Sheep husbandry and Ethnoveterinary knowledge of Raika sheep


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MSc thesis
Sheep husbandry and Ethnoveterinary knowledge of Raika sheep pastoralists in Rajasthan, India
Author: Ellen Geerlings Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Akke van der Zijpp
ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES

August 2001

Sheep husbandry and Ethnoveterinary knowledge of Raika sheep pastoralists in Rajasthan, India
Thesis submitted for partial fulfillment of the MSc degree in: Environmental Sciences.
Author: Ellen Christina Louisa Geerlings Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Akke van der Zijpp
(Animal production systems group) Credit points: 27 Code: E300-763
Deventer, The Netherlands August 2001

SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE OF RAIKA SHEEP PASTORALISTS IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA
Abstract
This thesis describes the sheep husbandry and healthcare system of the Raikas in south-central Rajasthan. Aspects such as sheep breed diversity, fodder availability, disease prevalence and gender labor division are discussed. Special attention has been paid to traditional and conventional interventions and actors in sheep healthcare. Ethnoveterinary knowledge and practices are described as well as weak and strong points of both conventional and traditional institutions and actors.
Key-words: Raika, sheep husbandry, pastoralism, sheep breed diversity, gender labor division, ethnoveterinary knowledge, ethnoveterinary practices, traditional and conventional healthcare actors and institutions, medicinal plants.

SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE OF RAIKA SHEEP PASTORALISTS IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements List of Abbreviations

1 Introduction

1

1.1 Background and motivation for the study

1

1.2 Animal healthcare interventions

3

1.3 Focus and main purpose of the study

5

1.3.1 Research objectives

5

1.3.2 Problem statement

5

1.3.3 Research question

6

2 Background information on research subjects

7

2.1 Ethnoveterinary research

7

2.2 Gender bias in livestock research

9

2.3 Governmental animal healthcare services

10

2.4 Domestic animal diversity

12

3 Background information on study area

14

3.1 Rajasthan

14

3.2 Animal husbandry in Rajasthan

15

3.2.1 Raikas

15

3.3 NGO’s activities in the research area

16

3.3.1 Lokhit Pashu-Palak Sansthan and League for

Pastoral People

17

3.4 Research location

17

4 Research methods

19

4.1 Introduction

19

4.2 Methods of data collection

20

4.2.1 Workplan

21

4.2.2 Sampling

22

5 Results and discussion

23

5.1 Bias and problems in data collection

23

5.2 Flow diagram of Raika agro-pastoral system

25

5.3 Landownership and crop production

26

SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE OF RAIKA SHEEP PASTORALISTS IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA

5.4 Local breeds and their qualities

26

5.4.1 Breed diversity within herds

32

5.5 Herd size and composition

34

5.6 Grazing systems and feeding management

36

5.6.1 Migration

36

5.6.2 Fodder scarcity

37

5.7 Breeding

38

5.8 Returns from sheep rearing

40

5.8.1 Milk

40

5.8.2 Wool

40

5.8.3 Meat

41

5.8.4 Dung

42

5.9 Women in livestock production

43

5.9.1 Introduction

43

5.9.2 Gender-based labor division of Raika sheep

pastoralists

45

5.9.3 Perception of labor division

49

5.10 Animal health: Actors and Institutions

50

5.11 Raika concepts of ovine diseases

54

5.11.1 Introduction

54

5.11.2 Ethnosemantics and ethnotaxonomy

55

5.11.3 Ethnoveterinary practices and pharmacology

65

5.12 Concluding remarks on ethnoveterinary knowledge and

pharmacology

72

6 Conclusions

74

Summary

77

Bibliography

79

Appendixes

Appendix 2A Appendix 5A Appendix 5B Appendix 5C Appendix 5D Appendix 5E Appendix 5F Appendix 5G Appendix 5H
Appendix 5I

Global breed data List of respondents Interview guide Sheep breeds in Rajasthan Distribution of rainfall in Rajasthan Age of first service of rams and ewes Returns from sheep rearing Disease characteristics as cited by respondents Ethnoveterinary practices for most common sheep diseases Land Degradation

Glossary of ethnominerals Glossary of ethno-animal products

SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE OF RAIKA SHEEP PASTORALISTS IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA

List of figures

Figure 5.1 Breeds per herd (n=43)

32

Figure 5.2 Breed diversity in herds (n=43)

32

Figure 5.3 Sheep herd size (n=55)

34

Figure 5.4 Mixed herd composition (n=32)

35

List of maps

Map 3.1 Location of Rajasthan, India

14

Map 3.2 Location of Pali district in Rajasthan

18

Map 3.3 Location of Research area in Pali district

18

List of pictures

Picture 5.a)
Picture 5.b) Picture 5.c) Picture 5.d) Picture 5.e) Picture 5.f)
Picture 5.g)
Picture 5.h) Picture 5.i) Picture 5.j) Picture 5.k)
Picture 5.l)

Bhagli breed (left) and Boti breed (right), Datiwara village,

Bali tehsil

28

Dumi breed, Ghanerao village, Desuri tehsil

29

Keri breed

30

Black Tepli, Datiwara village, Bali tehsil

31

Kajeli breed

31

Kajeli ram with “devices” to control mating,

Dungli village, Bali tehsil

39

Baga Ram Dewasi from bagri Nagar showing firing

Instruments

52

Bottleneck in local Keri breed

58

Sheep with “mata” (sheep pox)

59

“Nimji”

65

Ceremony Altar in sheep shed with image representing

“Mataji”

66

Manglaram, 13 years old with his sister and younger brother

from the village of Wara Solenkian, Desuri tehsil.

73

List of tables

Table 1.1 Trends and projections in Food Production in developing

countries

2

Table 4.1 Outlay of workplan

21

Table 4.2 Number of interviews per village

22

Table 5.1 Number and size of landholding in ownership (n=18)

26

Table 5.2 Classification and price of mutton

42

Table 5.3 Comparison of revenue per sheep in Jodhpur district

and Godwar area

42

SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE OF RAIKA SHEEP PASTORALISTS IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA

Table 5.4 Herding (n=54)

45

Table 5.5 Feeding; cutting fodder for stall feeding (n=45)

46

Table 5.6 Milking (n=50)

46

Table 5.7 Handling milk products (n=47)

47

Table 5.8 Assisting ewes in lamming (n=20)

47

Table 5.9 Care for newborn lambs (n=54)

47

Table 5.10 Care for sick sheep (n=53)

48

Table 5.11 Most common diseases among traditionally raised

sheep in research area, as identified by

raika shepherds (n=50)

56

SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE OF RAIKA SHEEP PASTORALISTS IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA
Acknowledgements
I am very grateful to the following persons for making this thesis possible:
*Ilse Köhler-Rollefson of League for pastoral people for accepting me as a research student and arranging all the necessary things in Sadri. I would also like to thank her for all the help, enthusiasm and support in Sadri.
*Hanwant Sigh Rathore of Lokhit-Pashu Palak Sansthan for all the logistical support, arrangements made in Sadri and introducing me to the Raikas and translations.
*Dewaram Dewasi and Mooli Devi for having me in their home for two weeks, taking me on his rounds to treat animals in neighboring villages and for answering all my questions.
*All the Raika families for their patience, tea and kindness, especially to my friend in Bilhija
*Hitpal Singh for accompanying me to all the villages and for translating all the questions and answers, for his patience, good jokes and his friendship. I would also like to thank his family for their hospitality and friendship.
*Evelyn Mathias for her enthusiasm and contributions; reviewing my drafts, useful comments, literature, support and delicious bread recipes.
*Valaram Prajapat Karanawa for his delicious meals, tea and friendship
*Ramesh Kumar Bhatnagar for his assistance and friendship.
*Ramji and his family for their hospitality and good laughs.
*Dr. Purohit, veterinary officer at Sadri veterinary hospital and Dinesh Kumar Solanke, livestock assistant at veterinary hospital in Magartalab for their information.
*Purnima and Premalya Singh for their hospitality and assistance in Delhi.
*Prof. Dr. Akke van der Zijpp for her support and advice.
*Lenie Smits-Geerlings and Piet Geerlings for all their support and love during all my years of study.
*Tasso Hetterschijt for running back and forth to the copy shop, keeping me awake and taking care of me when I was sick during the last days of writing this thesis, and for all the other days..
*My friends who supported me one way or the other during my study and the writing of this thesis.

SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE OF RAIKA SHEEP PASTORALISTS IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA

List of Abbreviations

AnGR BBC CA CBD CBPP CCPP CE CHI P DAD-IS DGIS FAO FMD GO GTZ IIRR IK IMF IUD LPP LPPS NGO PA PLA PPR PRELUDE
RRA UN UNEP USA WHO WTO

Animal Genetic Resources British Broadcasting Corporation Contagious Agalactia Convention on Biological Diversity Contagious Bovine Pleuropneunomia Contagious Caprine Pleuropneunomia Contagious Ecthyma Camel Husbandry Improvement Project Databank on Farm Animal Genetic Resources (FAO) Directoraat Generaal Internationale Samenwerking Food and Agriculture Organization Foot and Mouth Disease Governmental Organization German Agency for Cooperation International Institute Rural Reconstruction Indigenous Knowledge International Monetary Fund Intra uterine device League for Pastoral People Lokhit Pashu-Palak Sansthan Non-governmental Organization Participatory Appraisal Participatory Learning and Action Pests de Petit Ruminants Programme for REsearch and Link between Universities for DEvelopment Rapid Rural Appraisal United Nations United Nations Environmental Program United States of America World Health Organization World Trade Organization

SHEEP HUSBANDRY AND ETHNOVETERINARY KNOWLEDGE OF RAIKA SHEEP PASTORALISTS IN RAJASTHAN, INDIA
1. Background and motivation for the study
1.1. Failure of development efforts Peasants all over the world have developed their own forms of farming to survive. Their way of farming is determined by local possibilities and limitations of ecology and within the social, economic and political structure of their countries and the whole world. Furthermore it is estimated that a large part (three-fourths) of all farming families are scarcely in a position to buy machinery, fertilizers, insecticides, hybrid seeds or veterinary medicines. These low external input farming systems produce a large part of the total agricultural production world-wide and livestock plays an essential role in the agrarian economy of developing countries. More than half of the rural population depends at least in part on livestock for their livelihood, and 12% of the world’s population is entirely dependent on livestock production. In the developing countries the role of livestock is often multi-purpose: a source of subsistence (milk, meat, wool, eggs, hides), draught power, manure, additional income (from the selling of animal products), investment, spiritual or religious functions, security and social status. The classification of livestock production systems can be done based on the relative importance of livestock in the system (animal based, mixed crop-animal, crop based), scale of operation (large versus small), utilisation of outputs (subsistence versus commercial), and source of feed (uncultivated lands versus cultivated lands). Broadly, the systems can also be classified into migratory and sedentary systems. (de Jong et al., 1992). Livestock can be seen as a subsystem within a farming system. The lack of appropriate technologies being developed to match the perceptions and resources of farmers can be brought back to this lack of perception where it concerns the role of livestock in a wider perspective than livestock production in itself (Cornelissen, 2001) In contrast with earlier development activities which were initially only involved with the most modern forms of livestock production, including supplies of livestock mainly intended for large-scale dairy farming, these traditional systems need a thorough, interdisciplinary study which consist of a socio-economic and an agro-ecological analysis, as well as analyses of livestock production and official policy. There is no shortage of examples where the actual technology to improve livestock systems in the developing countries were technically inappropriate. This is particularly the case where technologies that work in western countries were transferred to developing countries. A classic example has been the repeated attempts by Dutch government to introduce high yielding Friesian/Holstein cattle into developing countries to increase milk production. Bred for intensive (high input, high output), temperate production systems, these breeds have failed to produce under adverse climatic, disease and management conditions associated with developing countries (Geerlings, 1998).
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Sheep husbandry and Ethnoveterinary knowledge of Raika sheep