STEAM TURBINE TEST RIG Boiler Terminology


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STEAM TURBINE TEST RIG

Boiler Terminology

MCR: Steam boilers rated output is also usually defined as MCR (Maximum Continuous Rating). This is the maximum evaporation rate that can be sustained for 24 hours and may be less than a shorter duration maximum rating.

Boiler Rating

Conventionally, boilers are specified by their capacity to hold water and the steam generation

rate. Often, the capacity to generate steam is specified in terms of equivalent evaporation (kg of

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steam / hour at 100 C). Equivalent evaporation- “from and at” 100 C. The equivalent of the

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evaporation of 1 kg of water at 100 C to steam at 100 C.

Efficiency : In the boiler industry there are four common definitions of efficiency: a. Combustion efficiency Combustion efficiency is the effectiveness of the burner only and relates to its ability to completely burn the fuel. The boiler has little bearing on combustion efficiency. A well-designed burner will operate with as little as 15 to 20% excess air, while converting all combustibles in the fuel to useful energy. b. Thermal efficiency Thermal efficiency is the effectiveness of the heat transfer in a boiler. It does not take into account boiler radiation and convection losses – for example from the boiler shell water column piping etc. c. Boiler efficiency The term boiler efficiency is often substituted for combustion or thermal efficiency. True boiler efficiency is the measure of fuel to steam efficiency. d. Fuel to steam efficiency Fuel to steam efficiency is calculated using either of the two methods as prescribed by the ASME (American Society for Mechanical Engineers) power test code, PTC 4.1. The first method is input output method. The second method is heat loss method.

Boiler turndown Boiler turndown is the ratio between full boiler output and the boiler output when operating at low fire. Typical boiler turndown is 4:1. The ability of the boiler to turndown reduces frequent on and off cycling. Fully modulating burners are typically designed to operate down to 25% of rated capacity. At a load that is 20% of the load capacity, the boiler will turn off and cycle frequently. A boiler operating at low load conditions can cycle as frequently as 12 times per hour or 288 times per day. With each cycle, pre and post purge airflow removes heat from the boiler and sends it out the stack. Keeping the boiler on at low firing rates can eliminate the energy loss. Every time the boiler cycles off, it must go through a specific start-up sequence for safety assurance. It requires about a minute or two to place the boiler back on line. And if there is a sudden load demand the start up sequence cannot be accelerated. Keeping the boiler on line
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assures the quickest response to load changes. Frequent cycling also accelerates wear of boiler components. Maintenance increases and more importantly, the chance of component failure increases. Boiler(s) capacity requirement is determined by many different type of load variations in the system. Boiler over sizing occurs when future expansion and safety factors are added to assure that the boiler is large enough for the application. If the boiler is oversized the ability of the boiler to handle minimum loads without cycling is reduced. Therefore capacity and turndown should be considered together for proper boiler selection to meet overall system load requirements.

Primary air: That part of the air supply to a combustion system which the fuel first encounters.

Secondary air: The second stage of admission of air to a combustion system, generally to complete combustion initiated by the primary air. It can be injected into the furnace of a boiler under relatively high pressure when firing solid fuels in order to create turbulence above the burning fuel to ensure good mixing with the gases produced in the combustion process and thereby complete combustion.

Tertiary air: A third stage of admission of air to a combustion system, the reactions of which have largely been completed by secondary air. Tertiary air is rarely needed.

Stoichiometric: In combustion technology, stoichiometric air is that quantity of air, and no more, which is theoretically needed to burn completely a unit quantity of fuel. ‘Substoichiometric’ refers to the partial combustion of fuel in a deficiency of air.

Balanced draught: The condition achieved when the pressure of the gas in a furnace is the same as or slightly below that of the atmosphere in the enclosure or building housing it.

Gross calorific value (GCV): The amount of heat liberated by the complete combustion, under specified conditions, by a unit volume of a gas or of a unit mass of a solid or liquid fuel, in the determination of which the water produced by combustion of the fuel is assumed to be completely condensed and its latent and sensible heat made available.

Net calorific value (NCV): The amount of heat generated by the complete combustion, under specified conditions, by a unit volume of a gas or of a unit mass of a solid or liquid fuel, in the determination of which the water produced by the combustion of the fuel is assumed to remain as vapour.

Absolute pressure The sum of the gauge and the atmospheric pressure. For instance, if the

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steam gauge on the boiler shows 9 kg/cm g the absolute pressure of the steam is 10 kg/cm (a).

Atmospheric pressure The pressure due to the weight of the atmosphere. It is expressed in
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pounds per sq. in. or inches of mercury column or kg/cm . Atmospheric pressure at sea level is
14.7 lbs./ sq. inch. or 30 inch mercury column or 760mm of mercury (mm Hg) or 101.325 kilo
Pascal (kPa).

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Carbon monoxide (CO): Produced from any source that burns fuel with incomplete combustion, causes chest pain in heart patients, headaches and reduced mental alertness. Blow down: The removal of some quantity of water from the boiler in order to achieve an acceptable concentration of dissolved and suspended solids in the boiler water.
Complete combustion: The complete oxidation of the fuel, regardless of whether it is accomplished with an excess amount of oxygen or air, or just the theoretical amount required for perfect combustion.
Perfect combustion: The complete oxidation of the fuel, with the exact theoretical (stoichiometric) amount of oxygen (air) required.
Saturated steam: It is the steam, whose temperature is equal to the boiling point corresponding to that pressure.
Wet Steam Saturated steam which contains moisture Dry Steam Either saturated or superheated steam containing no moisture. Superheated Steam Steam heated to a temperature above the boiling point or saturation temperature corresponding to its pressure
Oxygen trim sensor measures flue gas oxygen and a closed loop controller compares the actual oxygen level to the desired oxygen level. The air (or fuel) flow is trimmed by the controller until the oxygen level is corrected. The desired oxygen level for each firing rate must be entered into a characterized set point curve generator. Oxygen Trim maintains the lowest possible burner excess air level from low to high fire. Burners that don’t have Oxygen Trim must run with Extra Excess Air to allow safe operation during variations in weather, fuel, and linkage.
Heat transfer mediums There are different types of heat transfer medium e.g. steam, hot water and thermal oil. Steam and Hot water are most common and it will be valuable to briefly examine these common heat transfer mediums and associated properties.
Thermic Fluid Thermic Fluid is used as a heat transfer mechanism in some industrial process and heating applications. Thermic Fluid may be a vegetable or mineral based oil and the oil may be raised to a high temperature without the need for any pressurization. The relatively high flow and return temperatures may limit the potential for flue gas heat recovery unless some other system can absorb this heat usefully. Careful design and selection is required to achieve best energy efficiency.
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Hot water

Water is a fluid with medium density, high specific heat capacity, low viscosity and relatively

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low thermal conductivity. At relatively low temperature e.g. 70 C -90 C, hot water is useful for

smaller heating installations.

Steam
When water is heated its temperature will rise. The heat added is called sensible heat and the heat content of the water is termed its enthalpy. The usual datum point used to calculate enthalpy
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is 0 C.
When the water reaches its boiling point, any further heat input will result in some proportion of the water changing from the liquid to the vapour state, i.e. changing to steam. The heat required for this change of state is termed the 'latent heat of evaporation' and is expressed in terms of a fixed mass of water. Where no change in temperature occurs during the change of state, the steam will exist in equilibrium with the water. This equilibrium state is termed 'saturation conditions'. Saturation conditions can occur at any pressure, although at each pressure there is only one discrete temperature at which saturation can occur.
If further heat is applied to the saturated steam the temperature will rise and the steam will become 'superheated'. Any increase in temperature above saturated conditions will be accompanied by a further rise in enthalpy.
Steam is useful heat transfer medium because, as a gas, it is compressible. At high pressure and consequently density, steam can carry large quantities of heat with relatively small volume.

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Ex.No.1 THE RATE OF FLOW OF STEAM USING ORIFICE METER
AIM: To find the rate of flow of steam using Orifice Meter.
FORMULA:
W = Q ρ
Q = K A √H H = (h1-h2)/ρ
Where, W = Mass flow rate of Steam in Kg/s Q = Volume Flow rate of steam in m3/s K = Area ratio=2 A = Area of the pipe H= Head in m of Water ρ = Density of Steam h1 = Pressure at point 1 h2 = Pressure at point 2
PROCEDURE: 1. Before starting the Boiler open the Air release valve. 2. Close the steam valve and Blow down valve. 3. Start the Burner. 4. Close the Air release valve after finding the steam from it. 5. Run the Boiler up to the pressure raise of 4Kg/cm2. 6. Open the Steam valve gradually. 7. Measure the Pressures at point 1 and 2 and take more readings by opening the valve gradually. 8. Tabulate the readings 9. Calculate mass flow rate. 10. Draw the Graph between P1 and Mass Flow rate.
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TABULATION:

Sl.No

h1

h2

H

Q

W

RESULT: The mass flow rate of steam was calculated.
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Ex. No. 2 THE DRYNESS FRACTION OF STEAM
AIM: To find the Dryness Fraction of the Steam using Calorimeter.
FORMULA:
X = (hg2+Cp(tsup-t2)-hf1)/hfg1
Where, P1 = Pressure of steam before throttling, i.e. pressure of steam main, P2 = Pressure of steam after throttling, hf1 = Sensible heat of water at pressure P1, … (From steam tables) hfg1 = Latent heat of steam at pressure P1, … (From steam tables) hg2 = Total heat of dry steam at pressure P2, … (From steam tables) tsup = Temperature of superheated steam after throttling, t2 = Saturation temperature at pressure P2, … (From steam tables) cp = Specific heat of superheated steam ( take 2.01 kJ/kgK) x = Dryness fraction of steam before throttling.
Where, x  dryness fraction of steam before throttling. hf 1  liquid enthalpy of steam before throttling. hfg1  enthalpy of evaporation of steam before throttling. hfg2  enthalpy of dry steam after throttling cp  specific heat of the superheated steam.
(taken as 2.01 kJ/kgK if not given) ts  temperature of steam after throttling. t f  saturation temperature of steam after throttling.
PROCEDURE:
1. Before starting the Boiler open the Air release valve. 2. Close the steam valve and Blow down valve. 3. Start the Burner. 4. Close the Air release valve after finding the steam from it. 5. Run the Boiler up to the pressure raise of 4Kg/cm2. 6. Open the Steam valve gradually. 7. Measure the Pressures at point 3, 4 and 5 and take more readings by opening the valve
gradually. 8. Take the values of Enthalpy according to the Pressure values from the steam table.
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9. Take the temperature readings in the calorimeter 10. Tabulate the readings. 11. Draw the Graph between P3 and Dryness Fraction of Steam.

TABULATION:

Sl.No P1

P2

hfg1

hf1

hg2

tsup

t2

x

RESULT: The dryness fraction of the steam is calculated.
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Ex. No. 3 PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF TURBINE
AIM: To analyze the Performance of the Turbine.
FORMULA:
P = 2 NT/60 watts
Where, P = Power Generated in the Turbine N = RPM of the Turbine T = Torque of the Turbine= 3.18Nm

PROCEDURE:
1. Before starting the Boiler open the Air release valve. 2. Close the steam valve and Blow down valve. 3. Start the Burner. 4. Close the Air release valve after finding the steam from it. 5. Run the Boiler up to the pressure raise of 4Kg/cm2. 6. Open the Steam valve fully. 7. Open the Turbine inlet valve gradually. 8. Take the RPM for different pressure by adjusting the valve. 9. Tabulate the reading. 10. Calculate the power generated by the Turbine. 11. Draw the Graph between Pressure and Power.

TABULATION:

Sl.No

P6

N

POWER

RESULT: The Performance of the Turbine is analyzed.
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Ex.No.4 PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF THE CONDENSOR
AIM: To find the heat absorbed by the Condenser.

FORMULA:

Q = U A ∆Tm

∆Tm = (∆Th- ∆Tc)/ln((∆Th/∆Tc)

∆Th= Th1-Th2 ∆Tc= Tc2-Tc1

Where,

Q- Heat absorbed Th1- Temperature of Steam inlet Th2- Temperature of Steam outlet Tc2- Temperature of Cold water Outlet Tc1- Temperature of Cold water Inlet U – 3000 W/m2K

PROCEDURE:
1. Before starting the Boiler open the Air release valve. 2. Close the steam valve and Blow down valve. 3. Start the Burner. 4. Close the Air release valve after finding the steam from it. 5. Run the Boiler up to the pressure raise of 4Kg/cm2. 6. Open the Steam valve fully. 7. Open the Turbine inlet valve gradually. 8. Take the Temperature readings. 9. Tabulate the reading. 10. Calculate the Heat Transfer Rate.

RESULT: The Heat absorbed by the Condenser was calculated.
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STEAM TURBINE TEST RIG Boiler Terminology