Does the transport industry gain from manufacturing


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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74
Does the transport industry gain from manufacturing internationalization?
An empirical investigation on the Italian regions
Stefano Elia 1, Elena Maggi 2, Ilaria Mariotti 3∗
1 DIG-Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci, 32 – 20133 Milan (Italy) ph. +39 02 2399 2756, fax +39 02 2399 2710; [email protected] 2 Università del Molise, Faculty of Economics, SEGeS, via De Sanctis, Campobasso (Italy)
ph. +39 0874 404992; [email protected] 3DiAP-Politecnico di Milano, P.zza L. da Vinci, 32 – 20133 Milan (Italy) ph. +39 02 2399 3928, fax +39 02 2399 4105; [email protected]
Abstract The present paper deals with the impact of manufacturing internationalisation, in the forms of
international trade, cooperation agreements – measured by inward and outward processing trade (IPT and OPT, respectively) - and FDI, on the transport industry employment. Descriptive statistics and econometric analysis are carried out at the “regional-industry” level (20 NUTS2 regions and 8 transport sub-industries) with reference to Italy in the period 1996-2001. Results show that export, FDI and the components of IPT (temporary import and re-export) positively affect the transport employment variation in 1996-2001, while import and the components of OPT (temporary export and re-import) display a negative impact. Keywords: Transport industry; Employment; Regional-industry; Trade; FDI; IPT; OPT.
1. Introduction
The globalisation of the economy, which has been fostered by the trade barriers reduction and the falling transport, communication and co-ordination costs (Krugman et al., 1995; Glaeser and Kohlhase, 2004), has changed the structure of the production processes from being concentrated in one plant to being fragmented in different plants and in different countries. This has fostered a tight increase of exchange flows, which do not only include final goods, but also intermediate and unfinished goods, being transferred from one country to another in order to be processed either by an affiliate or
* Corresponding author: Ilaria Mariotti ([email protected])
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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74
an external firm. The impact of internationalisation of manufacturing activities on the home country is highly debated in literature, both on the internationalised firm and on the national and – in a few cases - regional or local economic systems.
The present paper belongs to this literature focusing on a specific industry (the transport one) at the regional economic unit. Specifically, it aims at adding to this literature in three ways. Firstly, it focuses on the effects of manufacturing internationalisation on the transport industry, by looking at changes in the labour demand in Italy in the period 1996-2001. The main hypothesis to be tested is that manufacturing internationalisation, inducing a high increase of goods’ flows to be moved, implies a reorganization of the supply chain, leading the manufacturing firm to outsource transport and other logistics services to specialised operators.
Secondly, since different forms of internationalisation may give birth to different effects on the labour demand in transport industry, the present paper investigates simultaneously the impact of manufacturing activities in terms of trade, cooperation agreements and FDI. International trade (i), which consists of import and export, is the most common form of internationalisation and the first entry mode adopted by a firm facing the global scenario, because it implies low involvement and risk degree for the internationalised firm. It consists of the exchanges of final and intermediate goods and services through the national borders. Cooperation agreement (ii), a more advanced and risky strategy than international trade, is mainly adopted by small and medium size enterprises (SME) because it does not require capital investment and is of short – medium term. The cooperation agreement is entered into by a firm and a foreign partner operating backward, forward or in the same stage of a value chain (Ietto-Gillies, 2005). This agreement refers to the development, distribution, and/or manufacture of goods to be sold in the foreign market. It is a non-equity strategy because it is developed through agreements (licensing, franchising, alliances, subcontracting) between a firm and one (or more) of its suppliers or distributors in order to supply, manufacture, or distribute goods and/or services without equity sharing. Finally, FDI (iii) represents the most articulated and binding mode to enter the foreign markets, because it requires a significant capital investment through greenfield or mergers and acquisitions and imply a medium-long term obligation. FDI is the main tool adopted by medium and large sized firms, which aim to share the capital of a foreign firm, eventually with one or more partners. FDI gives birth not only to intra-firm trade, but also to further exchanges between the host and the home country since the affiliates of the parent company establish economic relationships with home and host countries’ suppliers and distributors.
Finally, a third contribution arises from the geographic unit of our analysis. Several authors in the literature (among the others, Cusmano et al., 2009; Illeris, 2005) have stressed that outsourcing has a clear and predominant regional dimension. Italian SME tend, indeed, to organise the supply chain on specific local systems – named industrial districts – allowing the exploitation of agglomerative advantages and the capture of the efficiency of proximity between suppliers and users (Boix and Galletto, 2009; Mariotti et al., 2008). Moreover, the geographical proximity has a strong influence on the selection of the transport providers also for the not-district manufacturing firms (Isfort, 2003; Razzaque and Sheng, 1998; Peters et al., 1998), even because it helps in cutting the logistics costs. Besides, the cooperation between the shipper (manufacturing firm) and the external company (transport provider) is considered as a strategic issue (European Commission, 2000), and this is easier when the two firms are closely located.
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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74
Therefore, the analysis of the present paper is run at “regional-industry” level, that is 20 NUTS2 regions (from now on “regions”) and 8 transport sub-industries. Regional dimension can be considered, indeed, the most appropriate geographical unit taking into account such strategic role of geographical proximity between the manufacturing and the transport firms. The region is large enough to capture the district dimension, given that industrial districts are frequently located within regions.
The paper is structured into six sections. The introduction is followed by the literature review on the impact of internationalisation on transport employment. Section three focuses on data and methodology. Descriptive statistics and econometric analysis are presented and discussed in sections four and five, respectively. Conclusions and policy recommendations follow.
2. The impact of internationalisation on the home country employment
The issue of the impact of manufacturing internationalisation on the home country employment is highly debated and analysed by several theoretical and empirical studies (among the others, Dunning and Lundan, 2008; Molnar et al., 2007). In contrast with the general public view, the main findings of the works focusing on the OECD countries show that the impact of internationalisation on aggregate labour market is small and the domestic job losses are slight, although particular skill and occupational groups (especially low skill level) have been affected more strongly (Crinò, 2009; Barry and Walsh, 2008).
However, to the best of our knowledge, lack of attention has been devoted to the regional impact as well as to the simultaneous impact of the three above described internationalisation forms. Besides, there is no evidence at regional level on the internationalisation effects on the employment of specific industries supplying services to manufacturers, such as the transport industry.
Within this context, it is possible to identify three different strands of literature analysing separately the impact of trade, cooperation agreements and FDI on labour demand. As concerns the trade literature, many studies focus on the employment and wage impact on a national scale, generally finding changes in the labour composition (high skilled and low skilled workers) and, in some circumstances, a decline in the relative demand for low skilled employees, especially in the industries facing import competition (Krugman et al., 1995, Addison et al., 2000). Nevertheless, recent studies stress that while the effect of increased imports on jobs is generally negative and the impact of increased export is positive, the overall effects of increased trade are positive (Kletzer, 2002). In particular, trade has had no significant effect on the overall unemployment rate of the OECD countries (Hill et al., 2008). Conversely, the few studies on the regional scale highlight that the magnitude of trade’s impact on the labour markets remains widely contrasting (Richardson, 1995; Kapstein, 2000). Indeed, the effects of export growth on the employment tend to be mixed, either positive or negative, depending on different regional characteristics and dynamics, such as the regional size, the industrial structure and the trade patterns (Baldwin and Brown, 2004; Leichenko and Silva, 2004; Markusen et al., 1991).
The literature on cooperation agreements stresses the impact on the national employment, mainly focusing on its composition and wage level. For example, a study
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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74
on two European Countries (Italy and Germany) (Helg and Tajoli, 2005) estimates that, during the 1990s, this strategy has increased the high skilled-to-low skilled labour ratio in Italy, while it has not affected the German demand for high skilled labour. Egger and Egger (2001), by focusing on cooperation agreements between manufacturing industries of EU and non EU-countries during the period 1995–1997, find that they have reduced the skill-to-low-skill ratio in EU exporting industries, while have had more ambiguous effects in import-competing industries.
The literature on FDI, instead, has mainly investigated the effects on the employment at firm level (among the others, Castellani et al., 2008 on the Italian case; Head and Ries, 2002 on the Japanese MNE) or at domestic industry level (among the others, Slaughter, 2000 on the USA; Falzoni and Grasseni, 2003 on Italy). Conversely, few studies have focused on the effects on both the internationalised firm and its economic environment, adopting the NUTS2 region or the NUTS3 province as scale of analysis (Mariotti et al., 2003; Elia et al., 2009; Federico and Minerva, 2008). Specifically, Mariotti et al. (2003) find that in the period 1985-1995 the Italian FDI have significantly affected the labour intensity of the domestic production at a “regionalindustry” scale, defined as the ensemble of firms operating in the same industrial macroindustry – composed of interdependent sectors belonging to the same filière – and localised in the same geographical region. In particular, the impact is negative for investments undertaken in less developed countries and positive for market-seeking investments in advanced countries. Elia et al. (2009), by adopting the same unit of analysis (regional-industry), investigate the impact of outward FDI upon the demand for high and low skilled workers in Italy throughout the period 1996-2002. It results that all outward FDI - regardless of the country of destination - have significant negative effects on the demand for low skilled workers, while outward FDI towards OECD countries negatively affect the demand for high skilled workers. Federico and Minerva (2008), who assess the impact of Italy’s outward FDI on local employment growth in 19962001 for 12 manufacturing industries and 103 administrative provinces, find that net effect of FDI on the employment of the whole local area is positive. Employment growth in local areas investing more abroad appears to be stronger than the industry average growth, especially in some sectors.
At least to our knowledge, only Mariotti and Piscitello (2007) devote attention to the effects on the tertiary sector, by investigating the impact of the manufacturing FDI on the labour demand for services between 1996 and 2003 in the industrial districts of Veneto region in the North-East of Italy. The finding is that the more internationally involved an industrial district, the higher the employment growth in the service sector.
The literature concerning the specific impact of internationalisation of manufacturing activities on the transport industry is even more scanty. The internationalisation of production and the growing global trade rate highly affect the logistics activities, especially transport (Maggi et al., 2008). Transport plays a key role in connecting the different import and export markets and the vertically disaggregated components of production system, which are widespread in the world (Yieming et al., 2002). Besides, the increasing large share of goods flows, fostered by internationalisation, must be managed by transport functions at the level of both the manufacturing firm and the transport providers. In the first case, when transport is carried out by the manufacturing firm (insourcing), there is a rise of the labour demand for workers specialised in planning, managing and controlling the transport activities (Blomström et al., 1997). In the second case, that is when transport is outsourced, the transport operators restructure
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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74
themselves becoming larger and changing into the so-called Third-Party Logistics (3PLs) or Fourth Party Logistics (4PLs) Providers, by modifying their supply from single based services into an increasing number of integrated high value-added services (for example, transport, storage, inventory management, tracking and tracing, packaging, labelling and secondary assembly of products) (Brewer et al., 2001).
Only in the second case it is possible to observe an increase of labour demand in the transport industry, which is the object of analysis of the present paper. In fact, while the rate of outsourcing of integrated logistics as a whole is very low within the Italian boundaries (13% in 1997 and 16% in 2004 - Commission Européenne, 2001 on data AT Kearney-ELA), the transportation is outsourced by the majority of the Italian manufacturing firms that become international through one of the three forms identified above, i.e. trade, cooperation agreements and FDI (Confetra, 2002).
In literature it is possible - at least to our knowledge - to identify only two papers providing some evidences on the impact of internationalisation on transport services. The first one (Savona and Schiattarella, 2004) investigates the impact of cooperation agreements, measured by a specific index based on trade data, on different services’ labour demand within the Italian NUTS3 provinces over the period 1991-1996. The authors conclude that internationalisation towards low wage countries shows a positive significant impact on the more traditional services’ employment, such as transport.
The second (Maggi et al., 2008) provides evidence on the relationship between FDI, undertaken by the industrial district firms located in Veneto region, and the employment change in the transport and other logistics industries, occurred in the same industrial districts between 1996 and 2003. Results show that, although all the internationalised industrial districts exhibit an increase in the logistics labour demand, only in a few of them an internationalisation degree above the average is positively correlated to a logistics’ employment growth.
3. Data and methodology
3.1 Data
The impact of internationalisation on the labour demand in transport industry has been investigated in the present paper by using the employment variation in the 8 transport sub-industries of each Italian region as dependent variable (Table 1). Data about the employees are provided by the Manufacturing and Services Activities’ (MSA) Census of the Italian Statistical Institute (ISTAT) at six digit level and refer to the category “I – Transport, warehousing, communications”1. The sub-industries considered in the
1 Data on the MSA national Census for the years 1996 and 2001 are classified following the NACE REV 1. The NACE six digit structure allows to distinguish the share of employees working in the freight transport activities from the share involved in passengers transport, with the exception of rail, maritime and air transport modes. For these three sub-industries, the rate of freight employees has been estimated by using the Amadeus database. The authors thank Aleid Brouwer of the University of Groningen for the cooperation in collecting the data.
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analysis concern the different transport modes (rail, road, sea and air2) and their supplying and supporting transport activities (i.e. goods loading and unloading and stevedoring) (Table 1). The employment variation is computed between the years 2001 and 1996, which correspond to the last two MSA Census provided by ISTAT.

Table 1: Italian NUTS2 regions and the NACE REV. 1 transport sub-industries.

Regions Abruzzo Basilicata Calabria Campania Emilia Romagna Friuli Venezia Giulia Lazio Liguria Lombardy
Marche Molise Piedmont Puglia Sardinia Sicily Tuscany Trentino Alto Adige Umbria Valle d’Aosta Veneto

Transport sub-industries Land transport; transport via pipelines
Transport via railway Auxiliary activities to transport via railway Transport by road Water transport Sea transport
Air Transport Non-scheduled air transport
Supporting and auxiliary transport activities; activities of travel agencies
Cargo handling – Air transport Cargo handling – Water Transport Cargo handling – Land Transport

NACE Codes 60 60.10.1 60.10.2 60.25.0 61 61.11.0
62 62.20.0 63
63.11.1 63.11.2 63.11.3

As explained in the previous sections, the three forms of internationalisation taken

into account are trade, cooperation agreements and FDI. Data on trade come from the

dataset on the Italian Trade (Coeweb) provided by ISTAT and are expressed in terms of

kilograms by transportation modes. Data refer to the years 1996 and 2001 and are

expressed

in

terms

of

difference

(

∆01 96

)

(further

details

are

provided

in

Appendix

1).

Cooperation agreements are difficult to measure: several papers use, as proxy, imports

of intermediate inputs, estimated by combining Input–Output tables and final import

data (among the others, Feenstra and Hanson, 1996; Minondo and Rubert, 2006); few

papers use the data on processing trade (PT) (Helg and Tajoli, 2005; Egger and Egger,

2 The scheduled air transport industry (62100) has been excluded from the analysis because it mainly concerns passenger air transport.

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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74
2001). Because of data availability, in the present paper cooperation agreements are measured in terms of PT, which is trade in goods being exported (or imported) for reason of processing abroad and subsequently re-imported (or re-exported) with favorable tariff treatment. PT is composed by four elements: (a) temporary exports of goods exported by a EU country to be processed in a non-EU member and (b) reimports by the EU of the processed goods, on the one hand; (c) temporary imports of goods to be processed in the EU and (d) re-exports of those goods to the country of origin outside the EU, on the other hand. The first two flows measure the so-called Outward Processing Trade (OPT); the last two measure Inward Processing Trade (IPT) (Baldone et al., 2006). Data about the four PT components are provided by ISTAT as total amount of kg but not by transport mode. Therefore, they have been distributed among the 8 transport sub-industries by employing the ratios of trade for each transport mode. Data refer to the years 1996 and 2001, and are expressed in terms of differences ( ∆0916 )3. Therefore, the final dataset appears as a cross section where each observation refers to a specific combination of a NUTS 2 regions and a transport sub-industry, for a total of 160 observations (20 regions*8 transport sub-industries) (further details are provided in Appendix 1).
Outward FDI undertaken by the Italian manufacturing MNE are measured as the cumulated sum of the employees in their foreign affiliates from 1994 to 2000. The lag between FDI and employment stands on the hypothesis that foreign affiliates need onetwo years time to fully work and this delay is necessary to the transport suppliers to reorganise their activities in order to satisfy the new customers’ demand. Since the goods related to FDI are transported by the different transport modes, FDI data have been distributed across the 8 transport sub-industries by using the same percentages of export and import. The data source for the Italian outward FDI is Reprint dataset, which is developed by the Department of Management, Economics and Industrial Engineering of the Politecnico di Milano and is sponsored by the Italian Institute for Foreign Trade – ICE (further details are provided in Appendix 1).
Finally, the production of manufacturing firms has been considered as explicative variable that may also affect the transport industries’ employment. Indeed, a higher production is likely to imply a higher demand for transport. The production of manufacturing firms is measured in terms of value added (Berman et al., 1994), which is expressed at current prices for the years 1996 and 2001 and comes from ISTAT. Besides, data about value added have been distributed among the eight transportation sub-industries according to the same percentages calculated for the components of IPT and OPT. Finally, value added has been expressed in terms of Balassa index for each pair of industry/region in order to account for the relative amount of manufacturing
3 The components of IPT and OPT have been analysed separately because each component may involve different transport operators located either in the domestic or in the foreign country, with different effects on labour demand in the Italian transport industry. Furthermore, both IPT and OPT typically require between six months and more than one year to be completed, since the processed goods need first to be temporary imported (or temporary exported), then to be transformed and finally re-exported (or reimported). The data of the present paper refer to two single years (1996 and 2001) and are distributed among different months. As a consequence, most of data concerning re-import and re-export of 1996 and 2001 are likely to refer to processes that have started in 1995 and 2000, respectively, while data on temporary export and temporary import are likely to refer to processes that have started in 1996 and 2001 and have finished in 1997 and 2001, respectively.
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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74

goods transported by each transportation sub-industry in each region with respect to the other transport sub-industries and to the other regions (further details are provided in Appendix 1).

3.2 Methodology

The methodology employed to test the impact of internationalisation on the transport employment consists of an econometric analysis, which aims at estimating the following equation:

00

∆01 96

Empr,s

=

α s,r

+

β1

∆01 96

Ym r,s

+

β2

∑ FDIrm,s

+

β3

∆ I 01 m 96 r,s

+ β4

∆01 96

X

m r,s

+

β5

∆0916T

_I

m r,s

+ β6

∆01 96

R

_

X

m r,s

+

t =94

β7

∆01 96

T

_

X

+ m
r,s

β8

∆01 96

R

_

Im r,s

+

ε r,s

where s are the 8 transport sub-industries, r the 20 NUTS2 regions, m the whole manufacturing industry4.

∆0916 Emps,r : is the variation of the number of employees between 2001 and 1996, by

each sub-industry s and region r;

∆01 96

Ym r,s

:

is

the

difference

between

2001

and

1996

of

the

value

added

of

manufacturing

production (m) transported by each sub-industry s of each region r (computed as

Balassa Index);

00



F

DI

m r,s

:

is

the

sum

of

FDIs

cumulated

between

1994

and

2000

by

manufacturing

t=94

industries (m), distributed among the sub-industries s of each region r;

∆ I 01 m 96 r,s

:

is

the

difference

between

2001

and

1996

of

the

manufacturing

goods’

import

flows (m) transported by each sub-industry s of each region r ;

∆01 96

X

m r,s

:

is

the

difference

between

2001

and

1996

of

the

manufacturing

goods’

export

flows (m) transported by each sub-industry s of each region r;

∆0916T

_I

m r,s

:

is

the

difference

between

2001

and

1996

of

the

manufacturing

goods’

temporary import flows (m) transported by each sub-industry s of each region r;

∆01 96

R

_

Xm r,s

: is the difference between 2001 and 1996 of the manufacturing goods’ re-

export flows (m) transported by each sub-industry s of each region r;

∆01 96

T

_

X

m r,s

:

is

the

difference

between

2001

and

1996

of

manufacturing

goods’

temporary export flows (m) transported by each sub-industry s of each region r;

∆01 96

R

_

Im r,s

:

is

the

difference

between

2001

and

1996

of

the

manufacturing

goods’

re-

import flows (m) transported by each sub-industry s of each region r.

The equation suggests that the variation of the demand for transport workers between 2001 and 1996 within a region, is related to: (i) the change of the manufacturing industries’ value added, (ii) the cumulated sum of the manufacturing FDI undertaken in 1994-2000, (iii) import and export change, and (iv) change in the components of IPT

4The manufacturing industry is identified by the NACE codes from 15 to 45.

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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74

and OPT. Finally, region and industry dummies have been included in order to control for fixed effects.

4. Descriptive statistics on the transport industry employment growth

Between 1996 and 2001, the employees in the transport sub-industries grew of 22.32%, which corresponds to an absolute increase of 78,785 units (see Table 2). All the transport sub-industries increased in terms of employment, with the exception of rail and air transport supporting activities, which are the less used because of the low speed and reliability of the Italian railway transport network, and because of the high cost of air with respect to the other transport modes. Furthermore, the non-scheduled air transport also presents a growth (2%), even if smaller than the other sectors.
The highest increase has occurred in the cargo handling for land transport subindustry (63113), which displays both the highest percentage (+109.97%) and absolute employment variation (+47,885). Given that the railway sectors show negative values (44.10% and -8,768 in 60101; -56.91%; and -707 in 60102), the employees’ increase in the cargo handling for land transport (63113), which is vertically integrated with both railway and road transport, must be linked to the positive performance of road transport (60250), which displays an increment of +39,240 employees, corresponding to +14.58%.

Table 2: Employment change in terms of percentages and absolute values in the transport sub-industries (1996-2001).

Transport sub-industries

NACE codes Growth rate 96-01 (%) Absolute variation

Transport via railway

60.10.1

-44.10

-8,768

Auxiliary activities to transport via railway 60.10.2

-56.91

-707

Transport by road

60.25.0

14.58

39,240

Sea transport

61.11.0

37.53

2,091

Non-scheduled air transport

62.20.0

2.08

5

Cargo handling– Air transport

63.11.1

-62.41

-2,240

Cargo handling– Water Transport

63.11.2

13.14

1,279

Cargo handling– Land Transport

63.11.3

109.97

47,885

Total

(All)

22.32

78,785

The predominance of road transport is due to the fact that more than 50% of the manufacturing activities’ internationalisation (with the exception of re-export) occurs towards Europe (Table 6 in the Appendix 2). As a consequence, since the Italian railway system is less efficient for goods transport, most of the land freight flows are moved by road. According to Confetra (2004), in 2002 about the 70% of export towards Europe has been managed by road transport. On the other hand, when internationalisation is addressed towards non-EU destinations, the most preferred mode becomes the maritime transport, which involves the sea transport (61110) and cargo handling for water transport (63112). These sub-industries exhibit a positive performance in terms of

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European Transport \ Trasporti Europei n. 49 (2011): 53-74

employment growth and absolute variation (+37.53% and +2,091 employees in 61110; +13.14% and +1,279 employees in 63112). Conversely, air transport is less used to support internationalisation: non-scheduled air transport (62200) shows a very low relative and absolute variations (2.08% and +5, respectively), and cargo handling for air transport (63111) even shows a strong employment reduction (-62.41%, which corresponds to -2,240 workers).
Summarizing, descriptive statistics on employment change in transport sub-industries provides a contrasting picture. While water and road transport have strongly increased their employees, the opposite is true for air and railway transport. This picture does not help to formulate any insights on the relationship between internationalisation of manufacturing activities and the employment in transport industry. Therefore, some further descriptive statistics, taking into account the geographical dimension of transport employment, follow.

Table 3: Employment change in transport sub-industries in terms of percentage and absolute values in the Italian regions (1996 and 2001).

Regions Centre
ABRUZZO LAZIO MARCHE TUSCANY UMBRIA North-East EMILIA ROMAGNA FRIULI VENEZIA GIULIA TRENTINO ALTO ADIGE VENETO North-West LIGURIA LOMBARDY PIEDMONT VALLE D’AOSTA South and islands BASILICATA CALABRIA CAMPANIA MOLISE PUGLIA SARDINIA SICILY Total

Employment Growth Rate 24.91 37.61 29.75 16.16 25.01 7.19 20.80 15.90 9.81 20.85 29.44 28.27 6.02 37.54 20.86 6.27 13.54 28.36 20.47 24.65 25.45 9.85 9.65 -1.18 22.32

Employment Absolute Variation 18,210 2,347 7,813 1,742 5,845 463 20,227 6,966 917 1,519 10,825 29,996 892 22,790 6,253 32 10,382 564 1,327 5,829 316 1,663 887 -204 78,785

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Does the transport industry gain from manufacturing