Influence of buddhist religion and chinese private garden


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Influence of buddhist religion and chinese private garden.
-India -China -Korea -Japan

INDIA

Harappa Civilization
(2500-2000 B.C.)
Trees were considered important and to protect them they were given reljgious values.

The Mauryan Empire
(326-184 B.C.)
Could be considered as one of the ‘best periods in the history of India.

Gupta Empire (King Ashoka)
(270-250 B.C.)
Not only loved trees and parks but gave royal orders to planttrees and develop gardens aIl ovei bis kingdom.

Chola kings

(around the 10th and 11th century A.D. )

WeIl planned gardens i South India. The

great Indian temples, gems of Indian archi-

tecture, usually had water tanks in their

compounds with gardens attached to them.

Invariably, such gardens were called “Nan-

danvaruun” .

Rama and Sita Pass Happy Hours in the Ashoka Garden

“The Picturebool Ramayana” H. Daniel Smith

Horticulture was highly developed in ancient India. There is less archaeological evidence of early gardens elsewhere in India but the ancient Hindu sacred books (the Ramayana and the Kama Sutra) give a remarkably detailed account of gardens in Ancient India.
Ramayana Scene, Gupta Art, Indian National Museum, New Delhi. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramayana

The Kama Sutra says:
...A virtuous woman... should keep the whole house well cleaned, and arrange flowers of various kinds in different parts of it, and make the floor smooth and polished so as to give the whole a neat and becoming appearance. She should surround the house with a garden, and place ready in it all the materials required for the morning, noon and evening sacrifices... In the garden she should plant beds of green vegetables, bunches of the sugar cane, and clumps of the fig tree, the mustard plant, the parsley plant, the fennel plant, and the xanthochymus pictorius. Clusters of various flowers such as the trapa bispinosa, the jasmine, the jasminum grandiflorum, the yellow amaranth, the wild jasmine, the tabernamontana coronaria, the nadyaworta, the china rose and others, should likewise be planted, together with the fragrant grass andropogon schaenanthus, and the fragrant root of the plant andropogon miricatus. She should also have seats and arbours made in the garden, in the middle of which a well, tank, or pool should be dug.
THE LIFE OF A CITIZEN: ...He should take a house in a city, or large village, or in the vicinity of good men, or in a place which is the resort of many persons. This abode should be situated near some water, and divided into different compartments for different purposes. It should be surrounded by a garden, and also contain two rooms, an outer and an inner one. The inner room should be occupied by the females... In the garden there should be a whirling swing and a common swing, as also a bower of creepers covered with flowers, in which a raised parterre should be made for sitting.
(http://www.gardenvisit.com/history_theory/garden_landscape_design_articles/west_asia/kama_sutra_gardens)
Most of these gardens were enclosed with a wall and maintained by a gardener.

Buddhist gardens
The idea of a Buddhish garden as a place of retreat and meditation—typically planted with mango, ashoka, and jaman trees, and furnished with great water tanks. The most celebrated of these retreats, at Gaya, Sarnath, Sanchi, and Nalanda, survive today not as gardens but as archaeological sites.
The earliest Buddhist monasteries evolved from orchards and pleasure gardens that had been donated to the Buddha.
In Buddhism a special place is given human relation with a nature...
The Mahabodhi Temple (Literally: “Great Awakening Temple”) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mahabodhi

INDIA TREES AND FLOWERS IN ANCIENT GARDENS

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saraca_asoca Ashoka Tree (Saraca asoca)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mango Mango Tree (Mangifera indica)

Buddha was born under the Ashoka tree, attained enlightenment beneath a Pippal tree, preached his teachings in the Mango groves and in the shadow of the giant Fig trees....

Sacred Fig Tree, Bodhi Tree (Ficus religiosa)

Sal Tree (Shorea robusta)

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacred_fig

http://www.treknature.com/gallery/Asia/Cambodia/photo154463.htm http://www.mountain-yoga.org/images/jpg/temple/sal_tree02_600x450.jpg

...and died among the thickets of Sal trees
Buddhism proclaimed this trees sacred.

CHINA

The style of the China garden originated and developed over 3000 years.

Tang Dynasty (618–907)- First Golden Age of the Classical Garden Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) Qing Dynasty (1644–1912)

Confucianism - geometry
Taoism - lack of artificiality and the importance of the natural
Buddhism - the importance of meditation

http://www.ourtravelpics.com/?place=shilin Shilin “The stone forest”( Kunming)
The main principle of Chinese garden art, is to depict nature’s beauty-by recreating the essence of nature.

Bamboo

SYMBVOLIC TREES IN CHINA GARDENS

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/84/Hsü_Wei_001.jpg

Plum tree (Prunus mume)

Pine tree (Pinus)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/75/ MeihuaShan_1.jpg/640px-MeihuaShan_1.jpg

http://chineseartstore.com/catalog/images/medium/a829-chinese-scroll-painting-plum-blossoms-pine-tree-detail.jpg

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Influence of buddhist religion and chinese private garden