The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales Revised


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The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales
Revised
Classroom Observation Scales Development Team: Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Ed.D Linda Avery, Ph.D. Jeanne Struck, Ph.D. Annie Feng, Ed.D. Bruce Bracken, Ph.D. Diann Drummond, M.Ed. Tamra Stambaugh, M.Ed.
The College of William and Mary School of Education
Center for Gifted Education
2003
Funded by the Jacob Javits Grant, United States Department of Education

The William and Mary Project Athena Observation Scales Guidelines
Please review and follow the protocol outlined below when conducting Project Athena classroom observations.
Introduce yourself and your partner to the classroom teacher.
Ask where he/she would like for you to sit during the observation.
Confirm your meeting time after the lesson.
Complete the demographics section (except the service delivery model) on the Classroom Observation Scale (COS) as available. Confirm the service delivery model with the coordinator.
Complete the COS script sheet during the observation.
Meet with the teacher to ask the Teacher Interview Questions. Write responses on page 14. (Remember, you have less than 15 minutes to meet with the teacher.)
Using the results of your script and teacher response data, complete the COS checklist by yourself. Make sure there are no blank items on the COS.
Using the results of your script regarding student participation and response, complete the Student Observation Scale (SOS) by yourself.
Meet with your partner and reach consensus on the teacher and student observation scales. Together, complete the consensus forms for the teacher observation and student observation. Write the same information in each packet.
Together, complete the Treatment Fidelity Form. Write the same information in each packet.
Paper clip and submit your packet and your partner’s packet for each observation.
SMILE AND REPEAT THE PROCEDURE!
Note: It is imperative that all forms be completed on the same day of the observation. However, it is highly improbable that forms can be completed immediately after each observation due to the timing of scheduled observations. Be sure your script is as complete as possible for later reference.
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The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales, Revised (Part 1)

Teacher Observation

Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Ed.D. Linda Avery, Ph.D.

Jeanne Struck, Ph.D. Annie Feng, Ed.D.

Bruce Bracken, Ph.D.

Dianne Drummond, M.Ed.

Tamra Stambaugh, M.Ed.

Observer______________________________ School_________________________________ Teacher________________________________

Date__________ # of minutes observed_____________ Grade____________________ Course/lesson Observed_________________________

Student Information: Observed Gender: Observed Ethnicity:
Gifted:

Total #______ #Boys_____ #White______ #Asian American______ #Identified Gifted ______

#Girls_____ #African American______ #Other______

#Hispanic_____

Classroom Desk Arrangement: Desks in rows and columns ____ Desks in groups____ Desks in circle_____

Other (specify) ________________________________________________________________________________

Service Delivery Model: (as designated by the coordinator) Self-contained ____ Inclusion ____ Cluster group ____ Pullout ____ Other________

Please outline what you have observed in the classroom with respect to curriculum and instruction-related activities. Describe the specific lesson, its organization, instructional methods used, characteristics of the learning experience and environment, texts and materials used, questions asked by the teacher, and any other relevant observations and impressions that may influence your completion of the attached checklist.
Lesson Outline: (See attached lesson plan script, pp. 11-13)
Texts and Materials: (List any materials, novels, texts, etc. used by students and/or the teacher.)

Teacher Interview Questions
Discuss the following questions with the teacher observed after each observation period. (Approximate time: 15 minutes)
1. Did you have a written lesson plan for this lesson? ___ yes ___ no 2. How would you characterize the purpose of the lesson? 3. What were your instructional objectives for the previous lesson with this class? 4. What content will you cover in your subsequent lesson? 5. What plans do you have to address homework or extensions of this lesson? 6. How do you intend to assess outcomes for this lesson? Final outcomes for the unit? 7. Are there any aspects of the lesson you would like to clarify before this observation is finalized?
Write responses on page 14.
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The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales, Revised (Part 2)

Teacher Observation

Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Ed.D. Linda Avery, Ph.D.

Jeanne Struck, Ph.D. Annie Feng, Ed.D.

Bruce Bracken, Ph.D.

Dianne Drummond, M.Ed.

Tamra Stambaugh, M.Ed.

Directions: Please employ the following scale as you rate each of the checklist items. Rate each item according to how well the teacher characteristic or behavior was demonstrated during the observed instructional activity. Each item is judged on an individual, self-contained basis, regardless of its relationship to an overall set of behaviors relevant to the cluster heading.

3=Effective
The teacher evidenced careful planning and classroom flexibility in implementation of the behavior, eliciting many appropriate student responses. The teacher was clear, and sustained focus on the purposes of learning.

2=Somewhat Effective
The teacher evidenced some planning and/or classroom flexibility in implementation of the behavior, eliciting some appropriate student responses. The teacher was sometimes clear and focused on the purposes of learning.

1=Ineffective
The teacher evidenced little or no planning and/or classroom flexibility in implementation of the behavior, eliciting minimal appropriate student responses. The teacher was unclear and unfocused regarding the purpose of learning.

N/O = Not Observed
The listed behavior was not demonstrated during the time of the observation.
(NOTE: There must be an obvious attempt made for the certain behavior to be rated “ineffective” instead of “not observed”.)

General Teaching Behaviors

Curriculum Planning and Delivery

3

2

1

N/O

The teacher…

1. set high expectations for student performance.

2. incorporated activities for students to apply new knowledge.

3. engaged students in planning, monitoring or assessing their

learning.

4. encouraged students to express their thoughts.

5. had students reflect on what they had learned.

Comments:

Differentiated Teaching Behaviors

Accommodations for Individual Differences

3

2

The teacher…

6. provided opportunities for independent or group learning to promote depth in understanding content.
7. accommodated individual or subgroup differences (e.g., through individual conferencing, student or teacher choice in material selection and task assignments.)
8. encouraged multiple interpretations of events and situations. 9. allowed students to discover key ideas individually through
structured activities and/or questions.
Comments:

Problem Solving

3

2

The teacher…

10. employed brainstorming techniques. 11. engaged students in problem identification and definition 12. engaged students in solution-finding activities and comprehensive
solution articulation.
Comments:

1

N/O

1

N/O

4

Critical Thinking Strategies
The teacher…

3

2

1

N/O

13. encouraged students to judge or evaluate situations, problems, or issues
14. engaged students in comparing and contrasting ideas (e.g., analyze generated ideas)
15. provided opportunities for students to generalize from concrete data or information to the abstract.
16. encouraged student synthesis or summary of information within or across disciplines.
Comments:

Creative Thinking Strategies
The teacher…
17. solicited many diverse thoughts about issues or ideas.

3

2

1

N/O

18. engaged students in the exploration of diverse points of view to reframe ideas.
19. encouraged students to demonstrate open-mindedness and tolerance of imaginative, sometimes playful solutions to problems.
20. provided opportunities for students to develop and elaborate on their ideas.
Comments:

Research Strategies

3

2

1

N/O

(It is atypical for these to be observed in one session. Some teachers, however, may use Items #21-25 within a single period to illustrate the full research process to students. Please note those observations in the comments section.)
The teacher…
21. required students to gather evidence from multiple sources through research-based techniques (e.g., print, non-print, internet, selfinvestigation via surveys, interviews, etc.).
22. provided opportunities for students to analyze data and represent it in appropriate charts, graphs, or tables.
23. asked questions to assist students in making inferences from data and drawing conclusions.
24. encouraged students to determine implications and consequences of findings.
25. provided time for students to communicate research study findings to relevant audiences in a formal report and/or presentation.
Comments:

Additional Comments:

5

The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales, Revised (Part 3) Student Observation
Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Ed.D.; Bruce Bracken, Ph.D.; Diann Drummond, M.Ed

Student Responses to General Classroom Teacher Behaviors

Engaged in General Classroom Behaviors

Most Many Some

Students:

>75% 50-75% 25-50%

1. demonstrated a high level of performance.

2. applied new learning.

3. demonstrated planful, monitoring, or evaluating behavior.

4. articulated thinking process (e.g., verbal mediation).

5. reflected on learning

Comments:

Few
<25%

Student Responses to Differentiated Teaching Behaviors

Engaged in Diverse Self-selected or Self-paced Activities Students:

Most >75%

Many 50-75%

Some
25-50%

6. worked on projects individually or in pairs/groups.

7. worked on tiered assignments or tasks of choice.

8. explored multiple interpretations.

9. discovered central ideas through structured activities and/or questions asked.

Comments:

Few
<25%

Engaged in Problem-solving Strategies Students:
10. brainstormed ideas or alternative possibilities. 11. defined problems. 12. identified and implemented solutions to problems. Comments:

Most >75%

Many 50-75%

Some
25-50%

Few
<25%

Engaged in Critical Thinking Strategies Students:
13. made judgments about or evaluated situations, problems, or issues. 14. compared and contrasted ideas and concepts. 15. generalized from specific to abstract data or information. 16. synthesized or summarized information within or across disciplines. Comments:

Most >75%

Many
50-75%

Some Few
25-50% <25%

Engaged in Creative Thinking Strategies Students:
17. demonstrated ideational fluency. 18. explored diverse ways to think about a situation/object/event. 19. offered imaginative, sometimes playful, suggestions as solutions to
problems. 20. provided examples and illustrations of ideas. Comments:

Most Many >75% 50-75%

Some Few
25-50% <25%

Engaged in Research Strategies Students:
21. gathered evidence through research techniques (e.g., surveys, interviews, analysis of primary and secondary source documents).
22. manipulated and transformed data to be interpreted. 23. made inferences from data and drew conclusions. 24. determined the implications and consequences of situations. 25. communicated findings (e.g., report, oral presentation). Comments:

Most Many >75% 50-75%

Some Few
25-50% <25%

None None None None None None

N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A

6

Consensus Form
The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales, Revised (Part 4) Treatment Fidelity

Directions: The following observation scale addresses the fidelity of implementation in the William and Mary Language Arts units. After reaching consensus with your observation partner, please check the relevant category describing the teacher’s implementation of key instructional models.

Lesson # ____
The teacher…
Content: 1. instructed/practiced literary analysis and interpretation (literature web). 2. instructed/practiced word analysis (vocabulary web). 3. instructed/practiced persuasive writing (hamburger model). 4. instructed/practiced grammar activities. 5. structured questions for discussion of readings. 6. enhanced oral communication.
Process 7. instructed/practiced the reasoning model. 8. instructed/practiced the research model.
Concept 9. instructed/practiced concept mapping.
10. emphasized “change” in instruction and assignments.
11. instructed/applied unit generalizations about change.
12. emphasized relevant concepts, themes, or ideas in instruction and assignments.

Effective

Somewhat Effective

Ineffective N/A

Comments

7

Consensus Form

The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales, Revised (Part 2)

Teacher Observation

Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Ed.D. Linda Avery, Ph.D.

Jeanne Struck, Ph.D. Annie Feng, Ed.D.

Bruce Bracken, Ph.D.

Dianne Drummond, M.Ed.

Tamra Stambaugh, M.Ed.

Directions: Please employ the following scale as you rate each of the checklist items. Rate each item according to how well the teacher characteristic or behavior was demonstrated during the observed instructional activity. Each item is judged on an individual, self-contained basis, regardless of its relationship to an overall set of behaviors relevant to the cluster heading.

3=Effective

2=Somewhat Effective

1=Ineffective

The teacher evidenced careful planning and classroom flexibility in implementation of the behavior, eliciting many appropriate student responses. The teacher was clear, and sustained focus on the purposes of learning.

The teacher evidenced some planning and/or classroom flexibility in implementation of the behavior, eliciting some appropriate student responses. The teacher was sometimes clear and focused on the purposes of learning.

The teacher evidenced little or no planning and/or classroom flexibility in implementation of the behavior, eliciting minimal appropriate student responses. The teacher was unclear and unfocused regarding the purpose of learning.

General Teaching Behaviors

Curriculum Planning and Delivery

3

The teacher…

1. set high expectations for student performance.

2. incorporated activities for students to apply new knowledge.

3. engaged students in planning, monitoring or assessing their

learning.

4. encouraged students to express their thoughts.

5. had students reflect on what they had learned.

Comments:

N/O = Not Observed
The listed behavior was not demonstrated during the time of the observation.
(NOTE: There must be an obvious attempt made for the certain behavior to be rated “ineffective” instead of “not observed”.)

2

1

N/O

Differentiated Teaching Behaviors

Accommodations for Individual Differences

3

2

The teacher…

6. provided opportunities for independent or group learning to promote depth in understanding content.
7. accommodated individual or subgroup differences (e.g., through individual conferencing, student or teacher choice in material selection and task assignments.)
8. encouraged multiple interpretations of events and situations. 9. allowed students to discover key ideas individually through
structured activities and/or questions.
Comments:

Problem Solving

3

2

The teacher…

10. employed brainstorming techniques. 11. engaged students in problem identification and definition 12. engaged students in solution-finding activities and comprehensive
solution articulation.
Comments:

1

N/O

1

N/O

8

Critical Thinking Strategies
The teacher…

3

2

1

N/O

13. encouraged students to judge or evaluate situations, problems, or issues
14. engaged students in comparing and contrasting ideas (e.g., analyze generated ideas)
15. provided opportunities for students to generalize from concrete data or information to the abstract.
16. encouraged student synthesis or summary of information within or across disciplines.
Comments:

Creative Thinking Strategies
The teacher…
17. solicited many diverse thoughts about issues or ideas.

3

2

1

N/O

18. engaged students in the exploration of diverse points of view to reframe ideas.
19. encouraged students to demonstrate open-mindedness and tolerance of imaginative, sometimes playful solutions to problems.
20. provided opportunities for students to develop and elaborate on their ideas.
Comments:

Research Strategies

3

2

1

N/O

(It is atypical for these to be observed in one session. Some teachers, however, may use Items #21-25 within a single period to illustrate the full research process to students. Please note those observations in the comments section.)
The teacher…
21. required students to gather evidence from multiple sources through research-based techniques (e.g., print, non-print, internet, selfinvestigation via surveys, interviews, etc.).
22. provided opportunities for students to analyze data and represent it in appropriate charts, graphs, or tables.
23. asked questions to assist students in making inferences from data and drawing conclusions.
24. encouraged students to determine implications and consequences of findings.
25. provided time for students to communicate research study findings to relevant audiences in a formal report and/or presentation.
Comments:

Additional Comments:

9

Consensus Form
The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales, Revised (Part 3) Student Observation
Joyce VanTassel-Baska, Ed.D.; Bruce Bracken, Ph.D.; Diann Drummond, M.Ed

Student Responses to General Classroom Teacher Behaviors

Students:

Most Many Some Few None N/A

26. demonstrated a high level of performance.

27. applied new learning.

28. demonstrated planful, monitoring, or evaluating behavior.

29. articulated thinking process (e.g., verbal mediation).

30. reflected on learning

Comments:

Student Responses to Differentiated Teaching Behaviors

Engaged in Diverse Self-selected or Self-paced Activities Students:

Most Many Some Few None N/A

31. worked on projects individually or in pairs/groups.

32. worked on tiered assignments or tasks of choice.

33. explored multiple interpretations.

34. discovered central ideas through structured activities and/or questions asked.

Comments:

Engaged in Problem-solving Strategies Students: 35. brainstormed ideas or alternative possibilities. 36. defined problems. 37. identified and implemented solutions to problems. Comments:

Most Many Some Few None N/A

Engaged in Critical Thinking Strategies Students: 38. made judgments about or evaluated situations, problems, or
issues. 39. compared and contrasted ideas and concepts. 40. generalized from specific to abstract data or information. 41. synthesized or summarized information within or across
disciplines. Comments:

Most Many Some Few None N/A

Engaged in Creative Thinking Strategies

Most Many Some Few None N/A

Students:

42. demonstrated ideational fluency.

43. explored diverse ways to think about a situation/object/event.

44. offered imaginative, sometimes playful, suggestions as solutions

to problems.

45. provided examples and illustrations of ideas.

Comments:

Engaged in Research Strategies Students: 46. gathered evidence through research techniques (e.g., surveys,
interviews, analysis of primary and secondary source documents). 47. manipulated and transformed data to be interpreted. 48. made inferences from data and drew conclusions. 49. determined the implications and consequences of situations. 50. communicated findings (e.g., report, oral presentation). Comments:

Most Many Some Few None N/A

10

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The William and Mary Classroom Observation Scales Revised