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Fall 2016
Vol. 28
Covers June - October 2016

News...................................................................... 4-5

Advanced Security Cooperation .................................. 6-7 Comprehensive Security Responses to Terrorism........ 8-9 Asia-Pacific Orientation Course................................10-11 Senior Asia-Pacific Orientation Course..........................12

In the Field
A Look at HADR topics..............................................13,26

Fostering logistics-centered relationships................14-15 Exploring religious aspects of HA/DR.......................16-17

Center hosts high-level ‘trilat’
U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden provided opening remarks at the July 14 meeting of senior diplomatic officials from Japan, Republic of Korea and the United States at the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies. The meeting was the fourth for the three nations conducted with “deputy level” representation from the U.S. State Department, and Japan and ROK’s Ministries of Foreign Affairs. Participants discussed key security issues of mutual interest to include developments in North Korea and the South China Sea. For more details, see page 5.

Theme: Inclusive security
Focus on increasing women’s security roles..............18-19 Building inclusive security....................................... 20-21 Expanding civil-military relationships in Myanmar....22-23
Faculty publications.......................... 24-25
Alumni Engagement
Alumni Impacts........................................................27-28 Promotions............................................................. 29-30 Position Changes......................................................30-33 Retirements..................................................................33
In every issue
Visitors.....................................................................34-35 Center News............................................................36-37 Course Calendar........................................................... 38 Course Managers..........................................................38 Contacts....................................................................... 39

Currents magazine is an unofficial publication produced biannually by the Daniel K. Inouye AsiaPacific Center for Security Studies Public Affairs Office. This publication is for DKI APCSS employees, alumni, Fellows, future Fellows and friends of the Center. It is available online at www. apcss.org. We use the Associated Press Style Guide when abbreviating ranks, regardless of individual service style. Contents are not necessarily the official views of, or endorsed by, the U.S. Government or the U.S. Department of Defense.

Contact Information:
Questions or comments can be addressed by phone (808) 971-8916 or emailed to [email protected] org. Our mailing address is Daniel K. Inouye AsiaPacific Center for Security Studies, Public Affairs Office, 2058 Maluhia Road, Honolulu, HI 96815

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Director’s Message

Saying goodbye to a world-class institution

On Jan. 16, I will complete five years as director of DKI APCSS. What an experience it has been! I’ve learned more, seen more, traveled more, and enjoyed more than I ever could have imagined.
My admiration for this institution is immense. The staff-faculty-intern-contractor-visiting academic ‘Ohana’ is unique and extraordinary.
The Fellows and alumni defy description; smart, dedicated, compassionate and committed is just a beginning in talking about them – they are changing the world. To all of you, THANK YOU for making this experience a highlight of my personal and professional life.
It is appropriate that the last issue of Currents with my name on the masthead

It started with emphasis on Women, Peace and Security. I’m proud that we have more than doubled the participation of women in our courses...

is focused on inclusion. We have accomplished much in our time together, but nothing we’ve done has been more important than the promotion of an inclusive approach to security.
It started with emphasis on Women, Peace and Security. I’m proud that we have more than doubled the participation of women in our courses, added inclusion subject matter to all of our courses, and held two very successful workshops on inclusion. DKI APCSS is a recognized leader of

U.S. National Action Plan implementation, and I believe that we have helped other nations make significant progress in that regard as well.
There is more to inclusion than WPS. Internally, we made it one of our guiding principles, and I think it has helped us overcome organizational barriers to collaboration.
We have improved our ability to consult and collaborate with the team at OSD-Policy, our mission partners at U.S. Pacific

Command and the Components, and with the country teams at U.S. embassies and consulates in the region.
We have expanded our coverage of the security community, especially in the area of development.
I asked one of the Fellows of the Advance Security Cooperation course (ASC 16-2) what she had learned so far. At the oneweek point, her answer was, “TMI – Transparency, Mutual Respect, and Inclusion.” You can’t have the first two without the last. Please continue our efforts to make inclusion a security norm.
Lt. Gen. (Ret.) Dan Leaf Director, APCSS

Promoting inclusion
Retired Lt. Gen. Dan Leaf, DKI APCSS director, provides his perspective on the value of inclusive security during a Women, Peace, and Security panel held as a formal part of a recent Comprehensive Crisis Management course. General Leaf made WPS a high priority for the Center among other key priorities such as security sector development and good governance. He emphasized the importance of diversity in policy formation and decision making because of its demonstrable positive impacts throughout the Asia-Pacific.
www.apcss.org 3


U.S., ROK, Japan hold high-level trilat event

U.S. vice president opens meeting
held at DKI APCSS
Senior diplomatic officials from Japan, Republic of Korea and the United States met at the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies July 14 to address key political and security issues of mutual concern in the Asia-Pacific region. U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden opened the event with remarks on the vital relationship among the three nations.
“Over the past few years, we’ve made an unprecedented degree of progress in deepening and strengthening our relationship. It matters that we have the same strategic view and, tactically, are on the same page on the most important issues. Our presence in the region, our mutual cooperation, I think is vital to sustaining growth, stability and economic prosperity.”
The meeting was the fourth for the three nations conducted at the “deputy level.” Delegations were led by U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Tony Blinken, Japan Vice Foreign Minister Shinsuke Sugiyama and Korean Vice Foreign Minister Lim Sung-Nam.
At a post-event press conference, the three commented on principal concerns addressed in the roughly twohour discussion. They stressed the need for continued resolve in countering North Korea’s military provocations, continued development of nuclear weapons capability and human rights abuses. Among other topics were maritime security, particularly in the context of events in the South China Sea, and terrorism.
Blinken said the meeting was highly productive and was illustrative of the
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U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden (right of center) opened the Japan-Republic of KoreaUnited States trilateral meeting July 14 at DKI APCSS. Delegations were led by (left to right) Japan Vice Foreign Minister Shinsuke Sugiyama, U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Tony Blinken, and ROK Vice Foreign Minister Lim Sung-Nam.

U.S.’ increased focus on the region.

Blinken thanked DKI APCSS for its

The current U.S. (Obama) admin- help in hosting the event. “We had a

istration, he explained, has “given real terrific day yesterday…the hospitality

substance to the rebalance, deepening could not have been better.” In addi-

our strategic, economic and diplomatic tion to actual meeting space, the Center

ties with the region commensurate with provided audiovisual and computing

its importance.

support, and administrative assistance.

“The trilateral partnership among the United States,

“When the three of us stand united to uphold the

“The DKI APCSS team is proud to have supported an

Korea and Japan is an indispensable and foundational pillar of our ‘rebalance.’”

international order and speak with one voice...we amplify our impact. It shows the rest of the region they do not stand alone.”

important event that helped solidify present and future ties between the United States and two of its

Biden added, “When the three

- U.S.Vice President Joseph Biden closest allies,” said retired Lt. Gen. Dan

of us stand united to uphold the inter- Leaf, Center director. “For the last 20

national order and speak with one voice years, our Center has proven to be a

for universal human rights and basic premier location for leaders throughout

dignity, or address threats together, we the Asia-Pacific region to gather and

amplify our impact. It shows the rest chart paths toward greater cooperation

of the region they do not stand alone.” and mutual understanding.”

Director Leaf departs in January

Retired Lt. Gen. Daniel Leaf announced he will depart his position as director of the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies at end of his current term Jan. 16.
“I have loved my time as director,” Leaf said. He added, however, “I think it is important to recognize that DKI APCSS is much bigger than who is ‘in charge,’ and a factor in my decision was the belief that it needs to stay fresh.
“The ‘Ohana’ is truly at the top of its game right now, and an extraordinarily credible institution. That makes the time right for a transition, knowing that APCSS will continue to thrive, and that a number of highcaliber candidates will be attracted by the opportunity to lead the team.”
Leaf has been director since January 2012. During his tenure, he spearheaded creation of the Center’s Women, Peace, and Security initia-

tive, a contributor to DoD’s efforts under the U.S. National Action Plan on WPS.
DKI APCSS is committed to fostering an inclusive security sector through engagement and executive education of security practitioners in the Asia-Pacific Region.
Under Leaf’s leadership, the Center also expanded its security sector development program, which focuses on good and accountable governance.
Prior to DKI APCSS, he worked in the defense industry as vice president of full spectrum initiatives at Northrop Grumman Information Systems. Formerly the deputy commander of U.S. Pacific Command, Leaf retired from the U.S. Air Force in 2008 after more than 33 years of service.
A native of Shawano, Wis., he earned a bachelor’s degree in politi-
- Continued on Page 36

Retired Lt. Gen. Daniel Leaf officially ends his five-year service as DKI APCSS director in January. In this position, Leaf set the academic and engagement priorities for the Center.

Currents staff seeks input via readership survey
We need your help to improve Currents.
The publication offers course and workshop news as well updates on alumni and their impacts across the region.
Please provide your perspective on the magazine by filling out the simple survey at https://www.surveymonkey.com/r/Currents_Magazine_Survey.
Alumni take part in London maritime security workshop
The Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies, in partnership with King’s College London, conducted the “Managing Maritime Issues in the Indo-Asia-Pacific Workshop” in London Sept. 21 to 23.
Sixteen senior military and civilian maritime professionals – all DKI APCSS alumni – attended the event along with five DKI APCSS representatives and three faculty members from King’s College London. The group shared perspectives, discussed best practices, and identified areas for collaboration.
Attendees hailed from Australia, Bangladesh, Canada, Chile, India, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Sri Lanka, the People’s Republic of China, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Vietnam.
The workshop addressed the overall maritime security environment in the Indo-AsiaPacific at the strategic and sub-regional levels as well as maritime economics, maritime constabulary issues, maritime rule of law and governance, and management of scarce maritime resources.
Workshop participants listened to and engaged with leading global maritime scholars and worked to develop policy-relevant outcomes and explore areas within the maritime domain where consensus could be reached.
Their consensus-based assessment of regional maritime security will appear in a maritime security community of interest publication under the workshop title. DKI APCSS and King’s College London expect to release this publication in early 2017.
With the current regional seascape being in a state of flux, workshop participants built up and broadened their trusted network of practicing Asian maritime officials and related they were able to deepen regional collaboration in regional oceans.
www.apcss.org 5


ASC unites Fellows in effort to address regional challenges

Gaining a deeper understanding of security issues within and far beyond their own nations’ borders, 120 Fellows from 33 locations completed the Advanced Security Cooperation course (ASC 16-1) May 4 at the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies.
The five-week course is an executive education program enabling mid-level military and civilian leaders to deepen their understanding of security issues within political, socioeconomic, defense and environmental contexts. The course, according to course manager Dr. Christopher Snedden, connects Fellows in a way that helps them collaborate on complex regional security challenges.
“They gain an understanding that cooperation is vitally important when considering security,” said Snedden, adding that Fellows’ ability to understand perspectives other than their own is critical to building that cooperation. “Some Fellows come from large nations, such as China, India or the United States, and they face an entirely different set of
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security challenges than do the Kiribats, Tongans or Fijians. While Fellows’ own nations and sub-regions may be important, there are other nations and regions they need to know about.”
Thai Fellow Chotirat Komaradat related, “The world is getting smaller — interconnected — which means that an event in one country can have a spillover effect into another nation or into the entire region. In order to tackle (such) problems, you need advanced security cooperation.” Komaradat, with Thailand’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs, called it a true privilege to be able to learn from the perspectives and experiences from 119 other Fellows.
ASC 16-1 Fellows took part in a course comprised of a mix of lectures, interactive seminar sessions, electives, exercises and a Fellow’s Project. The course is divided into four modules that progress from an introduction to the region’s complexity and evaluation of strategic problem-solving tools to applying lessons learned in collaborative exercises.
Snedden spotlighted the content in Module 2, titled “Major Security Issues in the Asia-Pacific Region.” Among nine topics in this section, professors and Fellows discussed security challenges specific to major sub-regions, such as Oceania and Southeast Asia. Dr. Virginia Bacay Watson, for example, discussed the latter in terms of the need for cooperation on economic development and combating transnational threats, such as trafficking and terrorism.
Dr. Mohan Malik offered a bigger pic-

ture analysis in his brief “The Geopolitical Landscape of the Asia-Pacific Region.” He led discussion on issues ranging from China’s dramatic resurgence as an economic and military power to the region’s present and developing alliances and power structures.
These discussions laid the groundwork for a capstone negotiation exercise focused on climate change impacts on a heavily populated, but underdeveloped, river delta. Fellows played various government and international agency roles and had to

overcome major differences in priorities to develop cooperative strategies for response actions and gain associated international support.
“I’ve come away from this course knowing that even in an environment of intense competition, cooperation is still possible,” said Metho Dema, with Bhutan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Dema added that she learned if competing entities focus on common interests rather than on their positions, they can find “a big point of convergence,” making it easier to

iron out differences — even over controversial issues.
Komaradat added, “I think APCSS lived up to its motto of educating, connecting and empowering, so I look forward to working with my classmates and APCSS alumni to change the world and make life better for everyone in the region.”
Komaradat and Dema were joined in ASC 16-1 by Fellows from Australia, Bangladesh, Cambodia, Canada, China, Fiji Islands, India, Indonesia, Kiribati, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mi-

(Clockwise) San San Maw, with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, leads a discussion on security issues during an Advanced Security Cooperation course (ASC 16-1) seminar session. Mongolian Fellow Erdene Sukhbaatar shares his perspective with members of his seminar group. Dr. Lori Forman, DKI APCSS professor, addresses Fellows on the topic “Economics, Trade and Security.” ASC 16-1 was comprised of 120 Fellows.
cronesia, Mongolia and Myanmar. Also participating were Fellows from Nepal, New Zealand, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, and Timor-Leste. Other Fellows were from Tonga, the United States and Vietnam.
Also represented were the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation and the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies.
www.apcss.org 7


(Above) U.S. Navy Cmdr. Jonathan Odom, DKI APCSS faculty member, leads the topical discussion “International Law and Counterterrorism,” during the Comprehensive Security Responses to Terrorism course (CSRT 16-1). (At right, clockwise) Uche Onumade, director of defence education, Nigerian Armed Forces, provides input during a CSRT seminar session. Dr. Christopher Harmon, served as the Center’s CSRT course manager. One hundred seven security professionals attended CSRT 16-1.

CSRT: Building counterterror capacity

Course gives Fellows in-depth look at acts, impacts of extremists
Recent deadly attacks in Pakistan and Bangladesh, as well as Germany and France, are, according to Dr. Christopher C. Harmon, “harsh reminders” why the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies conducts an extensive course in counterterrorism strategies.
Roughly four weeks long, the Comprehensive Security Responses to Terrorism program provides U.S. and international Fellows from the Indo-Asia-Pacific region and other nations with the skills

needed to combat terrorism and associated transnational threats. The Center promotes a multi-dimensional, wholeof-society approach to the issue.
One hundred seven security practitioners from 48 locations took part in the latest iteration, CSRT 16-1, July 14 to Aug. 10.
“Fellows explored the challenges posed by terrorism and – in the spirit of DKI APCSS – focused on developing solutions while considering regional actors, events and impacts,” said Harmon, adding “They learned that the struggle against terrorism is multifaceted, cutting across intellectual, moral and politi-

cal arenas, and requires cooperative and creative countermeasures.”
In Module One, titled “The Problems, the Causes, the Agents,” faculty and other subject matter experts provided Fellows with deep background on the current terrorism environment.
Dr. Saira Yamin, for example, discussed related trends and contributing factors in her brief “Terrorism: The Enabling Environment." She addressed the increasing number of terrorist acts over the last decade, especially in incidents since 2011 and the annual terror-related death rate increasing by more than 20,000 since 2006.

Yamin, a DKI APCSS professor, also touched on terrorism drivers, such as economic deprivation, inequality, radicalization, and political instability, and their impacts, particularly, on vulnerable youth populations.
“All the lectures were very useful – very effective – and gave us the perspective on how the various terrorist groups across the globe are linked with one another (and) how terrorists are being financed,” said Col. Mohammed Shahedul Islam, senior instructor with the Bangladesh Defense Services Command and Staff College. “Overall the entire syllabus is comprehensive….”

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Module Two, “Toward a Comprehensive Response to Terrorism,” brought to light resources and strategies available in the fight against terrorists and transnational threats. Among lecture topics in this area was Dr. Al Oehlers’ “Countering Terrorism with Economic Tools.”
Oehlers, a DKI APCSS faculty member, discussed terrorist group funding streams and available methods to track and block their financing supply chains. He highlighted both military actions against resource infrastructures, and intelligence and law enforcement operations.
In the same module, Fellows learned how to assemble a national counterterror strategy, knowledge they

put to the test in a capstone exercise Aug. 8 to 9.
Maj. Chris Erlewine, course coordinator, said Fellows in eight teams cooperated to draft strategies for specific sub-regions, such as South Asia. They identified priorities and the elements needed for a viable counterterror plan, and each team presented their results to a panel of DKI APCSS faculty members upon completion.
Oehlers, a DKI APCSS faculty member, discussed terrorist group funding streams and available methods to track and block their financing supply chains.

“The way (the exercise) was designed was outstanding; regional countries got together to discuss what the problems are,” said Lt. Col. Fahim Sayad, with Afghanistan’s National Directorate of Security. He said the multinational approach provided a broader perspective of the challenges at hand and enabled Fellows to determine if they shared common problems or if issues were specific to particular nations.
Sayad joined Fellows in CSRT from Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Cambodia, China, Columbia, Costa Rica, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, Egypt, France, Guyana, Honduras, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lebanon, and Malaysia.

Fellows also came from Maldives, Mexico, Mongolia, Morocco, Nepal, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestinian Authority, and Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Republic of Korea, Rwanda, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Tajikistan, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United States, and Vietnam.
www.apcss.org 9


Goreiettnintegd APOC builds Fellows’knowledge
of region’s security framework

Advancing their knowledge of important factors that drive the Asia-Pacific security environment, 293 professionals completed two Asia-Pacific Orientation Courses at the Daniel K. Inouye Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies.
APOC is a five-day course designed to provide an overview of regional states and trends in socioeconomic, political, defense, health and environmental arenas that drive the Asia-Pacific’s security environment. Faculty members address these areas in the context of major subregions, such as Southeast Asia and Oceania.
Attendees are predominantly junior- to mid-grade U.S. military members and their civilian counterparts in various security-related fields, however, the APOC roster includes a small number of international Fellows.

APOC 16-2
One-hundred fifty Fellows completed APOC 162, conducted June 20 to 24. Course manager Dr. Jeffrey Reeves said the program promoted critical thinking about a region that is increasingly complex while enabling Fellows to connect with peers. “This, in turn,” said Reeves, “enhanced their ability to cooperate across the spectrum of security-related agencies while addressing regional challenges and concerns.”
APOC Fellows learned through a combination of plenary discussions, electives and seminar sessions that allowed them to share perspectives on key course topics.
Among 13 topical discussions was “U.S. Foreign Policy in the Asia-Pacific,” led by DKI APCSS Foreign Policy Advisor Brent Christensen. He walked Fellows through the U.S. national

security policy-making structure and addressed the evolution of U.S. relations in the

region. Other plenary topics included “Economics in the Asia-Pacific” by Dr. Miemie

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