2 and 3 of the assessment. WV Afghanistan also wishes to recognize Faraidoon Osmani, Faraidoon Barekzay, Rosanna Keam and Dwain Hindriksen for providing continuous oversight of the assessment process, as well as Ahmad Seyar Haqmal for providing technical input during the initial scoping phase of the assessment, and the Mojtaba Niknam for providing security and logistical support during the assessment design and implementation. Finally, WV Afghanistan would also like to thank WVUS for the financial support for this assessment, as well as Brian Hilton, Food Security Advisor from WV Australia for providing technical insight during the initial scoping phase of the assessment.
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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment
Contents
1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 6 2. Background ........................................................................................................................................... 7
2.1 General................................................................................................................................................ 7 2.2 Population........................................................................................................................................... 8 2.3 Environment and hydrological context............................................................................................... 9
2.3.1. River Basins ................................................................................................................................. 9 2.3.2. Climate and Precipitation.......................................................................................................... 12 2.3.3. Environmental Concerns........................................................................................................... 13 2.4 Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) ........................................................................................... 13 2.5 Education .......................................................................................................................................... 16 2.6 Economy............................................................................................................................................ 16 2.7 Health................................................................................................................................................ 16 2.8 Protection ......................................................................................................................................... 19 2.9 Agriculture, Livelihoods and Energy ................................................................................................. 19 2.10 Security and Accessibility ................................................................................................................ 19 2.11 Infrastructure .................................................................................................................................. 20 2.12 Partners and Governance Structures.............................................................................................. 21 3. Methodology........................................................................................................................................... 23 3.1 Qualitative Study............................................................................................................................... 23 3.2 Quantitative Study ............................................................................................................................ 24 3.3 Sampling Strategy ............................................................................................................................. 24 4. Limitations............................................................................................................................................... 26 5. Results & Analysis ................................................................................................................................... 27 5.1 General.............................................................................................................................................. 27 5.2 Water ................................................................................................................................................ 29 5.3 Sanitation .......................................................................................................................................... 41 5.4 Hygiene ............................................................................................................................................. 45 5.5 Health................................................................................................................................................ 48 5.6 Environment, Food Security & Livelihoods ....................................................................................... 53 5.7 Education .......................................................................................................................................... 62
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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment 5.8 Cross-cutting themes ........................................................................................................................ 64 5.8.1 Gender ....................................................................................................................................... 64 5.8.2 Peacebuilding & Governance..................................................................................................... 65 5.8.3 Child Protection ......................................................................................................................... 65 5.8.4 Disasters..................................................................................................................................... 65
6. Conclusions & Recommendations .......................................................................................................... 67 7. Sources .................................................................................................................................................... 71 8. Appendices.............................................................................................................................................. 72 8. Annex A ................................................................................................................................................... 73
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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment

Acronyms

ACF ACTD ANSF AOG ARCS CLTS CRS CSO DACAAR DAIL DRRD ETP FGD IAM JMP KIG KII LEPCO MRRD MUNCH NGO NSP ODF ORS ORT PHAST PRA SDG TDS UNFPA UNICEF VIP WASH WHO WV WVA

Action Contre La Faim Afghanistan Centre for Training and Development Afghan National Security Forces Armed Opposition Group Afghan Red Crescent Society Community Led Total Sanitation Catholic Relief Services Central Statistics Office Danish Committee for Aid to Afghan Refugees Department of Agriculture, Irrigation and Livestock Department of Rural Rehabilitation and Development Evapotranspiration Potential Focus Group Discussion International Assistance Mission Joint Monitoring Programme Key Informant Group Key Informant Interview Leprosy Control Ministry of Rural Rehabilitation and Development Maternal and Under five Nutrition and Child Health Non-Governmental Organization National Solidarity Program Open Defecation Free Oral Rehydration Salts Oral Rehydration Therapy Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation Participatory Rural Appraisal Sustainable Development Goal Total Dissolved Solids United Nations Population Fund United Nations Children’s Fund Ventilated Improved Pit Water, Sanitation and Hygiene World Health Organization World Vision World Vision Afghanistan

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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment
1. Introduction
In September and October 2016, WV Afghanistan undertook a WASH assessment in Lal wa Sar Jangal District in Ghor Province. This assessment was intended to provide information regarding the WASH needs and existing resources in the communities in order to enable WV Afghanistan to prioritize and make choices about the focus of future project implementation in Lal District. It was also envisioned that the data collected during this assessment would support future resource acquisition, particularly in the WASH sector, as well as related sectors such as Health and Livelihoods, by building an evidence base for key interventions. The purpose of the assessment was also to support future strategic planning for programming locations. The assessment was implemented in one District (Lal) in Ghor Province over several weeks and included both quantitative and qualitative elements, such as household surveys, key informant interviews, focus group discussions, site assessments (village profiles, sanitary survey of water points, health centre and school site assessments), as well as a water quality survey. It assessed the WASH situation in the planned implementation areas, as well as basic indicators for associated sectors.
The specific objectives of the assessment were:  To create links with local partners and communities in Lal District in order to support future programming.  To collect and analyze quantitative and qualitative assessment data to: o Determine the existing levels of access to clean water and sanitation in target communities. o Determine the level of knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding hygiene in the communities. o Determine the adequacy of water and sanitation facilities in key community institutions (i.e. schools and health centres). o Understand the physical context and existing water and land use practices in the area. o Understand the hydrological dynamics in the district. o Understand the socio-cultural and political environment in which WV may be potentially operating in in the future. o Anticipate risks that will need to be mitigated in future project implementation. o To determine the level of conditions in the communities including agriculture, education, health etc.  To provide specific, actionable and practical recommendations for future programming in the district.  To create a report that can be used as supporting evidence for future WASH-related grant proposals/designs.
The product of the assessment process is this assessment report which contains relevant analysed data from secondary sources, survey questionnaires, focus group discussions, key informant interviews, site observations, and water quality data. This evaluation report will be shared with all relevant staff and stakeholders and will be also be used for grant applications.
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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment
2. Background
2.1 General
Lal wa Sar Jangal is a district in the north-east of Ghor Province in the Eastern Region of Afghanistan. Ghor Province is bordered by eight other provinces: Bamyan in the North-East, Daikundi in the East, Helmand in the South, Farah in the South-West, Herat in the West, Badghis in the North-West, and Faryab and Sar-i-Pul in the North. It covers a land area of 36,657.4 square kilometres, representing 5.6 percent of the total Afghan territory. Ghor is home to 2.7 percent of the total population of Afghanistan. The province is divided into 10 districts – the provincial centre, Chaghcharan, Dawlatyar, Char Sada, Shahrak, Duleena, Pasaband, Lal wa Sar Jangal, Tulak, Saghar, and Taywara. Lal wa Sar Jangal district was joined as a grade two district in the Ghor Provincial structure in 1964. It is located in the north-east of Ghor Province, with Sar-i-Pul Province to the north, Bamyan Province to the east, and Daykundi Province to the south. Chaghcharan District is located to the west of Lal wa Sar Jangal.
Figure 1: Map of administrative divisions of Afghanistan. Source: University of Texas at Austin, 2009.
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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment

Lal wa Sar Jangal is located within

the Hazarajat region in the

central highlands of Afghanistan,

among the Koh-i-Baba mountains

and the western extremities of

the Hindu Kush. ‘Hazarajat’ is a

regional name for the territory

inhabited by the ethnic Hazara

people. It denotes an ethnic and

religious zone, rather than a

geographical one – that of

Afghanistan’s Turko-Mongol

Shi’ites. Hazarajat is primarily

made up of Bamyan, Maidan,

Ghazni and Daykundi provinces,

but it also includes parts of Ghor,

Uruzgan, Parwan, Samagan,

Baghlan, Balkh, Badghis and Sar- Figure 2: Map of ethnic groupings in Afghanistan. Source: lahistoriaconmapas.com, 2016.

i-Pul provinces.

Although

Hazarajat is inhabited by ethnic Hazara, Tajik, Pashtun and Uzbek, the majority of the population is

Hazara.

2.2 Population
With its 701,653 inhabitants, Ghor Province is the 13th (out of 34) most populous province in the country.1 The population of Ghor is distributed among the 10 districts. The most populous districts are the Chaghcharan Provincial Centre and Lal wa Sar Jangal. With a population of 116,238 (57,692 female, 58,546 male), Lal wa Sar Jangal contains 16.6 percent of Ghor Province’s population.2 There are 676

Figure 3: Map of ethnic groupings in Ghor Province of Afghanistan. Source: Naval Postgraduate School, 2016.

1 http://www.cso.gov.af/en/page/demography-and-socile-statistics/demograph-statistics/3897111 2 Ibid.

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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment
villages and 28,750 families in Lal wa Sar Jangal District according to the 2014 National Solidarity Programme (NSP). According to the Central Statistics Organization (CSO) of the Republic of Afghanistan, the population is predominantly rural. By population density, which is the ratio of the population to land area, Lal wa Sar Jangal has the most number of people who occupy the same size of land (40 persons per square km of land area) in Ghor Province.3 The average household size in Lal is 5.8 persons. The median age of people in Lal is 16 years old (both male and female). Lal has a relatively young population with 47.1% of the population between the ages of 0 and 14.
2.3 Environment and hydrological context
Lal wa Sar Jangal comprises two main valleys and a number of sub-valleys. The area is very mountainous. Its highest peak (Bande Kashan) reaches up to 4200m above sea level. The total area of the district is approximately 5115 square kilometres. The height of the district centre is approximately 2880m above sea level.
2.3.1. River Basins The main water sources in Lal wa Sar Jangal are the Lal and Sar Jangal rivers which are tributaries of the large Harirud River. The Harirud River is part of the Harirud-Murghab river basin which consists of four watersheds. The Harirud River, as with most river systems in Afghanistan, is endorheic, meaning that it flows only into a basin of interior drainage rather than to an external body of water. The Harirud River flows 1100km from the mountains of Central Afghanistan in a nearly straight westerly direction down a fault-guided valley towards the Iranian border, before looping north to Turkmenistan, where it disappears in the Kara-Kum desert forming the Tejend oasis. The average annual discharge of the Harirud River is about 55m3/s. It is a seasonal river. Maximal flows in spring and summer melt-water river-discharges are followed by fall and winter minima, when the river can completely dry up. Most runoff is delivered from melting of seasonal winter snow or older glacial ice and high sediment loads are characteristic.
Lal wa Sar Jangal is located in the Upper Harirud watershed. The Lal River, the main river feeding Lal, is connected to the Harirud River and passes through Lal wa Sar Jangal, traversing approximately 85km of the district’s territory. This river is seasonal and can dry up during the summer months. The Sarjangal River, also connected to the Harirud River, passes through Lal wa Sar Jangal District until it reaches Chaghcharan city. Like the Lal River, the level of the Sarjangal river drops during summer, however it does not completely dry up. The main users of these rivers are farmers, however it should be noted that agricultural usage is limited due to the low amount of productive agricultural land in the district. The only other uses for the rivers are drinking water and other domestic uses.
3 http://collaborativemonitoring.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/Ghor-Socio-Demographic-and-EconomicSurvey-2015.pdf
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Lal wa Sar Jangal Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment
Figure 4: Sarjangal River, October 2016
Figure 5: Sarjangal River, October 2016
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Comprehensive WASH Needs Assessment Lal wa Sar Jangal