eMindanao Library An Annotated Bibliography

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eMindanao Library An Annotated Bibliography
(Preliminary Edition)
Published online by Center for Philippine Studies University of Hawai’i at Mānoa
Honolulu, Hawaii July 25, 2014




I. Articles/Books


II. Bibliographies


III. Videos/Images


IV. Websites


V. Others (Interviews/biographies/dictionaries)


This project is part of eMindanao Library, an electronic, digitized collection of materials being established by the Center for Philippine Studies, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa. At present, this annotated bibliography is a work in progress envisioned to be published online in full, with its own internal search mechanism. The list is drawn from web-based resources, mostly articles and a few books that are available or published on the internet. Some of them are born-digital with no known analog equivalent. Later, the bibliography will include printed materials such as books and journal articles, and other textual materials, images and audio-visual items. eMindanao will play host as a depository of such materials in digital form in a dedicated website. Please note that some resources listed here may have links that are “broken” at the time users search for them online. They may have been discontinued for some reason, hence are not accessible any longer.
Materials are broadly categorized into the following:
Articles/Books Bibliographies Videos/Images Websites, and Others (Interviews/ Biographies/ Dictionaries)
Updated: July 25, 2014
Notes: This annotated bibliography has been originally published at http://www.hawaii.edu/cps/emindanao.html, and re-posted at http://www.emindanao.com. All Rights Reserved.
For comments and feedbacks, write to:
Center for Philippine Studies University of Hawai’i at Mānoa 1890 East-West Road, Moore 416 Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 Email: [email protected] Phone: (808) 956-6086 Fax: (808) 956-2682
Suggested format for citation of this resource:
Center for Philippine Studies, University of Hawai’i at Mānoa. eMindanao Library: An Annotated Bibliography, July 25, 2014. Available at: http://www.emindanao.com/eMindanao_Library.pdf.

1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “Mindanao Campaigns 1904-1905 and Jolo Campaign 1905.” http://1-22infantry.org/campaign/campaignpageone.htm.
These accounts of the 1st Battalion of the 22nd Infantry provide rich sources of data on US military operations in Mindanao, such as the Mindanao campaigns during 1904-1905, and the Jolo campaign 1905. With photos by Parker Hitt. The accounts in html format are detailed below as follows:
1.1st Battalion -22nd infantry and the Moros. http://1-22infantry.org/history3/moros.htm 2.Mindanao Operations 1904-1905. http://1-22infantry.org/history3/1904-05.htm 3.The Datu Ali Expedition, 1905. http://1-22infantry.org/history3/ali.htm 4. Gunboats on Lake Lanao 1904-1905. http://1-22infantry.org/history3/lanao.htm 5.The Ramaien Expedition 1904. http://1-22infantry.org/history3/ramaien.htm 6.Sgt Grover C. Hart. http://1-22infantry.org/history/hartpageone.htm 7.The Third Sulu Expedition. http://1-22infantry.org/history3/sulu.htm 8.The Taraca Expedition April 1904. http://1-22infantry.org/history3/taraca.htm
1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “The 22nd Infantry and the Moros – Introduction,” http://1-22infantry.org/history3/moros.htm.
A brief narrative of the involvement of the 22nd Infantry in the military campaign on the Moros, particularly in Lake Lanao and Cotabato. Mentions the operation against Datu Ali. Photos of Datu Grande from Lake Lanao, a friend of the American (amigo), and Signal Hill, in Marawi.
1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “The Datu Ali Expedition -1905,” http://1-22infantry.org/history3/ali.htm.
A brief account of the campaign against Datu Ali under the command of Capt Frank R. McCoy. Photos of these two men are shown in this article. The narrator suggests to readers to visit the work of Robert Fulton, author of Moroland: The History of Uncle Sam and the Moros 1899-1920. Oregon: Tumalo Creek Press, Bend, 2007, 2009, for a full account of this campaign.
1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “Gunboats on Lake Lanao 1904-1905.” http://1-22infantry.org/history3/lanao.htm.
This article is a reproduction of the work of Parker Hitt, Amphibious Infantry A Fleet On Lake Lanao, US Naval Institute Proceedings, 1938. It describes the boats sunked by the retreating Spanish troops in Lake Lanao on the eve of the Spanish-American War. The American troops raised these boats and made them operational for use in the Moro campaign around Lake Lanao. Photos of the boats are shown, together with scenes of Marawi and Parker Hitt. A map of Lake Lanao is also found here.
1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “Operations 1904 – 1905,”

A series of US military operations around Lake Lanao, with body count of casualities, is provided here. Photos of a Moro cotta, gunboat Flake, and soldiers of the 22nd Infantry shown.
1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “The Ramaien Expedition 1904,” http://1-22infantry.org/history3/ramaien.htm.
An account of the operation in Ramaien (spelled correctly as “Ramain”) that began on December 1903 is given here. Photographs of Pantar bridge (built by the Spanish), soldiers of the 22nd Infantry, and a Moro cotta in Ramain.
1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “Sgt Grover C. Hart G Company 22nd Infantry,” http://1-22infantry.org/history/hartpageone.htm.
Sgt. Grover Hart (with photo) participated in the final campaign against Datu Ali. He is one of the 100 volunteers handpicked by Capt. McCoy, upon instruction from General Leonard Wood. to pursue Datu Ali. A brief account of the encounter is also provided here. The death of Ali is believed to have ended the rebellion in this part of Mindanao.
1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “The Third Sulu Expedition,” http://1-22infantry.org/history3/sulu.htm.
This article narrates the third Sulu expedition on April 1905, with 13 officers and 279 soldiers from the 22nd Infantry participating. Mention is made of the Tausug leader, Pala, who is the object of the pursuit, but no details given. Casualties suffered by the troops are provided. Photos of a Moro cotta, soldiers of the 22nd Infantry.
1st Battalion 22nd Infantry. “The Taraca Expedition April 1904,” http://1-22infantry.org/history3/taraca.htm.
This expedition is led by General Leonard Wood. Under his command are the 2nd and 3rd battalions 22nd infantry; four troops 14th cavalry; four companies 17th infantry; six companies 23rd infantry; and one platoon 17th field artillery “The object of this campaign was to subdue the Maciu Moros. Two columns participated in the movement.The plan was for the larger column, under General Wood, to march from Camp Vicars around the southeast corner of the lake (Lanao) and unite with the smaller column from Marahui at a point one mile south of the Taraca river, the latter column to force a landing that could be used as a supply point for the entire command.”
Abaya-Ulindang, Faina C. "Huks in the Land of Promise The Rise and Demise of Economic Development Corps," Graduate Forum, Vol 8, Nos. 1,2 & 3 (2010):107-206. Published by the College of Social Sciences and Humanities Graduate Program, Mindanao State University, Marawi City. http://www.mediafire.com/?d0dd9gcos4i4ace.
“This study investigates the history of the Economic Development Corporation (EDCOR) settlement project as an instrument of counter-insurgency during the 1950s and its relevance to the contemporary Mindanao unrest. [Three EDCOR sites were established in 1951 in Kapatagan,

Lanao, and in Buldon and Alamada, both in Cotabato.] As an instrument of pacification, the governing philosophy of land settlements in Mindanao was traced to the homestead program of the American colonizers or as far back as the Spanish reduccion. Agricultural colonies were established in Cotabato and Lanao provinces during the first decade of American rule. These colonies were intended to assimilate the native Muslims with the Christianized Filipinos, or ‘to make a Filipino out of a Moro,’ according to Governor Carpenter of the Department of Mindanao and Sulu. Settlements were laid in such a way that the Filipino would have a Moro as neighbor. While the initial impetus for these projects were economic in nature, i.e., to increase the interaction between the native Muslims and Christianized Filipinos resulting in ‘cultural amalgamation’ was just as important.”
Abaya-Ulindang, Faina C. (Introduction,"Mindanao): John J.Pershing, Manuscript Division, Library of Congress,Washington D.C.” Batis ng Kasaysayan, Vol I, No.1 (2004). Edited by Bernardita Reyes Churchill, Manila: National Commission for Culture & the Arts. Full text will soon be available here.
Dr. Ulindang presents a detailed annotation and analysis of the papers of John J. Pershing, currently housed at the Manuscripts Division of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C., based on the materials collected from that repository and deposited to the library of Mindanao State University. Of particular importance to the Moros of Mindanao are Pershing’s diaries and his extended memoirs he intended to publish but never materialized. Also included in the analysis are his Lake Lanao campaigns against recalcitrant Moros shortly after the Bayang Battle of May 1902. In these papers, Pershing narrates how he befriended the Moro datus as he tried to win over to the side of the US colonial government those who resisted and engaged the military in several deadly skirmishes. He also spearheaded the US troops that led to the Bud Bagsak battle in Sulu toward the end of his stint as governor. The papers reveal the insights and strategies of a man who would rise from the rank of Captain to General of the (US) Armies in command of the US Expedition Forces in Europe during World War I, and the third governor of the Moro Province (1909-1913).
Abaya-Ulindang, Faina C. "Slaves and Migrants During the Late 19th to Early 20th Century: A Comparative Social History" Graduate Forum, Vol 5, Nos. 1&2 (2007):187-205. Mindanao State University, Marawi City. Full text will soon be available here.
Abbas, Firdausi. “Analysis: On the 2012 MILF-PG Framework on the Bangsamoro,” Autonomy and Peace Review, Special Publication (2012): 83-110. See also http://moroist.blogspot.com/2012/12/analysis-on-2012-milf-pg-framework-on.html.
The author criticizes the 2012 Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro on the ground that is is confusing or misleading. Among the terms he disagrees on are “Bangsamoro,” which is used to describe the people, the government or new political entity, and the name of the territory. He says the Muslims never used this word but Bangsa Moro, meaning a nation cromprising the Moros. He also objects to certain usages in the framework. He concludes with a proposal as follows: “The proposed agreement between the MILF and the PG is contemplated to be the Bangsa Moro basic law and shall be the basis of the new organic act amendatory of RA 9054. It shall be the constitution of the new autonomous political entity. This is unacceptable - a constitution for the Bangsa Moro proposed and formulated by a handful of Moros who have arrogated unto themselves the authority to represent the Moro people with a handful of selected officials by Malacañang, brokered by Malaysia who is motivated by its own interest which has robbed the Tausug people of Sabah. It is as repugnant as the 1987 constitution that is the product of fifty Filipinos chosen by the then president.”

Abbas, Jamal Ashley Yahya. “Bangsa Moro Conflict – Historical Antecedent and Present Impact,” (from a speech delivered in September 2000). Available at: http://jamalashley.wordpress.com/2007/04/17/bangsa-moro-conflict-historical-antecedentsand-present-impact.
Author is a Maranao (with Maguindanaon descent) blogger who probes into and analyzes the puzzling concept of Bangsamoro as a separate nation from the Filipino. He says the two groups were only merged into one after Philippine independence in 1946. He also debunks the myth of Moro backwardness, citing historical evidence of the once prosperous and powerful Sulu sultanate during the 16-17th centuries.
Abbas, Jamal Ashley Yahya. “The Moro Sultanates” (2007), http://jamalashley.wordpress.com/2007/04/16/the-moro-sultanates.
Mr. Abbas traces the brief history of the major sultanates, particularly the Maguindanao. Maranao and Tausug, including the affected ethnic groups in these areas. The Maguindanao sultanates are divided into two major groups: the Sultanate of Maguindanao, the lower valley (sa ilud) kingdom, and the Sultanate of Buayan, the upper valley (sa raya) kingdom. In Sulu, there is just one sultanate, with many competing claimants to the crown. In Lanao, the ranao confederation of sultanates exist.
Abdullah, Tirmizzy E. “Dibolodan, The Qur’an of Bacong, Marantao,” The Qur’an and Islamic Manuscripts of Mindanao, Monograph Series No. 10 (2012): 27-28. Institute of Asian Cultures, Sophia University.
Abinales, Patricio N. “Let them East Rats! The Politics of Rodent Infestation in Post-War Philippines.” Philippine Studies, Vol 60 (2012): 67-99.
Part of the article focuses on Cotabato, where rats have an interesting connection with a group of people (they call themselves ilaga, Ilonggo for rat) who organized themselves against Muslims during the 1970s. It then subtly shifted the problem of rat infestation to the danger created by the Ilaga as a paramilitary group opposed to Muslims.
Abinales, Patricio N. “Warlords of the Republic,” Philippine Daily Inquirer, Dec. 12, 2009. http://opinion.inquirer.net/inquireropinion/talkofthetown/view/20091212241702/Warlords-of-the-republic.
As an offshoot of the 2009 Maguindanao massacre, this article recounts the history of warlordism in the Philippines as a post-WW II phenomenon.
Abinales, Patricio N. “The US Army as an occupying force in Muslim Mindanao, 18991913,” in Alfred McCoy (ed.), pp 410-420, Colonial Crucible: Empire in the Making of the Modern American State. Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 2009. http://muse.jhu.edu/books/9780299231033; also http://books.google.com/books?id=xv0vhEUHNc8C&pg=PR9&dq=patricio+abinales,+the+us+m ilitary+as+an+occupying+force+in+the+southern+philippines&hl=en&sa=X&ei=72cVUYqEKo X5igKgIHQCA&ved=0CDAQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=patricio%20abinales%2C%20the%20us%20m ilitary%20as%20an%20occupying%20force%20in%20the%20southern%20philippines&f=false.

Abinales reconstructs the conflicting form of US military pacification in the areas dominated by Moros (Muslims) in Mindanao and Sulu. Here, he shows how the military officers won the favor of some Moro elite while at the same time antagonizing others. He finds that many Moro leaders, however, used their collaboration with American officials to protect their own distinctive culture from Manila majority rule interference. The result is patronage-centered and accommodationdrive governance and state building.
Abinales, Patricio N. “Shifting Tactics: Notes on Civil Society Politics and the Power of the Local in the Philippines,” Tambara 25 (Dec. 2008): 77-98.
This article partly relates the interaction between national politics and the local, and points out that the latter is in many instances what shapes the character and direction of the nation. Historically, colonial administration under the American regime set this pattern whereby local elites, including those in the Muslim communities of Mindanao, retained their power as they kept their alliance with the center of power. Stressing the Marcos administration during the Martial Law era, Abinales quickly notices how local elites (some of whom are in the opposition) quickly allied themselves with Marcos as they both fortified their hold to power. About the only truly local, says the author, is the Moro National Liberation Front, which began its separatist agenda to challenge the Marcos government despite the collaboration of local “warlords” to minimize the Moro rebels presence in their domains. He winds down to the “staying power” of the Arroyo administration which managed to hold on to power despite its low popularity, exposes on its corrupt practices and other scandals. At the core of his analysis, the author suggests that “… state leaders (and their ghost historians) can never write a national story that will identify the heads of state as Father or Mother of the nation because at the core of their political lives and visions is their local mooring.”
Abinales, Patricio. “American Military Presence in the Southern Philippines: A Comparative Historical Overview,” Honolulu: East-West Center, Oct 2004. http://www.eastwestcenter.org/fileadmin/stored/pdfs/PSwp007.pdf; also http://hdl.handle.net/10125/363.
Author discusses the historical antecedent of the joint military exercises called balikatan between US forces and Philippine troops in Mindanao during 2002. He traces the “discrepant histories of the Filipino nation and its Muslim peripheries” from the American colonial rule of Mindanao under the Moro Province.
Abinales, P. N. “Forget Your Darling Far Away,” http://www.bibingka.com/phg/misc/pershing.htm.
The article probes into the alleged extramarital affair of Moro Province Governor, General John J. Pershing, who was rumored to have fathered two children with a local girl in Zamboanga. Although the girl eventually got married to an American soldier and had children with him, he left her eventually. Was she abandoned because of her alleged relationship with the General, the author asked?
Abinales, Patricio N. “Muslim Political Brokers and the Philippines Nation-State,” pp. 81-101 in Carl A. Trocki (ed.), Gangsters, Democracy and the State in Southeast Asia. Cornell Southeast Asia Program, Series No. 17. New York: Cornell University, 1998. http://books.google.com/books?id=BYza_OwnVXMC&pg=PA81&lpg=PA81&dq=abinales, +muslim+political+brokers&source=bl&ots=noP7AeedKz&sig=2dplUMAMGtA7wwqB9cE adzy8Jb0&hl=en&ei=mzDLTdygMejgiAKxv5WZBQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&re

snum=1&ved=0CCIQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=abinales%2C%20muslim%20political%20br okers&f=false.
Abinales situates war in Mindanao during Martial Law to be beyond “ethnic and religious” conflict between groups and that there were actually many times of “co-existence” between groups. By doing so, he disrupts traditional understandings of conflict in Mindanao and argues that there is something more to understand in order to understand the causes of war: the role of datus.
Abinales, Patricio N. “Sancho Panza in Buliok Complex: The Paradox of Muslim Separatism,” in Rodolfo Severino and Lorraine Carlos Salazar (eds.), Whither the Philippines in the 21st Century? Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2007. http://books.google.com/books?id=FNFh114RQv8C&pg=PA277&lpg=PA277&dq=patricio+ abinales,+sancho+panza&source=bl&ots=ZpOhc9CaNu&sig=iz0XUVXEeFqcwMM4E9qUy MmOhhs&hl=en&ei=uoiiTemRN9TZiALri8mSAw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resn um=1&ved=0CBQQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=patricio%20abinales%2C%20sancho%20pan za&f=false.
In this chapter, Abinales discusses why “Muslim separatists are still unsuccessful in reaching their goal.” He provides perspectives and issues of inclusion surrounding Moro resistance, insights into space and its relationship to resistance, and integration of resistors “as state managers.”
Abreu, Lualhati M. “Colonialism and Resistance: A Historical Perspective,” pp. 17-27 in Bobby M. Tuazon (ed.). The Moro Reader: History and Contemporary Struggles of the Bangsamoro People. Quezon City: Center for People Empowerment in Governance (CenPeg), 2008, with a Preface by Oscar Evangelista. Full text is available at: http://www.yonip.com/archives/BANGSAMORO/MORO%20READER%20History%20and %20Contemporary%20Struggles%20of%20the%20Bangsamoro%20People.pdf.
Author outlines and gives focus to Western colonialism and Moro resistance since the Spanish regime in the Philippines. She points out that the Moros have established political organizations under the sultanates in Sulu and Maguindanao and datuships (pengampongs) in Lanao even before Spanish incursions in the Philippines. She then discusses certain colonial policies relating to land that led to the marginalization of the Moros as a consequence of their shrinking ancestral land (more of this is discussed in the next article in this volume). Abreu ends her narrative to the birth of the Moro National Liberation Front in the 1960s following the infamous Jabidah massacre.
Abreu, Lualhati M. “40 Years of Revolutionary Struggles,” pp. 132-147 in Bobby M. Tuazon (ed.). The Moro Reader: History and Contemporary Struggles of the Bangsamoro People. Quezon City: Center for People Empowerment in Governance (CenPeg), 2008, with a Preface by Oscar Evangelista. Full text is available at: http://www.yonip.com/archives/BANGSAMORO/MORO%20READER%20History%20and %20Contemporary%20Struggles%20of%20the%20Bangsamoro%20People.pdf.
Abreu, Lualhati M. “Ancestral Domain - the Core Issue,” pp. 56-67 in Bobby M. Tuazon (ed.). The Moro Reader: History and Contemporary Struggles of the Bangsamoro People. Quezon City: Center for People Empowerment in Governance (CenPeg), 2008, with a Preface by Oscar Evangelista. Full text is available at:

http://www.yonip.com/archives/BANGSAMORO/MORO%20READER%20History%20and %20Contemporary%20Struggles%20of%20the%20Bangsamoro%20People.pdf.
Abreu argues that the roots of the Bangsamoro struggle lie in their displacement from their ancestral home due to colonialism. Real displacement of the indigenous peoples of Mindanao began during the American colonial period, according to her. This pattern was continued during the Commonwealth era in the 1930s that led to their dispossession and triggered a resurgence of Moro resistance and a full-blown war of the 1970s.
Abubakar, Asiri J. “Persistent Themes in the History of Sulu Moros”. In Islam in Southeast Asia: Transnational Networks and Local Contexts: Proceedings of the Symposium, edited by Ikuya Tokoro, 119-136. Tokyo: Research Institute for Languages and Cultures of Asia and Africa, Tokyo University of Foreign Studies, 2009, 18 p. http://repository.tufs.ac.jp//handle/10108/68073.
“Struggles to defend their freedom, homeland and way of life as well as the quest for peace are persistent themes in the history of the Sulus, particularly the Tausugs. Interspersed with peace treaties and resumption of hostilities, the embattled existence of the Sulus has been going on for more than four centuries. The state of war for centuries was, and still is, the source of the underdevelopment of Sulu society as well as the alienation and antagonism between the Sulus and other segments of what is now the Philippine national community. Among the Sulus, Islam remains a unifying force in their struggle against aggression for centuries and is currently shaping their sense of Moro solidarity.”
Abubakar, Asiri J. “Autonomy in Southern Philippines during the Marcos administration,” Asian Studies, Vol. 30 (1992): 29-40. http://asj.upd.edu.ph/mediabox/archive/Vol30,1992.pdf.
In this article, the author discusses the status of the Moro autonomy as provided for in the 1976 Tripoli Agreement during the reign of Philippine president Ferdinand Marcos. Abubakar argues that this autonomy policy failed as it did not conform to the “full autonomy” concept as conceived, and much less, did not resolve the “Moro problem” that became a focus of government program since the American colonial regime. However, the author believes that the grant of political autonomy is still a viable solution for peace within the framework of the Philippine state system and the Moros’ expression of a desire for self-determination.
Abubakar, Asiri J. “Bangsa Sug, Sabah and Sulu’s quest for peace and autonomy in Southern Philippines,” PhD dissertation, University of the Philippines, 2000.
Abubakar, Ayesah Uy. “The Philippines: Challenges to Peacebuilding in the GRP/MILF Process”. In Islam and Violent Separatism: New Democracies in South East Asia, edited by Ashok Swain with Joop de Haan and Jonathan Hall, 31-63. London; New York: Kegan Paul, 2007.
Abubakar, Carmen A. “A Never-Ending War and the Struggle for Peace in Southern Philippines”. In Islam and Politics in Southeast Asia, edited by Johan Saravanamuttu, 127-143. London; New York: Routledge, 2010.
Abubakar, Carmen A. “Review of the Mindanao peace process,” Inter-Asia cultural Studies, Vol. 5 (2004). http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/1464937042000288732#preview.

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eMindanao Library An Annotated Bibliography