Clinical Assessment Of Maxillary Labial And Mandibular Lingual


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CLINICAL ASSESSMENT OF MAXILLARY LABIAL AND MANDIBULAR LINGUAL FRENUM AND RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN THE UPPER MIDLINE SPACE AND MAXILLARY LABIAL FRENUM IN 3-14 YEARS SCHOOL
GOING CHILDREN OF CHENNAI CITY Dissertation Submitted to
THE TAMILNADU Dr. M.G.R. MEDICAL UNIVERSITY In Partial Fulfillment for the Degree of MASTER OF DENTAL SURGERY
BRANCH VIII PEDODONTICS AND PREVENTIVE DENTISTRY
APRIL 2013

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
At the very outset, I would like to thank my guide and mentor, Prof and H.O.D Dr.M.Jayanthi, MDS, for her instruction and advice for not only this scientific pursuit, but in clinical and academic matters throughout these past years of post-graduate training. My education has benefited invaluably from her erudition and sound judgment and for instilling in me, a commitment to pursuit the knowledge.
I also profoundly express my sincere thanks to Dr.Elizabeth Joseph, MDS, Professor, for the continuous support and constant encouragement during the study and for challenging me to think about the subject more critically.
Special thanks to Dr. S. Ramachandran, MDS, Principal and Dr. Azhagarasen, MDS, vice principal, for providing me with an opportunity to utilize the facilities in their institution.
I would especially express my gratitude to Dr.Senthil, MDS, Reader, former faculty member, for his steadfast encouragement during the first half of my post-graduation.
I am also thankful to Dr. Sakthivel, MDS, Dr. Girija, MDS, Dr. Poornima, MDS, Sr. Lecturers for their help and support rendered in completing my dissertation.

I am thankful for my co-P.G. Dr. John Philip, who was such a large part of my P.G. life. His support and friendship was constant during these last years, and I deeply appreciate it.
I would like to express my sincere thanks to my fellow postgraduate colleagues, Dr.Arun, Dr. Madhulika, Dr. Vignesh, Dr. Shilpa, Dr. Porselvi, Dr. Madhan for their encouragement throughout my studies and postgraduate course.
My Dad, Mom and my family members have stood unwaveringly behind me at all times. I take this opportunity to acknowledge them for their unconditional love and support. Words really do not express gratitude.
Above all, my greatest thanks belong to God, for sheltering and standing by me despite everything and making my life joyful and complete. I owe everything to the Almighty.

CONTENTS

S.NO.

TITLE

1 INTRODUCTION

2 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES

3 REVIEW OF LITERATURE

4 MATERIALS AND METHODS

5 RESULTS

6 DISCUSSION

7 CONCLUSION

8 SUMMARY

9 BIBLIOGRAPHY

10 ANNEXURES

PAGE NO. 1 5 6 17 27 58 64 66 68 74

LIST OF TABLES

TABLE NO.

TITLE

1 SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION

2 CHILDREN’S AGE BY MAXILLARY LABIAL FRENUM ATTACHMENT LEVEL

2a PREVALENCE OF MAXILLARY LABIAL FRENUM ATTACHMENT LEVEL ACCORDING TO AGE AND GENDER
PREVALENCE OF MAXILLARY LABIAL 3 FRENUM MORPHOLOGY ACCORDING TO AGE
AND GENDER

4 CHILDREN’S AGE BY LINGUAL FRENUM ATTACHMENT LEVEL

4a PREVALENCE OF LINGUAL FRENUM ATTACHMENTS
EVALUATION OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LABIAL FRENUM ATTACHMENT AND 5 MIDLINE DIASTEMA.
EVALUATION OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN 6 LABIAL FRENUM MORPHOLOGY AND
MIDLINE DIASTEMA.
7 EVALUATION OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN LABIAL FRENUM MORPHOLOGY AND ATTACHMENT LEVELS

PAGE NO. 32 33
34
35
36 37 38
39
40

LIST OF GRAPHS

GRAPH NO.

TITLE

1

SAMPLE DISTRIBUTION

2

CHILDREN’S AGE BY MAXILLARY LABIAL

FRENUM ATTACHMENT LEVEL

PAGE NO.
41
42

2a PREVALENCE OF MAXILLARY LABIAL FRENUM 43 ATTACHMENT LEVEL ACCORDING TO AGE AND GENDER

3

PREVALENCE OF MAXILLARY LABIAL FRENUM

44

MORPHOLOGY ACCORDING TO AGE AND

GENDER

4

CHILDREN’S AGE BY LINGUAL FRENUM

45

ATTACHMENT LEVEL

4a PREVALENCE OF LINGUAL FRENUM

46

ATTACHMENTS.

5

EVALUATION OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN

47

MAXILLARY LABIAL FRENUM ATTACHMENT

AND MIDLINE DIASTEMA

6

EVALUATION OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN

48

LABIAL FRENUM MORPHOLOGY AND MIDLINE

DIASTEMA

7

EVALUATION OF ASSOCIATION BETWEEN

49

LABIAL FRENUM MORPHOLOGY AND

ATTACHMENT LEVELS

LIST OF FIGURES

FIGURE NO.

TITLE

1 MATERIALS

2 MAXILLARY LABIAL FRENUM ATTACHMENT LEVELS

3 MAXILLARY LABIAL FRENUM MORPHOLOGICAL TYPES

4 LINGUAL FRENUM TYPES

5 MIDLINE DIASTEMA

PAGE NO. 26 50-51
52-54 55-56
57

ANNEXURES

S.NO.

TITLE

I PROFORMA USED FOR SURVEY II CONSENT FORM-ENGLISH III CONSENT FORM- TAMIL

ABSTRACT
BACKGROUND AND AIM:
Frenum is a dynamic and changeable structure and subject to variations in shape, size and location at different stages of growth and development. Abnormal frenum causes variety of clinical problems such as speech and deglutition changes which may have influence on growth and development. The clinician should consider frenal assessment during routine clinical examination and treatment planning.
The aim of the present study was to clinically assess the maxillary labial and mandibular lingual frenum and relationship between the midline diastema and maxillary labial frenum in 3-14 years school going children of Chennai city.
METHODOLOGY:
A total of 951 children were clinically examined for the maxillary and mandibular labial frenum attachments and maxillary labial frenum morphology and midline diastema. All the findings were recorded in the proforma and data was analyzed statistically.
RESULTS:
The simple frenum (n=822) morphology and mucosal level (602) of frenum attachment was the most prevalent type of maxillary labial frenum,

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Clinical Assessment Of Maxillary Labial And Mandibular Lingual