Morphometric Analysis of Tons basin, Rewa District, Madhya


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Open access e-Journal
Earth Science India, eISSN: 0974 – 8350
Vol. 4(III), July, 2011, pp. 171-180 http://www.earthscienceindia.info/
Morphometric Analysis of Tons basin, Rewa District, Madhya Pradesh, based on watershed approach
Abha Mishra, D.P.Dubey and R.N.Tiwari
Department of Geology, Govt. P.G. Science College Rewa, Madhya Pradesh-486001, India
Email: [email protected], [email protected]
Abstract
In the present paper, an attempt has been made to study the morphometric characteristics of subwatersheds in part of Tons basin, which itself is part of the mega Ganga basin in Satna district, Madhya Pradesh. For the purpose of drainage basin analysis, the study area is divided into six subwatershed units. A drainage map of the study area has been prepared with the help of Ilwis 3.4 software. The stream numbers, orders, lengths and other morphometric parameters like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, shape parameters etc. were measured. The low values of bifurcation ratio (mean value of 3.6) and drainage density (mean value of 0.71) suggest that the area has not been much affected by structural disturbances. The sinuosity index value ranges between 1.25 to 1.8, with a mean of 1.5, indicating that the streams are deflected from their straight path and follow somewhat transitional course. Calculation of shape parameters show that the basin is elongated. Watershed wise groundwater level dynamics for the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 has also been summarised. On this basis, the greater depths of water levels values can be related with low values of stream frequency and infiltration number. The drainage basin study suggests that most of the rocks in the area are of quite permeable nature and there are good chances of infiltration.
Key words - Drainage, Morphometry, Ilwis, Infiltration, Tons
Introduction
Geomorphological study of an area is the systematic study of present day landforms, related to their origin, nature, development, geologic changes recorded by the surface features and their relationship to other underlying structures. Therefore, it has become an integral part of groundwater study of an area. Some morphometric elements (measurement of landforms) provide valuable information for groundwater condition. The various morphometric properties depend on various aspects like geology, tectonics, vegetation and climate etc. Morphometry incorporates quantitative study of the area, altitude, volume, slope, profiles of the land and drainage basin characteristics of the area. Actually, it measures and mathematically analyzes the configuration of the earth's surface and of the shape and dimension of its landform (Clarke, 1966). By evaluating hydrologic parameters like drainage density, length of overland flow, sinuosity indices etc., and valuable information can be obtained on the behaviour of groundwater. Thus, in this paper an attempt has been made to evaluate parameters relevant to groundwater of the area.
171

Morphometric analysis of Tons basin, Rewa District Madhya Pradesh, based on watershed approach: Abha Mishra et al.
Study Area
The area of study is bounded by latitudes 24º20' : 24º45' N and longitudes 81º0' : 81º15' E. It forms part of Survey of India Toposheets 63H/2&3 and covers an area of 1195/km2. Major part of the area is in Satna district but adjacent part of Rewa district is also included to do better appraisal of groundwater conditions (Fig.1). Nowadays, remote sensing and GIS applications have emerged as influential tools for drainage basin analysis. Therefore, ILWIS 3.4 software has been used for delineating watershed boundaries and calculating morphometric parameters. The study area has been divided into six subwatersheds and drainage characteristics of each have been carried out individually.
It is a common belief among hydrogeologists that the surface drainage characteristics of a region determine the sub-surface groundwater status like depth of water table in that region to a significant extent. The water shed wise groundwater level dynamics for the years 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 are taken and given in Table-1. The depths to water table for these years have been thematically shown in the map (Fig.2).
The main river in the area is the Tons, which is part of the large Ganga basin. It flows northerly in the investigated area and shows North-South trend which seems to be jointcontrolled. Other principal sources of water are tributaries of the Tons like Beehar, Simrawal, Karihari and Nar rivers. All these are perennial. Some intermittent streams also develop in the rainy season, most of which dry up in the summer season. Most of the rivers in the area are of consequent type, their flow directions are guided by joints in the underlying rocks. The trends of the rivers in relation to structures and rock types have been observed and shown in Fig- 3.
Fig.1: Approach map of the study area.

Open access e-Journal
Earth Science India, eISSN: 0974 – 8350
Vol. 4(III), July, 2011, pp. 171-180 http://www.earthscienceindia.info/
Geologically, the study area is part of the Bhander Group of the Vindhyan Supergroup. Ganurgarh shales, Bhander limestones, Sirbu shales and Bhander sandstones are are mainly exposed in the area. These rocks of Late Precambrian age are either exposed on the surface or covered by recent alluvium. Thickness of alluvial soils varies from a few centimeters to up to ten meters.
Physiographically, the area is more or less an undulating plain. In general, the areas dominated by shale and limestone are either plain or in the form of valleys. Radial slope has been noticed in southern and north-eastern part of Rampur-Baghelan block. In the same block a gradient of 4.6 m/km has been observed, whereas in undulating areas, the gradient is from 2 to 3 m/km. Well developed cuesta and escarpment are seen in Sirgo hillocks in upper Bhander rocks.
Table–1: Ground Water Level Dynamics during 2006–2009 in different Watersheds.

2006

2007

2008

2009

Watershed No.

PreMonsoon
PostMonsoon Fluctuation
PreMonsoon
PostMonsoon Fluctuation
PreMonsoon
PostMonsoon Fluctuation
PreMonsoon
PostMonsoon Fluctuation

WS1 Asarhar Kotar

5.77 3.05 2.72 6.20 2.45 3.75 6.30 3.00 3.30 7.20 3.05 4.15

WS2 Tipuri

8.51 5.50 3.01 8.35 5.20 3.15 8.5 4.90 3.60 8.80 5.30 3.50

WS3 Bela 6.35 4.93 1.42 6.50 4.80 1.70 6.85 4.60 2.25 7.2 4.30 29.0 Ramnagar

WS4 Chormari 7.42 6.20 1.20 9.11 6.15 2.96 9.45 5.90 3.55 9.7 6.85 2.85
Bihara

WS5 Rampur 11.40 8.3 3.10 11.85 9.05 2.80 11.9 8.5 Sijahata

3.4 11.2 7.85 4.35

WS6 Majhgawan 10.64 4.15 6.46 10.70 3.70 7.00 10.75 3.85 6.90 9.95 3.75 6.20 Ahirgaon Chaurahata

Morphometric Parameters
For the study purpose, satellite imagery of the area and Survey of India toposheets (63 H/2&3) were used for dividing entire area into six subwatershed units, designated as WS1, WS2, WS3, WS4, WS5 and WS6 (Fig.3). This idea of dividing water sheds has been taken
173

Morphometric analysis of Tons basin, Rewa District Madhya Pradesh, based on watershed approach: Abha Mishra et al.
from the work of Das and Mukherjee (2005). Watershed is taken as a catchment area where a larger stream is formed due to runoff resulting from precipitation merging at one point.
Each watershed unit is treated as individual unit for morphometric analysis. These units are then analysed with reference to the geomorphological parameters like bifurcation ratio, drainage density, shape parameters, overland flow, sinuosity indices etc. The order, number and lengths of streams of different watersheds are presented in Table-2.Cumulative length of a particular order has also been measured by dividing cumulative stream length by number of segments of that order. The stream lengths were measured with the help of Ilwis 3.4 software. Different parameters were calculated using the methodologies proposed by Horton (1945), Strahler (1964), Doornkamp and King (1971). The drainage of the area is shown in Fig- 3.
Fig .2:Pre-monsoon and post-monsoon water table depths during 2006 – 2009. Two watersheds, namely WS3 and WS6 have fifth order stream as the highest order, whereas others have third or fourth order as the highest one. Overall, the order measures the position of a stream in the hierarchy of the tributaries. Bifurcation ratio which is the ratio of

Open access e-Journal
Earth Science India, eISSN: 0974 – 8350
Vol. 4(III), July, 2011, pp. 171-180 http://www.earthscienceindia.info/
the number of streams of any given order to the number of streams in the next higher order is calculated. The length of the stream segment per unit area is known as drainage density. It is obtained by dividing the total stream length by the total basin area. The values for Dd are calculated separately for each watershed and presented in the Table- 4.
Fig .3: Drainage map of the study area showing watershed boundaries. Stream frequency is the number of streams per unit area. It is calculated by dividing total number of streams by the total drainage basin area. Further, the infiltration number was calculated by multiplying stream frequencies with drainage densities. Then, length of overland flow is calculated by multiplying drainage density by ½. Lo can be defined as the mean horizontal length of flow path from the divide to the stream in a first order basin and is a measure of stream spacing and degree of dissection and is approximately one half the reciprocal of the drainage density (Chorley, 1969). In order to denote the degree of deviation of actual path of stream from its expected theoretical straight path / course, sinuosity Indices is determined. The study and evaluation of shape parameters was also done (Table-5) which involve, (a) Form factor – Horton's form factor (1932) indicating elongation of the basin shape (b) Elongation Ratio (R) given by Schumm (1977) and (c) Circularity Ratio or Circularity Index (C) , given by Miller (1953).
175

Morphometric analysis of Tons basin, Rewa District Madhya Pradesh, based on watershed approach: Abha Mishra et al.
Table-2: Order, number and bifurcation ratio of streams in different watersheds.

Watershed No.

Stream No. of Order Streams

WS1

I

26

II

07

III

02

IV

01

Avg

Total

WS2

I

22

II

06

III

01

Avg

Total

WS3

I

52

II

16

III

04

IV

03

V

01

Avg

Total

WS4

I

48

II

12

III

02

IV

01

Avg

Total

WS5

I

44

II

14

III

03

IV

01

Avg

Total

WS6

I

87

II

33

III

08

IV

02

V

01

Avg

Total

Bifurcation Ratio
3.714 3.5 0.2 3.07
3.66 06 4.83
3.5 04 1.33 03 2.95
04 06 02 04
3.14 4.66 03 3.6
2.63 4.12 04 02 3.187

No. of streams used
33 09 03
45
28 07
35
72 20 07 04
103
60 14 03
87
58 17 04
79
120 41 10 03
174

Product of

Weighted

column (3&4) mean

122.56 31.5 06
160.06
102.48 42
144.48
252 80 9.31 12
353.31
240 84 06
330
182.12 79.22 12
273.34
315.60 168.92 40 06
530.52

3.556 4.128 3.430 3.793 3.46 3.048

Open access e-Journal
Earth Science India, eISSN: 0974 – 8350
Vol. 4(III), July, 2011, pp. 171-180 http://www.earthscienceindia.info/

Table-3: Order, stream length, cumulative length and mean stream length of streams in different watersheds.

Watershed No. WS1
WS2 WS3
WS4
WS5
WS6

Stream Order
I II III IV I II III I II III IV V I II III IV I II III IV I II III IV V

Total stream length (km)
37.5 12.5 10 07 35 10.75 11.25 88.75 30 8.75 12.5 25 97.5 31.5 7.50 15 102.5 36.25 11.25 6.25 162.5 72.5 26.25 09 20

Cumulative stream length
(Km)
37.5 50 60 67 35 45.75 57 88.75 118.75 127.5 140 165 97.5 129 136.5 151.5 102.5 138.75 150 156.25 162.5 235 261.25 270.25 290.25

Total no. of
streams
26 07 02 01 22 06 01 56 16 04 03 01 48 12 02 01 44 14 03 01 87 33 08 02 01

Mean stream length (Km)
1.44 1.78 05 07 1.59 1.79 11.25 1.58 1.87 2.14 4.16 25 2.03 2.62 3.75 15 2.32 2.58 3.75 6.25 1.86 2.19 3.28 4.5 20

Maximum length of the basin
(Km) 15 13.2
32.5
17.5
16.5
30.625

Discussion and Conclusion

Geomorphologically, the area has undulating topography. The study indicates that most of the rocks in the area are of quite permeable nature. The runoff is moderate to low. The Rb (bifurcation ratio) values in the study area range between 2.9 (WS3) and 4.8 (WS2), with an average of 3.60. According to Strahler (1964), it indicates that the watersheds suffered minimum structural disturbances. Low drainage density indicates high resistant, dense vegetation and low relief regions whereas regions of weak and impermeable material, sparse vegetation and mountainous relief are characterised by high density. The Dd values for the watersheds range between 0.48 (WS3) and 1.19 (WS1) with a mean value of 0.71. The

177

Morphometric analysis of Tons basin, Rewa District Madhya Pradesh, based on watershed approach: Abha Mishra et al.

low drainage density values of watershed, suggests moderate runoff and moderate to high permeability of the terrain which may be due to underlying karstified limestones. In general, drainage density varies inversely as the length of overland flow and indicates the drainage efficiency of the basin.
Table– 4: Morphometric analysis of different watersheds.

Water Shed
WS1 WS2 WS3 WS4 WS5 WS6 Mean

Drainage Density Dd=Lk/Ak
1.17 0.762
0.483
0.653
0.843
0.530
4.45 / 6 = 0.74

Stream Frequency Fs=Sn/Ab
0.64 0.387 0.234 0.271 0.33 0.239 2.1 / 6 = 0.35

Length of Overland Flow L0=
½Dd
0.595
0.381
0.242
0.326
0.421
0.265
2.22 / 6 = 0.37

Infiltration Number 1F=Dd
× Fs

Sinuosity indices S1=OL/EL

0.762 0.294 0.113 0.177 0.278 0.126 1.75 / 6 = 0.29

1.25 1.4 1.6 1.34 1.853 1.67 9.09 / 6 = 1.51

Water Shed
WS1 WS2 WS3 WS4 WS5 WS6 Mean

Table– 5: Shape parameters of different watersheds.

Basin area (km2) Ab

Basin perimeter
(km) P

56.25 74.75 341.25 232 185.16 547.5 1436.91 6 = 239.49

47.14 37.5 86 63 60.25 97.75 391.28 6 = 65.21

Form Factor Rf=Ab/Lb
0.25 0.410 0.323 0.75 0.701 0.583 3.01 6 = 0.5

Circulatory Ratio Ab
Rc = 4π 2 P

0.317

0.667

0.579

0.734

0.640

0.719

3.16

6

= 0.61

Elongation Ratio
2x Ab/π Re =
Lb

0.178

0.750

0.642

0.982

0.91

0.862

4.32

6

= 0.72

Bifurcation ratio
3.07 4.83 2.95 04 3.6 3.19 21.64 6 =3.61

The values for Fs (stream frequency) in watersheds range between 0.23 (WS3) and 0.64 (WS1) with an average of 0.339 (Table-4). It is observed that in the case of first order stream, there is maximum frequency and there is decrease in stream frequency as the stream order increases. Higher values of IF suggest lower infiltration and more run off whereas lower values are indicative of higher infiltration and low runoff. IF values in the watersheds ranges between 0.11(WS3) to 0.76 (WS1), with an average of 0.274, suggesting favourable conditions for infiltration in the area.

Open access e-Journal
Earth Science India, eISSN: 0974 – 8350
Vol. 4(III), July, 2011, pp. 171-180 http://www.earthscienceindia.info/
For Sinuosity Indices, Schumm (1963) has given 5 categories – straight course (when SI = 1) transitional course, regular course and tortous course (when channel sinuosity is more than 20). In the study area, the SI values range between 1.25(WS1) to 1.84 9(WS5) with an average of 1.516 which shows that the streams are deflected from there straight path and follow somewhat transitional course. Steep rocky catchments with less vegetation will produce more runoff compared to flat tracts with more vegetation. Length of overland flow values in the area vary between 0.24 (WS3) to 0.59 (WS1), with an average of 0.37. It indicates greater absorption of water which in the present case may be due to the presence of karstified limestone and shales in the area.
The value of 'F' (Horton’s form factor) varies from zero (highly elongated shape) to unity i.e. 1 (perfect circular shape). The basins having low F values are elongated and have flatter peak flows for longer duration while the basins with high F values indicate high peak flows for shorter duration. The values in the study area range between 0.25 (WS1) and 0.75 (WS4) with an average of 0.5, (Table-1.4), indicating that the basin shape is mid way between highly elongated and perfectly circular. The values of R (Elongation ratio) varies between 0 (highly elongated shape) to unity (circular shape). In the present study, the values range between 0.17 (WS1) to 0.98 (WS4), with an average of 0.72. The values of C (Circulatory ratio) is taken as zero (a line) to one (a circle).The values for C in the area range between 0.31(WS1) to 0.73 (WS4), with an average of 0.638 indicating elongated basin and low to moderate relief.
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Morphometric Analysis of Tons basin, Rewa District, Madhya