Demand Side Management Concept, Options and Program Design


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Demand Side Management Concept, Options and Program Design
Rangan Banerjee
Forbes Marshall Chair Professor Department of Energy Science and Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Bombay
Presentation at DSM Workshop 4th April 2014 Lucknow

Demand Side Management
 Indian utilities – energy shortage and peak power shortage.
 Supply Focussed- Build New Power Plants.  Capital & Fuel Scarcity, Environmental
Impacts, Gestation Period.  Need for Options – Demand Side
Management (DSM) & Load Management

DSM Concept
 Demand Side Management (DSM) - cooperative action by the customer & the utility(SEB) to modify the customer load
 DSM benefits utility, consumer & society  Energy Conservation  Fuel Switching  Peak Clipping/Valley Filling/Load
Shifting

Electric Utility Role
 Provision of Electricity to customers in the service area- supply customers with power they wish at whatever time
 Planning under uncertainty of demand  Daily, Weekly & Seasonal Load Variation  Conventional power planning -Demand
– exogenous, uncontrollable – build new supply to meet demand

Redefining Role
 Capacity additions costly – Shortages of peak power and energy
 Low capacity utilisation of power plants – increased costs – high tariffs
 Gestation Period  Provision of energy services(using
electricity) to customers in the service area (lighting, cooling, motive power…)

Energy Flow Diagram
COAL, OIL, SOLAR, GAS
PRIMARY ENERGY

ENERGY CONVERSION FACILITY

POWER PLANT, REFINERIES

SECONDARY ENERGY

REFINED OIL, ELECTRICITY

TRANSMISSION & DISTRN. SYSTEM FINAL ENERGY

RAILWAYS,TRUCKS, PIPELINES
WHAT CONSUMERS BUY DELIVERED ENERGY

ENERGY UTILISATION EQUIPMENT & SYSTEMS USEFUL ENERGY
END USE ACTIVITIES (ENERGY SERVICES)

AUTOMOBILE, LAMP, MOTOR,
STOVE
MOTIVE POWER RADIANT ENERGY
DISTANCE TRAVELLED, ILLUMINATION,COOKED

Utility Load shape objectives

Peak Clipping
(Reducing system peak loads)

Valley Filling
(Increase off-peak loads without affecting peak period energy and demand)

Load Shifting
(Shifting of loads to off-peak periods)

Strategic Conservation
(Reduce end-use consumption through increased efficiency)

Strategic Load Growth
(Increase end-use consumption resulting in increased sales beyond valley filling)

Flexible Load Shape

Analysis of System Load Curve
 A load curve defines power vs time  Load Factor = (Average Power)
Peak Power System Load Factor  Capacity Factor (plant load factor) = Energy generated by a plant Energy generated if operating at max capacity

Classification
 Time intervals  Daily Load Curves (hourly/half hourly)  Seasonal (Winter/Summer/monsoon)  Annual Load Curves
 User Classes - Residential - Industrial -Commercial -Agricultural
 End Uses – Lighting, pumping,motors, heating,AC

Load Duration Curve
 Frequency Distribution of loads  Re-arrange data to obtain cumulative
number of hours where demand specified value  Plot – Load Duration curve  Highest load period -15-20% of the hours- designated as peak  Base Load – present for 70-80% of time

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Demand Side Management Concept, Options and Program Design