A Semantic Web Primer


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PR 20 pa
A Semantic
Web Primer

PR 20 pa

PR 20 pa
A Semantic
Web Primer
Grigoris Antoniou Frank van Harmelen
The MIT Press Cambridge, Massachusetts
London, England

PR 20 pa

© 2003 Massachusetts Institute of Technology

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form by any electronic or mechanical means (including photocopying, recording, or information storage and retrieval) without permission in writing from the publisher.

Typeset in 10/13 Palatino by the authors using LATEX 2ε. Printed and bound in the United States of America.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Information

Antoniou, Grigoris

van Harmelen, Frank

A Semantic Web Primer/ Grigoris Antoniou, Frank van Harmelen.

p. cm.

Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index.

ISBN x-xxx-xxxxx-x

1. AREAS – KEYWORDS. I. Schütze, Hin‘rich. II. Title.

P98.5.S83M36 1999 410’.285—dc21

99-21137

CIP

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Brief Contents
1 The Semantic Web Vision 1 2 Structured Web Documents in XML 23 3 Describing Web Resources in RDF 63 4 Web Ontology Language: OWL 113 5 Logic and Inference: Rules 155 6 Applications 183 7 Ontology Engineering 209 8 Conclusion and Outlook 227

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Contents
List of Figures xi 1 The Semantic Web Vision 1
1.1 Today’s Web 1 1.2 From Today’s Web to the Semantic Web: Examples 3 1.3 Semantic Web Technologies 8 1.4 A Layered Approach 17 1.5 Book Overview 19 2 Structured Web Documents in XML 23 2.1 Motivation and Overview 23 2.2 The XML Language 27 2.3 Structuring 32
2.3.1 DTDs 32 2.3.2 XML Schema 38 2.4 Namespaces 45 2.5 Addressing and Querying XML Documents 46 2.6 Processing 50 3 Describing Web Resources in RDF 63 3.1 Motivation and Overview 63 3.2 RDF: Basic Ideas 66 3.3 RDF: XML-Based Syntax 72 3.4 RDF Schema: Basic Ideas 83 3.5 RDF Schema: The Language 86 3.6 RDF and RDF Schema in RDF Schema 94 3.7 An Axiomatic Semantics for RDF and RDF Schema 96

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viii

Contents

3.7.1 RDF 98 3.7.2 RDF Schema 100 3.8 A direct inference system for RDF(S) 102 3.9 Querying in RQL 103
4 Web Ontology Language: OWL 113
4.1 Motivation and Overview 113 4.2 The OWL Language 120 4.3 Examples 132
4.3.1 An African Wildlife Ontology 132 4.3.2 A printer ontology 137 4.4 OWL in OWL 141 4.5 Future extensions 147
5 Logic and Inference: Rules 155
5.1 Motivation and Overview 155 5.2 An Example of Monotonic Rules: Family Relations 158 5.3 Monotonic Rules: Syntax 159 5.4 Monotonic Rules: Semantics 162 5.5 Nonmonotonic Rules: Motivation and Syntax 165 5.6 An Example of Nonmonotonic Rules: Brokered Trade 167 5.7 Rule Markup in XML: Monotonic Rules 171 5.8 Rule Markup in XML: Nonmonotonic Rules 177
6 Applications 183
6.1 Introduction 183 6.2 Horizontal information products from Elsevier 184 6.3 Data integration at Boeing (and elsewhere) 186 6.4 Skill-finding at Swiss Life 189 6.5 Thinktank portal at EnerSearch 191 6.6 eLearning 195 6.7 Web Services 198 6.8 Other applications scenarios 203
7 Ontology Engineering 209
7.1 Introduction 209 7.2 Manually constructing ontologies 209 7.3 Re-using existing ontologies 213 7.4 Using semi-automatic methods 215 7.5 On-To-Knowledge Semantic Web architecture 218

Contents
8 Conclusion and Outlook 227 8.1 How It All Fits Together 227 8.2 Some Technical Questions 228 8.3 Predicting the Future 228

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A Semantic Web Primer