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Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Bandung, Indonesia, March 6-8, 2018
A structured literature review of the Supply Chain practices in Food Processing Industry
Rahul S Mor*, Arvind Bhardwaj, Sarbjit Singh Department of Industrial and Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology,
Jalandhar, India (*Corresponding Author, Email: [email protected])
Abstract A diversity of sources of literature concerning the supply chain management strategies necessitates a systematic procedure in food processing industry. As such, when scoping out a concept, the structured literature review (SLR) can be considered as a means of highlighting the key principles, bottlenecks and management strategies being followed by leading organizations. This paper reports an SLR of food supply chain (FSC) practices. Authors selected the relevant literature of the food processing industry with reference to supply chain subjects such as performance analysis, food safety, logistics and transportation practices, traceability, information system and decision-making strategies. An SLR methodology has been employed in this paper to find out the relations, conflict and research gaps in literature concerning FSC practices. Findings of paper show that the higher competence in FSC can be achieved through food safety and security, high product quality, on-time delivery of products, and better order-fill-rate.
Keywords: Structured literature review (SLR), food processing industry, supply chain, logistics & transportation, coordination.
1. Introduction
Supply chain management (SCM) is an integrated approach for managing the product flow of a distribution channel from producer to end consumer, whereas, the food supply chain (FSC) is considered as a composite network of many entities linked from ‘farm to fork’. Nahmias (1982) described the perishable food supply chain as those that undergo change in storage so that in time and become partially or entirely unfit for consumption. Perishable products makes a unique situation for how a supply chain needs to be designed so as to properly schedule and deliver the products in a timely manner. Shortening lead times has shown to reduce work in progress and inventory as well as to improve responsiveness and flexibility in logistics (Persson, 1991). Strategically, rather than competing within the low-cost market segment, many food producers are working on different marketing strategies to target the rural market. This has led the industries to implement a range of sustainable practices like local sourcing, reuse, recycling, and green purchasing (Mor et al., 2016). Thus, the industries competing and cooperating in such supply chain practices have to deal with several risk sources that have to be properly managed when planning their activities. Food processing industries in such case have observed vast changes in their structures like market globalization, technology improvement, smaller lifetime of products and diversification of customer demand (Lindgreen and Hingley, 2003; Fattahi et al., 2013). Dairy industry needs significant development in their competitiveness status so as to meet the high quality, consistency and safety standards of the export market (Bhardwaj et al., 2016).
The growing concern over food security, growing interest in traceability, freshness and quality combined with highly perishable nature of products require attention when choosing SC strategy. The Juran’s problem solving technique and lean tools can help in the eradication of the causes of poor-productivity irrespective of the type of industry (Rahul and Kaler, 2013). Food processing sector have to deal with the government policies, customer demands & shareholders’ interests and reduced costs, wastage reduction and integration in all processes are the fundamentals of their success. Each stakeholder in SC must intend to turn out in a dynamic and competitive way for sustainable business operations (Mor et al., 2015). On the other hand, perishable food industries need to provide products as fast as they can to maintain their competitive advantages. Varied characteristics of this type of industry including the need for short time distribution between producer and retailer makes it challenging to establish a unique way of managing supply chains in this context (Bourlakis and Weightman, 2004). Quality management appears to be the most important factor in dairy industry followed by inventory management, supplier management and technological innovations (Mor et al., 2017).
Thus, first aim of this paper to explore the key supply chain management strategies in food industry. Second, aim of this paper is to fill the research gap in literature. The rest of paper is organized as follows. Section 2 discusses the
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methodology, while section 3 is the analysis part. Section 4 comprises of discussion, and section 5 is conclusions along with limitations and future scope in this area.
2. Methodology
A literature review is a research approach of briefing many words of text into a smaller set of contents (Krippendorff, 2004; Weber, 1990). Structured literature review (SLR) aims to address the issues in a particular research area through identifying, evaluating and integrating the outcome of the relevant available studies leading to various research questions. An SLR study must address the following (Baumeister and Leary, 1997; Bem, 1995):
 Establish to what extent the prevailing research has been developed to explain the problems of a particular area;  Find out the relations, conflict, and research gap in literature along with their possible reasons;  Formulate the conceptualization of problem;  Present your remarks, assess, extend, or develop a new theory;  Define the future research directions for a particular area. In this paper, the target population is the articles published in various scientific database like Google Scholar, Scopus, Web of Science, DOAJ etc. The articles have been searched by using the title, abstract field and keyword. These databases offered many articles which have been reduced by applying the limiting criteria, for example, year of publication, research area, type of document etc. (Mor et al., 2015; 2016). To enable a clear information basis, the articles concerning various supply chain subjects such as performance analysis, food safety and security, logistics and transportation practices, and decision-making strategies have been selected. The articles were classified on the basis number of year of publication, subject and area of research.
3. Analysis
The structured literature review has been carried out in a tabular for so as to present a clear vision of the objective(s), findings, conclusions and research gaps in the studies as follows (Table- 1).
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Table- 1. Literature Review of Supply Chain Management Practices

Author(s) / Year of Publication
Chandel et al. (2015)
Cosimato et al. (2015)

Objective of paper

Methodology / Tools used

Results / Findings

Conclusion

Research gap / Limitation

To determine the competitiveness and power exercised by different players, and to understand the complexity of interlinkages in the value chain.
To investigate the role of emergent green technologies in making logistics organizations finally green & competitive.

Value chain analysis to the Indian dairy sector through qualitative and quantitative data analysis.
DHL case study analysis has been conducted for economic performance & corporate competitiveness, and further tested through SEM technique.

Areas of policy interventions in dairy sector may be the improving veterinary services; modernization of marketing, reduce transactions cost; and encourage clean milk production & marketing to meet consumer demand.
Innovation based on emerging green technologies are strictly related to the development of more sustainable approach to SCM based on reliability, performance, cost saving, quality, energy efficiency.

VCA helps to analyze the structure, integration, competitiveness, actors and governance of different links/stages in the dairy value chain and to make policy interventions to ensure that small milk producers become part of the modern production and marketing system.
Logistic organization can achieve environmental goals and beat competitors by cooperating with stakeholders, and must develop a concrete green orientation, in order to get their corporate reputation stronger

Further study is expected to look deeper into the drivers of policy interventions of other supply chains.
The findings cannot be generalized to all logistic organizations, and needs to be empirically tested through comparative studies based on large sample.

Lemma et al. (2015)
Subburaj et al. (2015)

To investigate the determinants of supply chain coordination of milk and dairy industries.

Applied the Factor analysis and tested the results using Confirmatory Factor Model

All indices were significant and greater than the threshold value, and then we can state that the results are in a good fit.

Firms should realize that its individual profitability and competitiveness depends heavily on supply chain coordination with its business partners.

Future studies should put into consideration that supplier and final customers need to be involved as a major input for the study.

To study the issues in

improving

the

operational efficiency

of the dairy supply

chain in Tamilnadu.

Applied SWOT analysis, and studied the major issues influencing the dairy farming through literature survey, field study and research experience. The data has been collected through a questionnaire method and video camera.

Farmers expect an institutional support to grow fodder and supply it to milk pourers through Dairy Co-operative Society’s (DCS) which reduces feed cost a lot. DCS can identify farmers to cultivate fodder through 'cluster farming', and marketing through women selfhelp groups (SHG).

Policy makers needs to pay attention to the creation of special dairy zone; implementing dynamic milk procurement method; strengthening cooperative societies; creation of feed bank and increasing fodder productivity; and integrated animal health plan and info technology.

Laying a roadmap for

implementing

the

recommendations needs future

work.

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Ayodele et al. (2014)
Beske et al. (2014)
Dries et al. (2014)
Farah et al. (2014)

To identify the research

challenges

in

knowledge

optimization strategies

for effectiveness in

practice, considering

the end-consumer’s

knowledge, preferences

and behaviors.

To describe how

sustainability allow

companies to maintain

control over SCs and

achieve competitive

advantage

by

implementing dynamic

capabilities (DCs).

To evaluate the

determinants of SC

relationships,

the

provision of supplier

support measures and

the role that support

measures plays in

stimulating investment

by suppliers in

emerging economies.

To analyze the

competitiveness of

production systems in

the cereal steppes of

Castile, Spain, through

indicator of production

system’s profitability.

Literature review on Pro-Quest and Web of Science databases published during the 2003-2013 period.
Literature review and content analysis.
Survey evidence for 300 commercial dairy farms in Armenia. The identification of potential determinants of supply chain relationships and support programmes based on literature on SCM and transaction cost economics.
Diagnostic analysis: direct observation & interpretation, and first hand quantitative & qualitative data collecting through interviews with key actors.

The study serves as an initial effort into an investigation about the fundamental challenge of how the food industry can optimize the knowledge to dynamically respond to the diversity of changing consumer attitudes and behaviors.
Sustainable practices and DCs in supply chains can be used among others to enhance traceability and to fulfill the customer demands.
Positive determinants of supplier support programmes are the degree of exclusivity of the buyer-supplier relationship, initial capital of the supplier, co-operation between suppliers, and foreign ownership of the buyer. Support programmes are less likely to be offered in very competitive environments
Average competitiveness of the production systems located in 'open fields and valleys' and 'interfluves' is higher than that of the systems of the 'highlands' sub-area.

The attributes of perishable food chains suggest that this concept may prove useful and worthy of investigation along food chains. This is particularly relevant for extending the research lens to accommodate dynamic and changing consumer food preferences.
Study proposes DCs as: knowledge assessment, knowledge acquisition, ability development, search, selection and integration of partners, supply chain link foundation, product and process development, relationship management, and reflexive control.
The negative competition effect suggests that buyers are constrained in their ability to monitor use of the provided services in an environment where a lot of buyers are competing for the same supply. Improving the enforcement capability of companies under these circumstances is an important challenge for the industry and policy makers.
Mixed farms are less dependent on external production factors, and the subsidies do not determine the level of competitiveness. Future aids from the CAP reform will not modify the current competitiveness.

An empirical investigation into the influence of collective sense-making on inter-firm transparency within the food industry may be performed. Role of the info management and knowledge dynamics in the improvement of consumer confidence may also be studied.
Further research is needed to extend the operationalization of the existing conceptual frameworks.

Research is limited to crosssectional data for a single country, and further testing would help assess the generalization of the findings.

More empirical research is

required

to

validate

the

proposed

framework, and to develop

principles for individual firms.

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Nicholas et al. (2014)
Singh (2014)
Verma et al. (2014)
Amorim et al. (2013)
Arifin (2013)

To develop innovations within low input and organic dairying in four European countries, in order to overcome the identified constraints.

Q methodology to determine the attitudes of low input and organic dairy supply chain members.

Preference of low input and organic dairy supply chain members in Belgium, Finland, Italy and UK regarding innovations to improve the sustainability of their SCs lies in developing innovations.

There is no interest within these sectors for innovations based on biotechnology, and to improve forage quality.

Further research is needed to confirm the findings in other countries, and to fully investigate the antecedents of these attitudes in larger samples.

To assess the

effectiveness

of

Coordination in Food

supply chain practices

Competitiveness index model

It is observed that agriculture sector is facing major challenge due to unprofessional approach and lack of basic facilities and infrastructure.

Organization can also develop an effective strategy to map its supply chain and eliminate various losses or wastes occurring at different stages of the value chain

This framework can be also useful for supply chains from other sectors to quantify its effectiveness.

To highlight the select enablers for supply chain competitiveness in the Indian manufacturing sector.
To expose the tradeoffs by developing risk-averse production planning models, and to assess the suitability of financial riskmeasures in the production planning of perishable food goods. To examine the competitiveness and sustainability of key agri. commodities in Indonesia, and to recommend policy options to improve the performance of value chains.

An integrated approach of

literature

review

and

exploratory interviews with

eminent professionals from the

supply chain area in industries,

academia and research.

The performance of a riskneutral attitude is compared to the performance of models taking into account the upper partial mean and the conditional value-at-risk.

Revealed

comparative

advantage

(RCA)

complemented by in-depth

interviews and discussions with

competent resource persons and

development partners.

Author recognized the enablers of

SC

competitiveness,

a

comprehensive description of the

enablers and modeling the enablers

to better understand the

competitiveness.

Insights show the positive impact of

the risk-averse models in

operational performance indicators,

such as the amount of expired

products. The results suggest that it

is possible to reduce the percentage

of expired products that reach the

end of their shelf-lives by using the

risk-averse models.

The RCA value of natural rubber is 36.6, far higher than the RCA of cocoa of 14.0, cashew of 11.6, coffee of 6.1, tea of 5.4 and let alone mango. RCA value of mango is 0.12, indicating that competitiveness level of mango is also very small.

Various enablers identified in the review are the coordination, supply chain collaboration, cost efficiency, quality management, and supply chain flow cycles efficiencies.
The advantage of conditional valueat-risk model is evidenced, as it is able to dominate the solutions from the upper partial mean for the spoilage performance indicator. The advantages are related to a sustainable production planning.
Improving the competitiveness should start at the very basic level of better farming practices to improve productivity. The potential miss-links between the development of environmental service markets and global buyer-driven initiatives on environmental governance, and collaborations needs attention.

The proposed model is not tested, and can be empirically tested using Interpretive Structural Modeling or Structural Equation Model.
More research should focus on understanding the impact of strategic decisions (e.g. facility location) in the risk management of the food supply chain and studying other riskaverse approaches (e.g. secondorder dominance constraints).
The research approaches may be further explored for other agrifood commodities.

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Boudahri et al. (2013)
Prakash et al. (2013)
Turi et al. (2013)
Mor et al. (2012)

To reform the

distribution network of

chicken meat in city of

Tlemcen, for the

market

instability

prices, lags behind the

delivery, food safety,

and envi. costs.

To verify how balance

score card (BSC)

approach may be used

to measure FSC

performance,

in

Madhya Pradesh.

To assess the

performance of the

food supply chain by

considering economic,

social

and

environmental

development

To analyze the impact of the participation in the modern SCM practices, and to investigate technical efficiency of small dairy farmers in India.

A two step mathematical model has been built and solved in a sequential manner through LINGO 12, and to obtain exact solutions by using Branch and Bound with default parameters of the solver.
A multiple item scale based on BSC approach has been proposed, in the context of financial, customer, internal business processes and learning and growth.
Systematic approach for logistics and transport management
Stochastic production frontier function approach for measuring the farm level technical inefficiency.

The

proposed

integrated

approach permits to minimize the

total costs of the agri-food

supply chain not only in terms of

economy but also in terms of

public health (ecology).

The importance of various BSC perspectives is different from that identified in the context of a developed country, which arise due to the differences in infrastructure, variable milk production, poor flow of info, unavailability of cold transportation infrastructure.

The Perfect Order Percentage and Total Validity Period in Transport are among the most important performance indicators for the food industry.

There found a variation in the level of technical efficiency of the member dairy farmer and nonmember dairy farmers that turns out to be 79% and 66%, respectively, thus, increasing the milk production by 21% and 34%.

Once the customers have been grouped into clusters, the slaughterhouses to set up, to close or to reopen have been located, and the clusters of retailers have been allocated to them.
Building sourcing capabilities, developing robustness in operations, building transparency and managing traceability and information flow would transform processing competencies of the Indian dairy operators.
The food industry plays a key role in assuring a healthy development of the consumers, a sustainable economic growth and more attention to environmental issues.
SCs can increase the efficiency of dairy farmers, and it needs expansion in SC network of the cooperative milk societies for enhancing the efficiency and profitability of dairy sector along with the more crossbred livestock and easy finance.

Methodologies such as heuristics and meta-heuristics to solve real life problems may be applied.
A study spanning across various states would strengthen generalization of findings. Future researchers may conduct similar studies in other developing countries for validation and updation of performance indicators.
The study may be further explored
The study focuses the milk production sector in two states only, and further be investigated in other areas.

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Barbe et al. (2011)
Kumar et al. (2011)
Apte (2010)
Balkytė et al (2010)
Smit (2010)

To study the potential role of vertical integration as a suitable strategy to improve the competitiveness of British dairy farmers.
To access modern milk marketing chain by collecting data at the farm level in two states, viz. Bihar and Punjab.
To study the causes and remedies of fresh produce supply chain disruptions resulting from contamination.
To set future research area of competitiveness theory development concept and existing research tendencies.
To clarify the meaning of intl. competitiveness at the country level in the context of Porter’s (1990).

Qualitative data analysis
Descriptive statistics of the data collected in two states viz. Bihar and Punjab in the year 2007 at the farm level.
Literature review and data collection in the region from personnel involved in agriculture (case study).
Literature review and classification of competitiveness research areas.
Literature review related to trade (economic perspective) and international competition (management perspective).

Vertical integration is too costly for many dairy producers and represents a major shift from current practices. Those wishing to implement a vertical integration strategy have to change the management structure, divisional structure of firm and info. flow. In spite of the growing presence of modern milk supply chains, the traditional milk supply chain is still dominant in the Indian milk market. It is even more pronounced in lessdeveloped states like Bihar. However, the traditional milk SC is being replaced slowly with the commercialization of dairying.
Major contributing factors to vulnerability of disruption due to contamination of a fresh produce supply chain are product type, topological structure, exposure to contamination, product traceability, and communication.

Research

studies

on

competitiveness focuses on the

different categories of analysis, and

findings may contribute for

development of further research of

competitiveness.

Both the traditional and new theories of trade confirm that countries engage in international activities because of the advantages that result from such activities.

Vertical integration strategy may be a potential solution to the problems of innovation because it allows increased responsiveness to consumer needs as communication can move through the supply chain more effectively.
Modern milk SCs seems to have an inclusive structure, and the resourcepoor dairy farmers are not excluded from the modern milk supply chain. Traceability and food safety issues further strengthen the modern milk SCs, and its scalability depends on the development of milk collection and transportation facilities. Large-scale growers can minimize SC network vulnerabilities by protecting distribution hubs to be cost-prohibitive for small-scale growers, and better communication should be a prominent strategy for damage control; only achievable with effective traceability.
Categorization of the competitiveness research areas should be generally adopted, and for developing the new concept of competitiveness, it is necessary to critically analyze existing studies.
There exist gains from trade that do not come at the expense of other countries, and no reason to believe that countries, like firms, are in some sort of competitive battle mutually.

Relevance of vertical integration strategy in overcoming the challenges of other dairy producers may be further explored.

The same study may be conducted in other states.

The research could also be extended by investigating other operational contributing factors, such as demand patterns, inventory levels, ordering cycles, and operational processes.

The findings points towards the

conclusion, and no clear

definition,

model

of

competitiveness or international

assessments method have yet

been developed.

The focus on the Diamond Framework as theory seems to be wrong in terms of the value of its application.

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Berkum et al. (2009)
Sagheer et al. (2009)
Carraresi et al. (2008)
Jin et al. (2006)
Sahay et al. (2006)

Comparative analysis

of the structures and

performances of dairy

supply chain in 20

south-eastern

and

eastern

European

countries.

To present a conceptual framework and set of propositions to analyze competitiveness of India’s agri-food chain.
To analyze the competitiveness, conceded through trade indices.

To explore the competitiveness in the Apparel industry

Comparative analysis.
Value chain analysis (VCA) and Porter’s diamond at the industry level and Momaya’s assetprocess-performance (APP) model at the firm level.
The analysis carried out by assessing trade indices (EMS, RCA, RXA, RMA, and NEI). Cluster analysis was also run to classify group of countries
Porter’s Diamond Model and a generalized Double Diamond Model

Industry performance indicates positive tendencies in the Baltic States and Poland, and needs vast investments to improve product quality and productivity, the industry has immense problems with food quality and safety.
The human and non-human components are more like members of a network where action of each has an impact on the other, and explores the synergy of VCA and competitiveness management. The role of national govt. can be significant in the development of an industry. Results indicate that Spain has gained highest profit of market integration and competitiveness, followed by Germany and Italy. UK had worst performance.
The study investigate how the Korean diamond system can take advantage, overcome unfavorable environments, and convert resources to competitive advantages for its continued growth.

Lack of good quality milk is a major barrier to the enhanced competitiveness of the dairy supply chain. While, technology updates and skills improvements are necessary to improve yields, gross margins, labor productivity and quality of produce at both the farm and industry levels.
Role of market forces in developing economies may vary over a period, but the govt. could be a stable factor through its policies and standard setting procedures. While, global retail chains bring competition from importers in domestic markets thus threatening the survival of the domestic producer.
Profits can be gained through high level of competitiveness and integration of process/product.
Internationalization of the Korean apparel industry will make each competitive determinant more active and will contribute to creating a selfreinforcing cohesive system.

Assessments of the economic situation in the sector fall short due to available statistical data, which may be further explored.
There is a dearth of literature on India’s agri-food sector, and the framework can be further validated with an empirical study and replicated in other markets.
These research methodological approaches may be applied to other agri. commodities also, which are missed in this paper.
The methodology can be applied to other sectors to assess the competitiveness.

To analyze the research conducted for assessing the current state of SC practices followed by Indian organizations, and identify key areas of competitiveness.

Data collected through survey questionnaire for the three dimensions have been used to assess the alignment of supply chain strategy with the overall business strategy through statistical analysis.

This supply chain alignment model provides a framework for realizing true SC efficiency, competitiveness. However, in every case Indian organizations need to act fast to capitalize on these opportunities to be competitive with global market.

Most of the Indian organizations have aligned their SC objectives with their business objectives, processes and management focus. Enhanced level of competitiveness would require Indian organizations to achieve the agenda set by the business strategy.

Further research should focus on assessing the current level of SC processes, identifying critical areas for the business, and establishing specific performance measures for supply chain efficiency.

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Proceedings of the International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management Bandung, Indonesia, March 6-8, 2018

Singh et al. (2006)

Competitiveness Analysis of a Medium Scale Organization in India

Assets-Processes-Performance model and SWOT analysis

Competitiveness index value may range between -3.71 to 3.71, and the Competitiveness index of SLL shows that presently SLL is highly competitive organization.

Organizations should not target only end results but should develop its enablers also such as assets, competitive strategies and processes to overcome on various pressures and constraints.

To generalize the findings of this study, more case studies of similar nature should be carried out

Taylor (2006)
Issar et al. (2003)
Wysokińska (2003)
Hobbs et al. (1998)

To show how VCA

have

highlighted

opportunities

for

strategic changes in a

UK agri-food SC, and

to present an initial

model of an integrated

SC with lean tools.

To examine the factors those have driven the Australian fresh milk industry in recent years and key strategies for SC success.

To present relationship of competitiveness of the economy & its individual sectors, and productivity & sust. development.
To assess the competitive strengths, weaknesses, pressure, opportunities, facing the Danish pork supply chain.

Applied VCA for case studies in two red meat industries, involved teams of managers from the companies in the chains together with facilitation by the researcher.
Literature review, fieldwork by semi-structured interviews at middle to senior management level. The data has been analyzed using software NVivo ver. 2.0.

Literature review on Knowledge

Assessment

Methodology

(KAM).

SWOT analysis approach is adapted to provide an analysis of the competitive position.

VCA along with lean provide a powerful base for the analysis and improvement of SCs. Value chain management requires a different business model, in which improved profits arise from cooperation rather than an ability to play the market or exercise power over SC partners.
Milk processors and producers are realigning themselves along the SC to meet the market expectations. Factors like increasing consumer awareness, food safety, innovation, environment, integration and rationalization of supply base are adding drive to this transformation.
Higher productivity leads improved competitiveness, and is particularly important for more successful competitiveness on markets open to international competition, as it brings long-term improvements.
Co-ordination and co-operation between SC players is the success factor behind Danish pork industry, particularly in demanding Japanese market & other exporters have difficult to penetrate.

It is clear from this research that there is significant opportunity to improve the efficiency of pork chains both operationally and strategically. However it is equally clear that realization of the benefits will require some fundamental shifts in business philosophy.
It is clear that the dominance of food retailers in food supply chains in Australia is growing, however, it is to be seen whether retailers in Australia recognize the opportunities to drive value and not only volume in the fresh milk category.
Higher productivity offers a better use of competitive advantages, which are thus no longer limited to the availability of natural resources in the economy and global competition.
Success in SCs may be achieved by coordinated approach to production, processing and marketing built on an understanding of the requirements of different markets, a dedication to quality, and well-organized cooperative industry structure.

Further studies could be undertaken of other agri-food chains in meat and in other sectors, to further validate the findings and recommendations.
Further analysis of data is expected to look deeper into the strength of drivers of change and the implications of supply chain integrity on the actors in the supply chain.
Author considered the KAM approach to present relationship, while other similar tools may also aids the findings.
SWOT approach could also be extended by investigating other similar supply chains.

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4. Discussion
This paper provides a summary of studies published recently in the area of SCM practices in food processing sector. One of the qualities of this paper is the theoretical framework used. The reviewed articles present a sound hypothesis base for various SCM subjects. The conceptual framework established to classify the selected articles show that about 46% articles framed SCM as a process, 20% as a system approach, 8% as a management activity, and rest as a business strategy. Out of the reviewed articles, about 95% articles are related to food processing industry. Further, the researchers like Mor et al. (2015; 2016; 2017), Bhardwaj et al. (2016), Sharma et al. (2017) etc. have explored the issues of high wastages and inefficiencies in food processing sector.
5. Conclusions
This paper starts with filling the gap in literature by considering the articles published in various database in the research area of supply chain management practices in food processing industry. The reviewed articles were analyzed through a structured literature review approach. Studies are reviewed for objective(s), year of publication, findings, conclusion, and research gap for respective article. The comprehensive literature review show that the the higher competence in food supply chain can be achieved through food safety and security, high product quality, on-time delivery of products, and better order-fill-rate. In conclusion, the research methods revealed in the reviewed articles can also assist the dairy industry sector to achieve a high level of competitiveness and leanness.
5.1 Limitations and Future Scope The current paper has some limitations that authors might want to recognize. The principal restriction is the arrangement of selected papers. Authors recognize that there can be numerous different approaches to sort the articles. Such an examination can be applied to other organizations so as to bring out the key supply chain management strategies irrespective of the types or sector.
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Rahul S Mor