The ‘One health’ concept: the OIE approach


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No. 20123 – 41
The ‘One health’ concept: the OIE approach
Organisation Mondiale de la Santé Animale • World Organisation for Animal Health • Organización Mundial de Sanidad Animal

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© M. Sevillano

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‘One Health’ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
forum
The OIE PVS Pathway and the WHO IHR framework: opportunities for joint activities at the human/animal interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
OIE news
new OIE publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 news from headquarters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 regional activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 official acts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 strengthening of Veterinary Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 meetings and visits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
the OIE and its partners
epidemiology & animal disease control programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 activities of reference laboratories & collaborating centres . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 news from Member Countries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
international news
publications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 special events . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 agenda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
obituary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

© OIE/François Diaz

ISSN 1684-3770

four issues per year • Chief editor: Bernard Vallat • Copy editor: Bulletin Editorial Committee • Design: OIE/P. Blandin

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editorial

© OIE/D. Morzinski

‘One Health’

at preventing and controlling pathogens within

animal populations, at the interface between

humans, animals and the environment.

Implementation of these policies places not only

veterinarians and animal owners in the front line but also

people who regularly come into contact with wildlife

and the environment, in particular those involved in

fishing and hunting and managers of protected areas.

Such policies involve new mechanisms requiring all

these stakeholders to inform one other and act together,

in liaison with public health managers, usually working

under the auspices of the Minister of Health in our

Member Countries, whether they are State officials,

local government staff or physicians in private practice.

Putting the ‘One Health’ vision into practice has been

Sixty percent of the pathogens that cause

facilitated by a formal alliance on this topic between

diseases in humans are of animal origin.

the World Health Organization (WHO), the Food and

These diseases, known as zoonoses, can be

Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)

transmitted by domestic or wild animals.

and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE).

Animal diseases that are

The three Organisations have

transmissible to humans,

published a joint Concept

such as avian influenza, rabies, brucellosis and bovine

The ‘One Health’ concept is

Note clarifying their reciprocal responsibilities and their

spongiform encephalopathy, present a public health risk worldwide and it is imperative to prevent or combat them at every

founded on an awareness of the major opportunities that exist to protect public health through

objectives in this field. They have also chosen the following as priority topics for their joint actions: rabies, which still kills

level, including the global one. The most effective and
economical solution to protect humans is to combat all zoonotic

policies aimed at preventing and controlling pathogens within animal populations

nearly 70,000 people every year, zoonotic influenza viruses (those causing certain types of avian influenza, for instance)

pathogens by controlling them

and antimicrobial resistance.

at their animal source. This

For its part, the OIE is

requires a new political approach, focusing on specific

continuing its standard-setting work on animal disease

investment in governance, particularly with regard

prevention and control methods and on health standards

to the allocation of public and private resources.

relating to the safety of international trade in animals

Pathogens that are not zoonotic but have a negative

and animal products, with priority being given to the

impact on the production of animal-derived protein

prevention of diseases transmissible to humans.

should not be overlooked. This is especially important in

The OIE also publishes international standards

developing countries as problems affecting the quantity

on good governance of the public and private sector

and quality of food production and its availability

components of the Veterinary Services, including the

can also have serious public health consequences.

initial training and continuing education of the various

The ‘One Health’ concept is founded on an

players involved. Furthermore, it offers Member

awareness of the major opportunities that exist

Countries an independent evaluation of their Veterinary

to protect public health through policies aimed

Services’ compliance with the OIE’s quality standards,

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along with special tools to calculate the investments and legislative and technical reforms needed to bring their Services into line with these benchmarks.
This service provided by the OIE, known as the ‘PVS Pathway’, has already benefited nearly 120 Member Countries. It also includes an optional “One Health” pilot evaluation tool, already successfully tested in three countries and designed to help all countries, at their own request, to establish closer collaboration between their Veterinary Services and Public Health Services, in compliance with both the quality standards published by the OIE and the obligations of WHO Member Countries, stemming from the International Health Regulations which they have adopted.
All these synergies between animal health, public health and environmental
specialists, applied at a local, national and global level, will undoubtedly contribute to the constant and
simultaneous improvement of public health and animal health worldwide.
Bernard Vallat Director General

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The OIE PVS Pathway and opportunities for joint acti
Nearly 75% of all infectious diseases classed as emerging diseases are zoonotic. Diseases such as severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), avian influenza, Nipah virus, West Nile virus, Rift Valley fever, brucellosis and echinococcosis are examples of zoonoses that have had significant impacts on human health. Recent outbreaks have called for a joint response, from both the human and animal health perspectives. Successful examples of such multi-sectoral approaches to disease control during recent years include – among others – the responses to Rift Valley fever in East Africa and highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI). During other outbreaks, coordination between Animal and Human Health Authorities has been relatively limited, with actions taken that were often specific to one sector, sometimes resulting in confusion and less effective disease control.
In April 2010, the three main international organisations charged with protecting public and animal health, the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) and the World Health Organization (WHO), jointly designed a long-term strategic approach to international collaboration, aimed at coordinating global activities to address health risks wherever humans and animals come into contact – the human-animal interface (www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/ Current_Scientific_Issues/docs/pdf/FINAL_ CONCEPT_NOTE_Hanoi.pdf). Numerous mechanisms have already been developed to aid cooperation at the technical level, but the tripartite accord recognises that: ‘there is a need to strengthen animal and human health institutions’, and that: ‘protocols and standards… should be jointly developed’ to achieve alignment and coherence of

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the WHO IHR framework: vities at the human/animal interface

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related global standard-setting activities and address gaps existing in the country’s capacities.
Both the OIE and WHO have developed appropriate frameworks and tools related to their mandates. These frameworks and tools are aimed at supporting their Member States to build sustainable national and regional capacities and partnerships to ensure animal and public health security through preparedness planning, prevention, early detection and rapid response to emerging diseases and other animal and public health emergencies.
Making the connections between these existing standards and protocols will make it easier to identify strengths and gaps in the control of zoonotic diseases, and increase the benefits of investing in capacity-building in both the public and animal health sectors.

The WHO International Health Regulations Framework
The International Health Regulations (IHR) were first adopted by the World Health Assembly (WHA) in 1969 and covered six diseases. The Regulations were amended in 1973, and then in 1981, to focus on three diseases: cholera, yellow fever and plague. In consideration of the increase in international travel and trade, and the emergence, re-emergence and international spread of disease and other threats, the WHA called for a substantial revision in 1995. This review extended the scope of diseases and related health events covered by the IHR to take into account almost all public health risks (biological, chemical and radiological or nuclear in origin) that might affect human health, irrespective of the source. The revised Regulations entered into

force on 15 June 2007. In this legally binding agreement, all WHO Member States have agreed to have or develop minimum core public health capacities to implement the IHR (2005) effectively, and to report to the WHA each year. Each country’s report is based on a selfassessment and is kept confidential by WHO.
The IHR framework defines the following eight types of core capacity for monitoring implementation: 1. national legislation, policy and financing, 2. coordination at the national level and communication among national IHR Focal Points, in their own country and worldwide, 3. surveillance, 4. response, 5. preparedness, 6. appropriate risk communication, 7. human resources, 8. adequate laboratory services.

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A generic monitoring tool was developed by WHO that proposes a framework and processes for Member States to track the development of their core capacities at the community/primary response level, the intermediate (subnational) level and the national level and to identify gaps to be dealt with. For each type of capacity, progress is monitored by measuring specific achievements over time in regard to defined attributes. Implementation status for each capacity is assessed on a four-point scale: – Level <1 (foundation level); – Level 1 (inputs and processes in place); – Level 2 (outputs and some outcomes demonstrated); – Level 3 (capacities beyond the State’s borders).
The OIE PVS Pathway
The OIE, in cooperation with national and regional partners, has developed an assessment process to assist Members to determine their level of compliance with the international standards described in

the OIE Terrestrial Code, including Chapters 3.1. and 3.2., dedicated to the quality and evaluation of Veterinary Services, and in the OIE Aquatic Animal Health Code (Chapter 3.1. – Quality of Aquatic Animal Health Services). This is an important foundation for improving animal and public health and enhancing compliance with sanitary and phytosanitary standards (of the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures), at the national, regional and global level.
In order to achieve sustainable improvement in the compliance of national Veterinary Services with these standards, the OIE has developed the Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Pathway, which includes various tools and procedures to help countries to objectively assess and address the main weaknesses in their Veterinary Services. Tools include, in particular, the OIE-PVS tool (qualitative assessment), the PVS Gap Analysis tool (qualitative and quantitative assessment), and others, to

determine the scope and costs of reform and upgrading (www.oie.int/ en/support-to-oie-members/pvspathway/, www.oie.int/en/supportto-oie-members/pvs-evaluations/ oie-pvs-evaluation-reports/, www. oie.int/en/support-to-oie-members/ pvs-gap-analysis/pvs-gap-analysisreports/). The PVS tools assess the ‘critical competencies’ of a country’s Veterinary Services, assigning them a level from one to five (one being ‘basic’ and five being ‘well advanced’). Many of the critical competencies include elements related to public health, which were comprehensively explored in the recent PVS One Health pilot initiative, presented during the 2012 OIE General Session. Implementation of the OIE PVS Pathway in a country is entirely voluntary, and the sharing of reports is completely at the discretion of the country concerned.
The One Health approach in practice
Many countries continue to face challenges in fulfilling minimum

©Patrick Bastiaensen

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core requirements, especially at the interface between the animal and public health sectors. The animalhuman interface is one example where international organisations are well placed to provide guidance to countries and develop appropriate methods and processes to facilitate inter-sectoral collaboration.
To that end, WHO and OIE have initiated a joint project aiming at bringing together the parties responsible for national Veterinary Services and public health governance, to review the gaps demonstrated through the IHR and PVS processes, and jointly identify priorities and strategies.
This collaboration includes activities at the global and national levels. At the global level, efforts from WHO and OIE will focus on strengthening their respective existing tools, to better address the human/animal interface, and on developing new tools where needed. The national level, the initial step required is to develop a method to review the gaps demonstrated through the IHR and PVS processes, and identify and strategise national priorities

to bridge assessment tools and indicators for monitoring progress, so that methods of capacity building may be harmonised. This can be jointly effected with the authorities in charge of human health and those involved in animal health in order to improve governance related to the identified priority areas at the human-animal interface.
In practical terms, a detailed description of the similarities and differences between the OIE PVS Pathway and WHO IHR processes has already been undertaken and synergic areas and possible convergences have been mapped. The project now focuses on the development of methodologies to bridge specific gaps between Human and Animal Health Services, such as (for example) the adjustment of the WHO/IHR assessment tool to better reflect the human/animal interface and the development of a costing tool prototype for strengthening the national capacity required to meet the IHR. These methods will be tested through pilot missions in selected countries before being translated into

operational guidelines, jointly developed by WHO and OIE.
The tools and guides developed will be instrumental in identifying operational strategies and synergies upon which to base future collaboration at the global and national level, as well as measures directed towards strengthening the governance of national human and animal health systems. This would be of great value to donors and partners since the tools will help to inform the financial and technical support they provide to developing countries that wish to receive assistance and they will be able to base such support on reliable evaluations of existing gaps and sound recommendations for investment.
This initiative is part of the One Health vision of the OIE and WHO in the area of governance, with the ultimate goal being to support Member States’ overall capacity to protect and improve animal and public health.

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OIE news
new OIE publications

In English 2012 ISBN 978-92-9044-897-6 Format: 29.7 x 21 cm, 216 pp. Price: 25 €
Proceedings of the OIE Global Conference on Aquatic Animal Health
Aquatic Animal Health Programmes: their benefits for global food security
Panama City (Panama), 28–30 June 2011

developing countries. The conference also helped to raise awareness of the need for good governance in Aquatic Animal Health Services (both governmental and private sector), and of the role of veterinarians and other partners in ensuring the production of aquaculture products that are safe for human consumption, and appropriately certified to meet international trade requirements.
These proceedings, reviewed by experts from the Scientific Committee, provide an overview of available knowledge on aquatic animal health and its contribution to ensuring global food security.

The OIE Global Conference on ‘Aquatic animal health programmes: their benefits for global food security’ was held from 28 to 30 June 2011, in Panama City, Panama. Around 255 participants from over 70 countries attended this unique international forum. They include representatives from national authorities, international, regional, national organisations and the private sector.
The conference was both timely and important, because aquaculture is one of the world’s fastest growing industries and food derived from aquatic animals is a key source of high-quality animal protein for the growing global human population. This conference showed that the OIE and the international community give priority to strengthening governance in aquatic animal health and are taking steps to support the efforts of developing countries, using the most appropriate tools at their disposal.
The conference presentations highlighted the important contribution that aquatic animal health programmes make in improving aquaculture productivity and sustainability, and alleviating poverty globally. Healthy aquatic animals can provide the high-quality protein that is urgently needed to nourish growing human populations, particularly in

In English 2013 ISBN 978-92-9044-924-9 Format: 21 × 29.7 cm 144 pp. Price: 25 €
Proceedings of the OIE Global Conference on Veterinary Legislation Djerba, Tunisia, 7-9 December 2010
The OIE Global Conference on ‘Veterinary Legislation’ was held on 7-9 December 2010, in Djerba, Tunisia. Close to 400 participants from more than 120 OIE Member Countries attended this unique international forum. They

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included representatives from national authorities, international and regional organisations.
The conference was both timely and important, because too many countries in the world (especially developing countries) lack the legislative infrastructure that is needed to address animal health and welfare challenges with the long term objective of improving economic performance and food security. This conference highlighted the significance of veterinary legislation as a cornerstone of national Veterinary Services and good governance.
The conference presentations emphasise the requirements for good governance of animal health and welfare systems, and effective veterinary legislation covering all areas of the OIE mandate, including animal health, veterinary public health and animal welfare. There is also practical guidance on how OIE Members can mobilise governments to: modernise national veterinary legislation in line with OIE technical standards and guidelines; educate veterinarians in the public and private sectors on their roles and responsibilities according to their national legislative framework; and promote the key role of veterinary statutory bodies in implementing legislation relating to good governance of the veterinary profession.
Without being prescriptive, these manuscripts by speakers of the Conference provide useful guidance for Member Countries seeking to modernise their national veterinary legislation to face current and future challenges, including those associated with globalisation, climate change and the emergence and re-emergence of animal diseases and zoonoses.

Trilingual publication 2012 ISBN 978-92-9044-876-1 Format: 21 × 29.7 cm 335 pp. Price: 65 €
OIE Scientific and Technical Review Vol. 31 (2) Good governance and financing of efficient Veterinary Services
Co-ordinator and Editor: L. Msellati
This Review on ‘Good governance and financing of efficient Veterinary Services’ aims at providing the reader with a conceptual framework to analyse the governance of national Veterinary Services and shows how reforms that promote good governance can help enhance the quality of national health systems and assist countries to achieve compliance with OIE international standards. Good governance is a complex and multifaceted concept that has numerous meanings and definitions. Originating in the economic and financial context, concepts of governance – and more specifically good governance – are now routinely applied in a wide range of contexts. This Review focuses predominantly on the concept of governance as it relates to the provision of global public goods and services to citizens. Veterinary Services – like those services in areas as diverse as infrastructure, legislative functions and the social sectors – are an important public good. Good governance in Veterinary Services describes services that are sustainably financed, universally available, provided efficiently without waste or duplication, and in a manner that is transparent and free of fraud or corruption.

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Trilingual publication December 2012 ISBN 978-92-9044-877-8 Format: 21 × 29.7 cm, 336 pp. Price: 65 €
OIE Scientific and Technical Review Vol. 31 (3) Plurithematic issue
Volume 31 (3) of the Scientific and Technical Review contains 27 articles submitted by experts from across the world. The articles describe different animal disease surveillance strategies and the control and elimination of important animal diseases. Other topics include the organisation of Veterinary Services, diagnosis, vaccines and pharmaceuticals.
The plurithematic Review also provides a unique opportunity to publish reports on the situation of various animal diseases in the world, in particular in countries whose animal health situation is rarely reported in the literature.
Every year, the OIE also publishes two thematic issues of the OIE Scientific and Technical Review.
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Staff changes
Arrivals
World Animal Health and Welfare Fund Victoria Wong Project Officer
Victoria Wong joined the OIE World Animal Health and Welfare Fund in December 2012. Originally from Plymouth, in the United Kingdom, Victoria has studied in Wales and Germany, and holds a Bachelor’s degree in French and German, and a Master’s degree in Translation Studies. She has previously undertaken work
experience at the European Commission in Brussels and the CNRS (Research Institute) in Paris, where she worked as a translator and Project Manager on programmes funded by the European Commission on research and development, and urbanisation. Victoria has been recruited as a Project Officer for the OIE World Animal Health and Welfare Fund, and will contribute to the preparation of negotiation documents with donors (including national Departments/ Ministries, international organisations and/or private foundations), as well as draft technical and financial reports to World Fund donors. She will also provide support for the accounting and monitoring of World Fund activities and antigen/vaccine banks, in addition to assisting the Secretariat of the Advisory and Management Committees of the World Fund.
Victoria is very pleased to have joined the World Fund team and is looking forward to continuing her experiences in project management.

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The ‘One health’ concept: the OIE approach