World Monuments Watch 100 Most Endangered Sites


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World Monuments Watch

2 0 0 4 100 Most Endangered Sites

World Monuments Watch
2 0 0 4 100 Most Endangered Sites

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Bilndiagara Escarpment Cultural Landscape. Bandiagara. Mali
photo: edayidwaltphoto.com

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WORLD MONUMENTS FUN Ow
For nearly four de<:ades, the World Moouments Fund (WMF) has dedICated it~lf to the preservation of imperiled works of art and architecture worldwide through fieldwork. ad...ocacy. grantmalung. education, and training, Since its toundirl8 in 1965, WMf has worked with local commuMles and partnet's arouod the globe to stem the 10!0S of more th3n 400 import3nt and Irreplaceable I1'1OI'lUIT1eOh In some 80 countries
One of WMF's most effective tOOls in its quest to safeguard humankirKl"$ cultural legacy IS the World Monuments Watch, a blenn.al hSling of the 100 Most Endangered SItes. whose loss Of destruetlOl'l would Lmpcrvensh us all The list highlights the plight of individual Sites and wNt it would take for them to be pr~ for future generatlOOS. for many CorT'IffilX'I,tlE'S around the world, the Watch ,s the only hope they ha...e of saving the Site!> lkat me A ~ York. ba.s.ed internatiOnal organization. WMf hln lIff,loates and offices in rrance, Italy. Portugal. Spain. and the LIMed KIngdom.
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CONTENTS

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4 A Global Call to Action Marilyn Perry and Bonnie Surnham

6 About the World Monuments Watch·

7 Why Preservation Matters to Us
Kemeth I. Chenault, American Express Company

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Africa and the Middle East

Wellspring of Humanity and Civilization

11 The Americas
A Fusion of Old World and New

41 Antarctica and Australia
New Frontiers in Preservation

44 Asia
Crossroads of Culture

58

Europe

Unity in Diversity

79 Acknowledgments

80 Index of Sites Inside back cover: Map of the roo Most Endangered Sites 2004

"{World Monuments Watch]. .. is an extremely important document, much more than a plea to protect history. It is itself history:
a record of the growth of consciousness in a shrinking world. II
-Herbert Muschamp The New York Times; March 31,1996
A Global Call to Action
ur world has changed dramatically since the first World Monuments Watch list of the 100 Most Endangered Sites was issued in 1996. It is only
natural that the 2004 Watch list would reflect these changes. For the
Watch list is not merely a record of great moments in architectural history: it is a testimony and a reflection of what is at risk today, amongst the sites that we value as supreme creations of humankind.
Recent world events have incontrovertibly fostered awareness about the importance, and the fragility. of the art and architecture that define communities throughout the world. The 2004 list manifests a concern for the damage caused to our cultural heritage by human conflict. With multiple listings in the Middle East and Central Asia. it issues a renewed call to action to work globally to stem these losses.
This year. for the first time, the Watch list encompasses every continent of the world, including Antarctica (Sir Ernest Shackleton's hut) and Australia (the Dampier Rock Art Comple~). Binational and multi-country listings-the Jesuit Guarani Missions in Argentina, Brazil, and Paraguay, and the Usumacinta River Cultural Landscape linking Me~ico and Guatamalaunderscore the need for cooperation to protect cultural comple~es that span more than one country" It is encouraging to see governments and local organizations working together across borders to ensure the care and protection these sites deserve.
The list reflects a deepening appreciation for the traditional architecture that has shaped and defined everyday lives over long periods of times, The 2004 list includes a traditional port-town in Japan, an American Shaker village. and the Cockcrow Postal Town in China as e~amples of how ways of life and their settings are often entwined. Each new Watch list advances the notion that these "cultural landscapes" are worth saving.
The current list spans the breadth of cultural history. It is rich in content from the ancient world, and yet a special theme is the architecture created through modern industrialization and technology-designed to the highest aesthetic standards of the twentieth century, but fast becoming obsolete. The Battersea Power Station in London. the Humberstone & Santa Laura industrial comple~ in Chile, the railway system of Paraguay. Helsinki's Malmi airport.

and one of the greatest engineering triumphs of the modern era. the Panama Canal. invite us to consider the future of such sites.
Architectural gems that have fallen victim to catastrophe or neglect are perhaps the "charismatic species" of the Watch list. The fire-damaged St. John's Anglican Church in Nova Scotia. Frank Lloyd Wright's Ennis Brown House in Los Angeles, destabilized by an earthquake; Horace Walpole's exquisite English mansion. Strawberry Hill, in a state of intense fragility, are among the treasures to be found in these pages. But they need an urgent infusion of support. care, and attention.
The World Monuments Watch 2004 identifies a stunning array of sites and will bring them to the attention of the public. preservation professionals. and governments. By working to preserve these treasures, WMF and its partners are helping to save for future generations the structures and places that tell us who we are. Be it a palace. a cave painting, an archaeological site. or a town. the sites speak of the human aspiration and achievement that unite us all. Likewise. to lose any of them would diminish us all.

MARILYN PERRY Chairman

BONNIE BURNHAM President

About the World Monuments Watch list of the 100 Most Endangered Sites

aunched in 199i the World Monuments Watch' is a global initiatiV'! ~tablishtd by WMF in fe5PO'1se to a growing concern 0V1?f the loss of important culfUl'at Sites around the globe as a result of IlI!gle<:t. vandalism. arrntd conflict. or I'liIturill di5aster. The bierVJiallis! of the 100 Mosr ffIdangered Sirn seeks to preserve Sites whose loss Of destruction would in'lpoYefish us all by raising their viSibility and anraetlng the fll'lO desperately need. Watch liSting diffffl from landmark dt.-signation, a permanent re tioo established by g<:JYeI'rments Of regulatOf)' agenc;es.. in that sites selected for induslOl'l on the W,nen list change with each two-y\'3f cyde. The Watch lISt sefvn not toconvey an hooorvy de!.lgnatio-l. but to effect ~by ta~ing key probltmS and ~M'lg solutions fOf sites at n~
SeleniBI the Lilt
elected eYef}' two year\, !>lIes Included on the Wilten list Iolve
~ nominated by government agencia. non~tal orgamzatlOf\S. comervation professiona.ls. or coocerned ,ndivlduals from all walks of life through a formal application process. To be considered for inclusion on the list. Sites must meet three critefla.:
• SignifICance: Is a slte important in tffiTlS of its intri~ic artIstic. architectural. historic. Of socl • U~ Is a Slt~ in ~ of Il'TIl'l'lMlat~ attention or ~ It fac~
immi~t destruction?
• Viability: Is there a workabl~ soItJ1lon to save a site by remcNing a
thr~at. through advocacy or with financial or technical assistance?

Sites meeting these critena are then presented to an independent panel of internationally recogniled experts in the field of preservatlOO who make the final selection of the 100 sites.
Since the firSt list was published in 1996. a total of 399 Sites have been Included. selected from some 1.500 f1OITlinations. Ideally. wMf hopes to remove Sites from any giYen list within a two-year penod, knowing that their lS.SUes have been iKklres.sed and thilt they are making signiflCarlt
progress toward a wstalflable conditiOn. Some Sites i1re relisted if the
panel believes rellsll"! is necessary to ensure their long-term preservation.
SupportiftJ th. Watch
lfICe 1996. WMF has made some 315 grants retailing more than U.s. S26 IT'IIlhoo to 151 Watch sites In 62 cOtJl1lr1es. These funds have I~ more thao u.s. $S9 million from other sources as a result of the momeon.m creilted by inclusion of Sites co the Watch list. In addItion 10 support provided by American upress-a cOlTVTlitment of U.s. SlO milloco rtvough 200S--WMF raises foods from corporations. founda-
tions. and private donors to conserve Sites included on the Wilten list. For
InformatIOn on how you un support the Watch program. please contact
the Development Department World Morunents Fund. 95 MadIson AY'f."r'lUe. New Y()ri(. New Yor1e 100\6.

The 2004 Selection Committee
Chairman: HENRY CLEERE is a consultant to the International Courn::il of Monuments and Sit~s (ICOMOS). for which he serves as an advisor on cultural heritage to the UNESCO world Heritilge Committee.
GIOVANNI BOCCARDI. i1n i1rchitect by training. is chief of the Arab stiltes unit at UNESCO's World H~ritage Center in Paris.
GIOVANNA 80RTOLASO-SIEGEL a speoalist in stone and metal conservation. hils worked on projects around the globe. Most recently. she has aSSisted the Austria-based ARCH Foundation in its projects in Croatia.
jAROSLAV KILIAN. a practiclflg architect and president of the SIOVilk national committee of ICOMOS since 1990, was recently appointed a member of the Europa Nostra Awards scheme Jury.
JOE ICING. an architect and urban plarv-oer. is a setllOf proteCt manager at the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Culrural Property tICCROM~

ELIAS MUJICA is the deputy coordinator of the Consortium for the Sustainable Development of the Andean Ecoregion (CONDESAN) and vicepresident of the Andean Institute for Archileological Research (INDEA).
JUDIT TAMASI, a specialist in cultural heritage management. is archaeological supervisor for town and country planning at Hungilry's Niltional Office of Cultural Heritage.
HERMAN VAN HOOFF is UNESCO's world heritage advisor for Latin America and the Caribbean.
TIM WHALEN, director of the Getty Ccoserviltion Institute. also serves on the board of the California Preservation Foundation and as an advisor to the National Trust for Historic Preservation.
GA.MINI WljESURIYA. hils been director for archaeological conservation for the Department of A.fchileology. Government of Sri Lanka, Since 1983.



Why Preservation Matters to Us
i&ht ~ars ago. American Express and the World Monuments Fund joined forces to launch the world Monuments Watch', with our company as founding sponsor. We created the Watch to draw attention to the plight of The world's most endangered heritage. and to provide and attract funds to address the most urgent needs.
Although American Express and the world Monuments Fund had collaborated in the past. taking on a project of this magnitude was a leap of faith for both of us. Would the WOfld preservation convnurllty respond with nomi~ nations to the world Monuments Watch? Would the cause resonate with American Express employees as well as With the general public? would others Join the company in SUpportIng the cause. and would our intervt'fltion make a difference? These were all unknowns.
We have ~ il'T'll'T'M!nsely gratified by the response to the Watch. Site nominations have come in from around the globe. and each list of the 100 Most Endangered Sites. including this newest one. has brought home the extraordinary range of the world's endangered heritage-from the most famous and familiar. such as the Great Wall of
China, to the unexpected and remote. like Shackleton's Hut in AIltaretica.
Early on. A~kan Express employees everywhere embraced the Watch and made it their own. knowing from their own experience the powerful hold that historic sites can have on people's imaginations. They also understood that historic sites, as a key motivator for tourism. also contributed to local economies and to our industry as a whole. For seven years running, our sister publication Trovel • Leisure has offered an advertising supplement to raise funds for the Watch, and American Express has complemented those efforts with a benefit golf tournament at the annual congress of the AmeriCan Society of Travel Agents.
American Express has committed a total of $10 million over ten years to the Watch. through 200S. To date, we have made 12S grants in more than SO countries. Since 1996, Watch sites have received some US. S8S million. many contributions coming from our colleagues in the travel industry. Most encouraging has been the progress that has been made to help save listed sites.
American Express is proud to be associated with the extraordinary work and dedication of the World Monuments Fund staff and the preservation eKperts around the world whose task it is to safeguard these silent witnesses to our shared past. We are happy to add our company's voice to the urgent call to protect the world's endangered heritage, and we encourage others to join us in saving individual sites and In the Watch program as a whole.
KENNETH I. CHENAULT Chairman and Chief Executive OffICer, American Express Company
•'R'~ DPRESS

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IUtt.T IN l)l[ S[V[HT[[l(lH Cll'f11JAY, GHANA'S lARAlAH APf'lAII[D ON TMl ~OO~ WATCH UST,IS IllHG RISTOlllO USING TUOITIONAL MfTttODS.

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World Monuments Watch 100 Most Endangered Sites