Social Studies Class Vii Architecture As Power

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Q1. WHAT US IN THE GARBH GRIHA OF A HINDU TEMPLE ? ANS.The idol of the main deity is kept in the garbh griha or the SANCTUM SANCTORUM of the temple.
Q2 .WHERE IS THE LINGARAJ TEMPLE LOCATED? ANS.The Lingaraj temple is located at Bhubaneshwar in Orissa.
Q3. WHAT IS A GOPURAM? ANS. The tall, pyramidical and ornamental gateway at the entrance of dravidian temples is called Gopuram.
Q3.NAME 2 INDO ISLAMIC BUILDINGS THAT HAVE A DOME? ANS. Gol Gumbaz and Taj mahal have a dome.
Q4.WHAT IS CALLIGRAPHY? NAME 2 BUILDINGS THAT HAVE IT. ANS.The ornamental inscription of Quran on the walls of buildings is called calligraphy. It could be in the form of engravings or as stucco work. Buland darwaza and Taj mahal have calligraphy on them.

Q5.WHAT PURPOSE DUD HAMAMS SERVE? ANS. Skilfully designed public baths with fountains and pools were called hamams.
Q6.WHICH BUILDING HOUSED SHAH JAHAN'S PEACOCK THRONE? ANS.The Peacock throne was first in the Diwan e aam at Agra fort and then in the Diwan e khaas at the Red fort Delhi. Q7.MENTION 3 KINDS OF STRUCTURES THAT WERE BUILT DURING THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD TO DEMONSTRATE POWER? ANS. The three structures built during the medieval period to demonstrate power were as follows: *TEMPLES & MOSQUES * FORTS * MAUSOLEUMS
Q8.WHY DID THE MEDIEVAL HINDU RULERS BUILD TEMPLES? ANS. The medieval hindu rulers built temples because of these reasons; *To seek divine blessings * To show how pious they were. * To show off their wealth and power * To win over people's faith and adulation.
Q9.WHAT WAS THE TRABEATE STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE? ANS.A style of construction in which the roof and the temple tower over it are supported by walls and on flat stone slabs over pillars. This is the TRABEATE style of architecture. It was common during the sultanate period.

Q10. WHY DID THE BUILDERS OF BENGAL AND KASHMIR USE BRICKS AND WOOD INSTEAD OF STONE? ANS. This was so because: *Stone was not available here. * Wood was plentiful. * Brick making was common.
Q11.WHAT IS A BAOLI? ANS. Tiers of platforms with rooms built into the walls of wells right down to the bottom were called BAOLIS. These were common in Gujarat and Delhi. Eg. Khari Baoli of Old Delhi. They were also called STEP WELLS.
Q12. WHAT IS CHAR CHAMAN? GIVE AN EXAMPLE. ANS.* The Lodhi's had a style of building tombs with gardens around them . * The Mughals adopted this and laid out gardens in Persian style. * These gardens were divided into four equal parts . * The pathways were lined with Cypress trees. * There were flower beds in geometrical shapes. * The gardens had streams and fountains. Thus was the Char Chaman or the Char Bagh style. Example : The garden around Taj mahal. Q13.TO WHICH PLACE DID SHAH JAHAN SHIFT HIS CAPITAL AFTER MUMTAZ'S DEATH? WHAT DUD GE NAME THIS CAPITAL? ANS. After Mumtaz Mahal's death, Shah Jahan shifted his capital to Delhi. He named the capital Shahjahanabad.

Q14.WHAT WERE THE TWO STYLES OF TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE IN INDIA? GUVE EXAMPLES ANS. The two styles of temple architecture in medieval India were: * The Nagara style eg. The Kandariya Mahadev temple at Khajuraho. * The Dravidian style eg .The Meenakshi temple at Madurai.
Q15.IN WHAT WAY IS A TRUE ARCH BETTER THAN A CORBEL ARCH? ANS. A true arch is better than a Corbel arch because it can bear heavy loads.
Q16.WHY WERE ARCHES AN IMPORTANT COMPONENT OF INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE? ANS. The arches were an important component of the Indo Islamic architecture because: * They bore the weight of the ceiling and the dome. *The intersection of arches supported big domes and so buildings as Humayun's tomb or Taj Mahal could be built without column support.
Q17.WHAT IS MIHRAB ? WHAT IS ITS FUNCTION? ANS.*Mihrab is an arched depression built on that wall of the prayer hall which faces Mecca. * It is the most sacred part of the mosque because it tells the direction of Mecca.
Q18.MENTION THE IMPORTANT ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES OF THE TAJ MAHAL? ANS. * The Taj Mahal is the most famous mughal monument. * It was built by Shahjahan as a tomb for his beloved wife Mumtaz mahal. * It is a wonderful blend of Indian, Persian and Central Asian styles of architecture. * It has calligraphy on it.

* It has great symmetry with a central building and four minarets. * It has PIETRA DURA or engraving and stucco work. * It is built in the Char Chaman style. * The graves are cenotaphs.
Q19.WRITE ABOUT THE ARCHITECTURAL FEATURES THAT THE MUGHALS BORROWED FROM BENGAL? ANS. Many Mughal buildings had thatched roofs.This feature was taken from Bengal.
Q20.GIVE IMPORTANT DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE NORTH INDIAN AND SOUTH INDIAN TEMPLES? ANS. * The North India temples normally do not have a tall gateway while the South Indian temples do. Its called the Gopuram. * The South Indian temples have long corridors with ornamental pillars while the corridors of the North Indian temples do not have carved pillars. * The North Indian temples have a lower tower called Shikhara as compared to the South Indian Vimana. Eg. North Indian temple - Kashi Vishwanath at Varanasi South Indian temple- Meenakshi temple, Madurai.
Q21. HOW DID THE INDO ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE EVOLVE? DISCUSS ITS MAIN FEATURES. ANS.The Indo -Islamic style of architecture evolved during the medieval period due to: * The mixing of Turkish and Persian styles with Hindu, Buddhist and Jain styles. *The arches and domes were used. * Glazed tiles were used. * Calligraphy, inlay work( Pietra dura) stucco work were greatly used.

* Lotus symbols, bells, animal frescos were seen. * Tombs had cenotaphs. * Tombs were normally in a Char Chaman style garden.
Q22.MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE REACHED ITS PEAK UNDER SHAHJAHAN. JUSTIFY THIS STATEMENT. ANS. Mughal architecture indeed reached its pinnacle under Shahjahan who was a great builder. * Shahjahan's architects used domes, arches and minarets. * Though the lotus symbol was extensively used, the monuments were more islamic. * The mehrab was an integral feature. * Marble was extensively used. * Pietra dura, calligraphy and stucco work was done. * Market places as Chandani Chowk and cities as Shahjahanabad ( Old Delhi) were planned. * Even the mosques as Moti Masjid in Agra and Jama Masjid in Delhi were stunning in their splendour.
Q23.WHY WAS IT IMPORTANT TO BUILD FORTS IN THE MEDIEVAL PERIOD? ANS. It was necessary to build forts in the medieval period as: *To keep the King and his family safe from invasions. * To show the power of the ruler. * To have sites for public audiences as Diwaan -e- aam.

Meenakshi Temple

Humayuns tomb

Taj mahal Red Fort

Gol Gumbaz Stucco Work

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Social Studies Class Vii Architecture As Power