Construction Site Best Management Practice (BMP) Field Manual


Download Construction Site Best Management Practice (BMP) Field Manual


Preview text

State of California Department of Transportation

Construction Site Best Management Practice
(BMP) Field Manual
and Troubleshooting Guide

January 2003

CTSW-RT-02-007

Construction Site BMPs Field Manual and Troubleshooting Guide
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I: INTRODUCTION............................................................ 1
Principles of Erosion and Sediment Control .................................. 2 Common Pollutants on the Construction Site................................. 4 Monitoring and Inspection Program............................................... 6
PART II: PROJECT OPERATIONS AND BMPS ...................... 12
PART III: BMP IMPLEMENTATION AND TROUBLESHOOTING ................................................ 17
TEMPORARY SOIL STABILIZATION ....................................... 17 SS-2 Preservation of Existing Vegetation............................... 17 SS-3 Hydraulic Mulch ............................................................ 19 SS-4 Hydroseeding ................................................................. 22 SS-5 Soil Binders.................................................................... 25 SS-6 Straw Mulch................................................................... 28 SS-7 Geotextiles, Plastic Covers, Erosion Control Blankets & Mats................................................................................ 30 SS-8 Wood Mulching ............................................................. 34 SS-9 Earth Dikes, Drainage Swales & Ditches....................... 36 SS-10 Outlet Protection/Velocity Dissipation Devices............. 39 SS-11 Slope Drains................................................................... 41
TEMPORARY SEDIMENT CONTROL ....................................... 43 SC-1 Silt Fence........................................................................ 43 SC-2 Desilting Basin ............................................................... 47 SC-3 Sediment Trap ................................................................ 49 SC-4 Check Dam..................................................................... 52 SC-5 Fiber Rolls...................................................................... 55 SC-6 Gravel Bag Berm............................................................ 58 SC-7 Street Sweeping and Vacuuming ................................... 60 SC-8 Sandbag Barrier.............................................................. 62 SC-9 Straw Bale Barrier.......................................................... 66 SC-10 Storm Drain Inlet Protection .......................................... 70
WIND EROSION CONTROL ........................................................ 73 WE-1 Wind Erosion Control .................................................... 73
TRACKING CONTROL ................................................................ 75 TC-1 Stabilized Construction Entrance/Exit ........................... 75 TC-2 Stabilized Construction Roadway .................................. 78
NON-STORM WATER MANAGEMENT .................................... 80 NS-1 Water Conservation........................................................ 80 NS-2 Dewatering Operations................................................... 82 NS-3 Paving and Grinding Operations .................................... 85 NS-4 Temporary Stream Crossing........................................... 88
i

Construction Site BMPs Field Manual and Troubleshooting Guide
NS-5 Clear Water Diversion.................................................... 91 NS-7 Potable Water/Irrigation ................................................. 94 NS-8 Vehicle and Equipment Cleaning................................... 96 NS-9 Vehicle and Equipment Fueling ..................................... 98 NS-10 Vehicle and Equipment Maintenance........................... 101 NS-11 Pile Driving Operations................................................ 103 NS-12 Concrete Curing ........................................................... 105 NS-13 Material and Equipment Use on Water ........................ 107 NS-14 Concrete Finishing ....................................................... 109 NS-15 Structure Demolition/removal Over or Adjacent to Water111 NS-16 Temporary Batch Plants ............................................... 113 NS-17 Streambank Stabilization.............................................. 115 WASTE MANAGEMENT AND MATERIALS POLLUTION CONTROL................................................................................ 117 WM-1 Material Delivery and Storage...................................... 117 WM-2 Material Use ................................................................. 120 WM-3 Stockpile Management ................................................. 122 WM-4 Spill Prevention and Control ........................................ 124 WM-5 Solid Waste Management............................................. 127 WM-6 Hazardous Waste Management .................................... 130 WM-7 Contaminated Soil Management .................................. 133 WM-8 Concrete Waste Management....................................... 135 WM-9 Sanitary/Septic Waste Management............................. 138 WM-10 Liquid Waste Management .......................................... 140

Table 1

LIST OF TABLES Storm Water BMPs for Construction Operations............. 12

ii

Introduction
PART I: INTRODUCTION
This document provides a toolbox for Caltrans field personnel to aid in proper implementation of water pollution control Best Management Practices (BMPs) on the construction site. The document is organized into the following parts: • Part I: Introduction briefly presents (1) the principles of
erosion and sediment control, (2) common storm water pollutants on the construction site, and (3) guidelines for implementing a proper monitoring and inspection program for the construction site, including the use of the Storm Water Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) or Water Pollution Control Program (WPCP) to ensure an effective water pollution control program. • Part II: Project Operations and BMPs identifies typical water pollution control challenges for specific construction operations and the BMPs that are available to meet those challenges. • Part III: BMP Implementation and Troubleshooting provides guidance for installing, maintaining and troubleshooting selected BMPs from the Caltrans Storm Water Quality Handbooks, Construction Site BMPs Manual.
1

Introduction
PRINCIPLES OF EROSION AND SEDIMENT CONTROL
The greatest water pollution threat from soil-disturbing activities is the introduction of sediment from the construction site into storm drain systems or natural receiving waters. Soil-disturbing activities such as clearing, grubbing, and earthwork increase the exposure of soils to wind, rain, and concentrated flows that cause erosion. A three-pronged approach is necessary to combat this storm water threat:
• Temporary soil stabilization practices reduce erosion associated with disturbed soil areas (DSAs).
• Temporary run-on control practices prevent storm water flows (sheet and concentrated) from contacting DSAs.
• Temporary sediment control practices reduce sediment caused by erosion from entering a storm drain system or receiving water.
Soil stabilization BMPs reduce the erosive impact of rain on exposed soil. Run-on control practices reduce the erosive impacts by preventing storm water flows from contacting DSAs. Sediment control BMPs remove sediment from storm water by ponding and settling, and/or filtering prior to discharge offsite. It is imperative that soil stabilization and sediment control BMPs are implemented together to reduce the discharge of sediment from the construction site.
The following conditions on construction sites contribute to erosion caused by storm water flows:
• Larger areas of impermeable structures and surfaces reduce natural infiltration resulting in increased storm water flow volume and velocity.
• Changes to surface flow patterns cause storm water flows to be more erosive.
• Concentration of flows to areas that are not naturally subjected to such runoff volume increases erosion.
2

Introduction
Proper management of a construction project minimizes or prevents soil erosion and sediment discharges. Good construction management for soil conservation requires an understanding of the following basic principles:
Soil Erosion Control – The First Line of Defense
Soil stabilization is a key component in the control of erosion. By stabilizing DSAs with covers or binders, the exposed soils are less likely to erode from the effects of wind or rain.
Prevent Storm Water Flows from Contacting DSAs – The Second Line of Defense
Another key component in the control of erosion is the diversion of storm water flows around DSAs or the conveyance of flows through DSAs in a non-erosive manner.
Sediment Control – The Last Line of Defense
Storm water runoff may originate from active or inactive DSAs whether or not proper erosion and/or run-on controls have been implemented. Implementing proper sediment control BMPs can reduce sediment amounts in storm water discharges.
Combine Soil Erosion and Sediment Control – Effective Protection
An effective combination of soil erosion and sediment controls should be implemented to prevent sediment from leaving the site and/or entering a storm water drainage system or receiving water.
Soil stabilization and other erosion control BMPs are not 100 percent effective at preventing erosion. Soil erosion control BMPs must be supported by sediment control BMPs to capture sediment on the construction site.
Sediment control BMPs alone are not 100 percent effective primarily due to their capacity limits. To be effective for storm water protection, the amount of sediment must be reduced at the source using soil erosion control BMPs, and
3

Introduction
then sediment control BMPs are used to further reduce the sediment that leaves the site or enters the storm drain system.
Inspection and Maintenance – Ensure Protection for the Duration of the Project
Inspection and maintenance are required for all BMPs (soil stabilization, run-on control, and sediment control) to maintain effectiveness for reducing or eliminating the amount of sediment that leaves a site.
COMMON POLLUTANTS ON THE CONSTRUCTION SITE
There are a number of potential storm water pollutants that are common to Caltrans construction sites. The soil-disturbing nature of construction activities and the use of a wide range of construction materials and equipment are the sources of contaminants with the potential to pollute storm water discharges.
Common construction activities that increase the potential for polluting storm water with sediment include:
• Clearing and grubbing operations • Demolition of existing structures • Grading operations • Soil importing and stockpiling operations • Clear water diversions • Landscaping operations • Excavation operations
Common construction materials with the potential to contribute pollutants, other than sediment, to storm water include the following:
• Vehicle fluids, including oil, grease, petroleum, and coolants • Asphalt concrete (AC) and Portland cement concrete (PCC)
materials and wastes • Joint seal materials and concrete curing compounds • Paints, solvents, and thinners
4

Introduction
• Wood products • Metals and plated products • Fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides Construction-related waste must also be managed to prevent its introduction into storm water. Typical waste on construction sites includes: • Used vehicle fluids and batteries • Wastewater from vehicle cleaning operations • Green waste from vegetation removal • Non-storm water from dewatering operations • Trash from materials packaging, employee lunch/meal
breaks, etc. • Contaminated soils • Slurries from sawing and grinding operations • Wastewater/waste from concrete washout operations • Hazardous materials waste • Sanitary waste
5

Introduction
MONITORING AND INSPECTION PROGRAM
The Resident Engineer is responsible for ensuring that Caltrans personnel monitor the contractor’s water pollution control practices and maintain compliance with the approved project SWPPP/WPCP. This includes reviewing the contractor’s SWPPP/WPCP, reviewing written inspection reports, and conducting field inspections. Caltrans Structures personnel should also be aware of the water pollution control requirements and participate in the monitoring program.
Step 1: Do Your Homework
a. Review the Storm Water Quality Handbooks: Construction Site BMPs Manual.
Caltrans personnel with storm water responsibilities should familiarize themselves with BMP requirements. In particular, become familiar with (1) the rainy season dates for your geographical area, (2) the definitions of DSA, active DSA, and non-active DSA, and (3) the requirements for soil stabilization and sediment control BMPs for the season and specific Rainfall Area.
b. Review the Project Plans.
Review the Project Plans in the context of storm water pollution control. Visualize storm water run-on and runoff flow patterns when reviewing the plans. Review the general layout and existing drainage courses. Identify potential problem areas where storm water may run onto the site or discharge off site.
Identify the locations where structures are being constructed or modified. Be familiar with the right-ofway and easement limits. Determine the limits of clearing and grubbing activities. Identify the project phase or stage. Try to determine DSAs and Environmentally Sensitive Areas (ESAs). Is the next phase going to include soil-disturbing activities and is it scheduled within the rainy season? Do the DSAs have provisions in the plans for permanent erosion control? Determine if permanent erosion control can be placed when activity in the DSA is complete.
6

Preparing to load PDF file. please wait...

0 of 0
100%
Construction Site Best Management Practice (BMP) Field Manual