Advancing Transformative Human Rights Education


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Advancing Transformative Human Rights Education
Appendix D to the Report of the Global Citizenship Commission
Monisha Bajaj, Beniamino Cislaghi, and Gerry Mackie*
* Authors are listed in alphabetical order. They contributed equally to the work. Gerry Mackie is the corresponding author.

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© 2016 Monisha Bajaj, Beniamino Cislaghi and Gerry Mackie
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons AttributionNonCommercial-NoDerivs (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). This license allows you to share, copy, distribute and transmit the work for non-commercial purposes, providing attribution is made to the author (but not in any way that suggests that he endorses you or your use of the work). Attribution should include the following information: Monisha Bajaj, Beniamino Cislaghi and Gerry Mackie, Advancing Transformative Human Rights Education: Appendix D to the Report of the Global Citizenship Commission. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2016. http://dx.doi.org/10.11647/OBP.0091.13 Further details about CC BY licenses are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ All external links were active on 13/4/2016 unless otherwise stated and have been archived via the Internet Archive Wayback Machine at https:// archive.org/web Every effort has been made to identify and contact copyright holders and any omission or error will be corrected if notification is made to the publisher.

Monisha Bajaj, EdD, [email protected] Associate Professor, International and Multicultural Education Program Coordinator, Human Rights Education Master’s Program University of San Francisco, California, USA
Ben Cislaghi, PhD [email protected] PhD, International Development, University of Leeds, UK (2013) Lecturer in Gender and Social Norms, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (2016)
Gerry Mackie, PhD, [email protected] Associate Professor of Political Science Co-Director, Center on Global Justice University of California, San Diego, USA
The authors thank the NYU Office of the President; the Global Citizenship Commission; the Minderoo Foundation; Fonna Forman (GCC and CGJ-UCSD); the Director of Research and Secretary to the Global Citizenship Commission, Andrew Hilland; the editorial team at Open Book Publishers; external reviewers Diane Gillespie, André Keet, Felisa Tibbitts; the human rights education NGOs People’s Watch (India), Tostan (Africa), Corpovisionarios (Colombia); the participants in their programs; and all the human rights learners in the world.

Contents

I. Introduction

1

The UDHR and Human Rights Education for All

2

The UDHR and HRE since 1948

2

Transformative Human Rights Education

3

Advancing Transformative Human Rights Education

4

Preview

4

II. History

6

Emergence

6

Definitions

10

Existing Domains and Models

12

Transformative Human Rights Education

15

III. Principles of Transformative HRE (THRED)

17

Introduction

17

Goal of THRED

18

THRED Pedagogy

19

THRED in Multiple Educational Contexts 

22

THRED Cosmopolitan Approach to Enculturating

Human Rights

24

THRED as an Empowering Process 

26

THRED Outcomes of Social Improvement

28

Conclusion 

29

IV. Exemplars of THRED

31

Introduction

31

Case One: Formal THRED in India

32

I ntroduction

32

Outcomes

35

Conclusion

42

Case Two: Non-formal THRED in Rural Senegal

42

I ntroduction

42

The Human Rights Sessions

45

Discussion

48

Outcomes 

49

F indings

51

Case Three: Non-formal THRED in Urban Colombia

53

Background 

53

Preconditions of Transformation

54

Transformative HRED in Bogotá: The Citizenship Culture Program 57

The Transformation of Medellín: Social Urbanism

62

Discussion

66

Case Four: Formal THRED in Europe

67

I ntroduction

67

Compasito

68

CoE Charter on Education for Democratic Citizenship and

Human Rights Education

73

CoE and Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education

74

Principles Applied to Cases

76

1 . Goal of THRED

76

2 . THRED Pedagogy

77

3 . THRED in Multiple Educational Contexts 

78

4 . THRED Cosmopolitan Approach to Enculturating Human Rights 79

5 . THRED as an Empowering Process 

80

6 . THRED Outcomes of Social Improvement

82

Conclusion

83

V. Moving Forward 

84

Introduction

84

Civil Society and State Obligations

85

Beyond State Compliance

86

VI. References

90

VII. Supplements

99

Supplement A: Select Bibliography

99

Scholarly Books on Human Rights Education

99

Special Issues of Scholarly Journals on HRE (last 10 years)

100

Notable Scholarly Articles on HRE, by Topic

101

Supplement B: Human Rights Education Manuals

103

I ntroductory

103

General

104

Classics

106

Regional 

107

S ectoral

107

S pecialty

108

Supplement C: HRE in International Civil Society

108

HRE2020

109

Advocates for Human Rights

109

Amnesty International

110

DARE Network

110

Equitas

111

European Wergeland Centre

112

Human Rights Education Associates (HREA)

112

HRE-USA

113

HURIGHTS

114

People’s Watch—Institute for Human Rights Education

114

Tostan

115

Supplement D: HRE in the United Nations System

116

I. Introduction
Prakash in India narrated tearfully how at age 11 his parents sold him into bonded labor. He begged to return and his classmates pleaded with his parents. After more than a year in servitude, his parents brought him home and he re-enrolled in school. Human rights education has helped Prakash make sense of the conditions of his family, the practice of bonded labor, and the rights all children are entitled to.
Appealing to human rights, women in rural Senegal convinced their communities to change the age-old norm that forbade women to speak or act in public, and peacefully altered other practices through participation in village meetings and other public actions.
Once among the most dangerous cities in the world, Bogotá and Medellín in Colombia took transformative pedagogy to mass scale by working to construct social regulation to motivate compliance with citizens’ moral and legal obligations in order to realize human rights. The cities thus reduced violence and fear, and increased citizens’ freedom and well-being.
Young children in European primary schools played fun games together that taught challenging concepts such as human rights and their corresponding duties, constitutionalism, prioritizing values and interests, conflict without violence, perspective-taking, distributive justice, and public action.
These vignettes, extracted from the case reports described in this Appendix, illustrate the power and promise of transformative human rights education.

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Advancing Transformative Human Rights Education

The UDHR and Human Rights Education for All
The preamble of the Universal Declaration on Human Rights (UDHR) states that “every individual and every organ of society shall strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms.”

The UDHR and HRE since 1948
Since 1948, the ideals expressed in the UDHR and later instruments have advanced in acceptance and realization, and human rights education (HRE) has advanced alongside them. In the first few decades after the UDHR, HRE consisted mostly of legal training focused on the formal standards established by the UN and other International Government Organizations (IGOs), or else popular education carried out by Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) in the Global South. In the 1970s, UNESCO promoted HRE, and social movements adopted human rights discourse to support legal campaigns for the realization of human rights at the national and international levels. While national educational systems were expanding in scope and competence across the world, both newer and older democracies began to incorporate HRE into formal education, although mostly through teaching about human rights (their history, mechanisms, UN documents) rather than teaching for the practice of human rights and their realization by individual and collective action.
UNESCO’s third congress on HRE in Montreal in 1993 proposed a world plan of action on education for human rights and democracy, endorsed that same year by the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna. The next year, with the support of HRE NGOs, the UN General Assembly proclaimed that the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education would run from 1995 to 2004. The GA established a World Programme for HRE in 2005, and in 2011 adopted the United Nations Declaration on Human Rights Education and Training, which outlined the obligations of states and other duty-bearers to implement HRE universally. It mandated:
Educational training, information, awareness-raising and learning activities aimed at promoting universal respect for and observance of all

I. Introduction



3

human rights and fundamental freedoms… thus contributing to, inter alia, the prevention of human rights violations and abuses by providing people with knowledge, skills and understanding and developing their attitudes and behaviours, to empower them to contribute to the building and promotion of a universal culture of human rights.
The leading international network of HRE actors is HRE2020—The Global Coalition for Human Rights Education formed by NGOs in 2014 to strengthen the HRE compliance of states by raising awareness and urging action, integrating HRE into UN mechanisms, and monitoring the implementation of HRE commitments. It calls for the year 2020 to be one of assessing the achievements of governments, international institutions, and civil society in providing access to quality human rights education.

Transformative Human Rights Education
HRE is heterogeneous, varying in goals, content, and delivery. Many educational reforms that followed from the UN’s Decade for Human Rights Education involved little more than incorporating human rights language into the educational standards or textbooks of Member States. The integration of HRE into formal school curricula is often the most effective way to broadly execute HRE, but a simultaneous communitybased approach to HRE can help ensure that school children and the many others (including civil servants, law enforcement officials, community members) educated in HRE do not encounter community resistance.
Transformative human rights education (THRED) is a communitybased approach to HRE, intended for children, youth, and adults in formal or non-formal settings. It contains cognitive, affective, and action-oriented elements. A contextualized and relevant curriculum is paired with participatory pedagogical activities to bring human rights to life and to foster in learners an awareness of global citizenship and a respect for human rights. Transformative HRE exposes learners to gaps between rights and actual realities, and provokes group dialogue on the concrete actions necessary to close these gaps. Learners engage in critical reflection, social dialogue, and individual and collective action to

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Advancing Transformative Human Rights Education

pursue the realization of human rights locally, nationally, and globally. Transformative HRE can have remarkable results for individuals and groups (Bajaj 2011; Cislaghi 2013; Cislaghi, Gillespie, and Mackie 2015; Flowers forthcoming; Tibbitts 2015, forthcoming).

Advancing Transformative Human Rights Education
Fostering a universal culture of human rights among all individuals and institutions through transformative HRE “from the bottom-up” is equally important to the adoption and enforcement of legal standards by governments “from the top-down.” NGOs and other civil society actors have been the most active promoters and implementers of HRE, motivating the incorporation of HRE into formal education.
Many states lack a national HRE plan for formal education; many of those with a plan do not implement it well; and many of those who implement HRE focus on basic human rights literacy rather than on advancing its transformative potential.
The Global Citizenship Commission (GCC) sees its work as part of a process of public education about human rights. It is important that this process be carried forward. As such, we support the efforts of the HRE Working Group at the UC San Diego Center on Global Justice to deepen the impact of the UDHR in the 21st Century through community-based transformative human rights education.

Preview
This Appendix proceeds in four steps. First, we review the legal and social history of human rights education, from 1948 to present. Definitions of HRE by United Nations agencies evolved over time in a more transformative direction. Tibbitts (2002) typologized three models of HRE—values and awareness (socialization), accountability (professional development), and the transformative (activism). We are not alone in urging that the transformative model gain further influence.

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Advancing Transformative Human Rights Education