Mukhya Mantri Gram Sampark Yojana Executive Summary


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Mukhya Mantri Gram Sampark Yojana Executive Summary
Bihar Rural Roads Development Agency (BRRDA, RWD Govt. of Bihar)
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Executive Summary
1. Background
The Government of Bihar (GOB) is committed to an all round Social and Economic development of the State. Recognizing the role played by an efficient and high quality road network to the rural community. Towards this end, an elaborate programme of rural road development was felt. Keeping this in mind Rural works Department, Government of Bihar launched the Mukhya Mantri Gram SamparkYojana in year 2013 to connect with all weather roads to all rural habitations with population more than 250 in 27 Non-IAP districts involving construction and improvement of 37,908 km roads with an estimated expenditure of INR 32,230 Crore ($5372 million approx. @ Rs. 60 per US$). The programme is presently funded by the govt. of Bihar through its own resources.
Objective of the Scheme
The objective of the scheme is to fulfill the dream of state government to reach the capital city within 5 hours from any corner of the state by providing all weather roads through single connectivity to250 and more unconnected Tolas/habitations with a population of 250 and more in phased manner.
2. Project Description
The World Bank through its Country Assistance Strategy Commits to Support MMGSY in Bihar. The total project cost will be about INR 20 billion with Bank trading of INR 14 billion (about US $ 235 million). Araria, Banka, Buxar, Chhapra, East Champaran, Gopalganj, Katihar, Patna, Purnea and Vaishali are the ten districts identified for the first phase. This will cover about 2500 km roads. The Department of Economic Affairs (DEA) has recommended that the project preparation be donefor the entire 5000 km.Additional funding will be considered at later stage based on the implementation performance of the 2500 km. World Bank Supported MMGSY Rural Roads Project aims to increase the efficiency of the MMGSY, through systematic and appropriate capacity enhancement in the State to provide and maintain all season access to beneficiary communities for enhanced access to economic opportunities and social services. The PDO for the project is to improve road connectivity in rural areas and improve management of rural roads in Bihar.
The proposed MMGSY Rural Roads has two components:-
Component I (Civil Works): Civil Works relating to construction and/or up gradation of selected roads to provide all weather connectivity in Non-IAP Districts.
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Component II(Technical Assistance): This comprises 5 components:
 Preparation of DPR  Independent Verification  Project Institutional Support  Equipment  Training for Skills Development
The component will support institutional strengthening, organizational effectiveness and individual skills development to complement achievement of the program outcomes.
However in the first phase ten districts i.e Araria, Banka, Buxar, Saran, East Champaran, Gopalganj, Katihar, Patna, Purnea and Vaishali have been selected under this project which will cover about 2500 kms of roads.
Towards enhancing the assessment and management of environmental and social issues in MMGSY planning and implementation, an Environmental Management Framework (EMF), Social Management Framework (SMF) and Vulnerability Framework (VF) has been prepared.
2. Benefits of Rural connectivity
Government expenditure on roads has been found to have the largest impact on poverty reduction (163 persons lifted out of poverty with INR1 million investment) as well as a significant impact on productivity growth. Road investments have contributed importantly to growth in total factor productivity in agriculture, which has helped to keep the consumer prices of food grains in check thus benefiting the poor. Non- agricultural employment opportunities have increased because of the stimulus to non-farm commercial activities, leading to higher wages. Of the total productivity effect on poverty, 75 percent arises from the direct impact of roads in increasing incomes while 15 percent arises from lower agricultural prices and 10 percent from increased wages. Other impacts observed are doubling of farmers’ incomes; reduction in freight charges by more than 60 percent; increase in literacy rate by 8 percent; increase in land prices by 80 percent; about 12 percent higher prices for agricultural produce; and timely help during medical emergencies, particularly for pregnant women.
3. Social Management Frame Work (SMF)
SMF guides the government how it will identify, mitigate and compensate any adverse impacts on the assets and livelihoods of the people directly affected by possible expropriations while safeguarding the interests of the population impacted by the project, especially of the poor, women, and vulnerable groups in the project.
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Salient features
 Relevance of SMF is to ensure compliance with State/National legal policies and regulations relating to land acquisition and resettlement as well as the World bank Operational Policies 4.12, 4.10& 4.11.
 SMF ensures that the project complies with the principle that involuntary loss of assets or relocation of economic activities or residence is minimised and fully compensated.
Objectives and core provisions of the SMF
 To ensure that throughout its duration, the project fully complies with the principle that involuntary loss of assets or relocation of economic activities or residence, is minimized and compensated.
 To guarantee that adequate procedures exist for prior consultation of all affected persons,
 Assessment of losses and entitlements, handling complaints and disputes, and monitoring of the outcomes; and
 To lay down the process of land transfer.  To ensure broad community support for the project based on consultation in habitations of
Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste population.
Legislations and Policies Applicable
National Policy:
 The Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Act, 2013 (LARR act 2013).
 Equal Remuneration Act, 1979  Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Act, 1986
State Policies:  Bihar Right to Fair Compensation and Transparency in Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation and Resettlement Rules 2014.  Bihar Lease Land Policy 2014  Land donation  Minimum Wages Act, Bihar
World Bank Policies:  Involuntary Resettlement – Operational Policy 4.12  Indigenous People- Operational Policy 4.10  Cultural Properties-Operational Policy 4.11
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Impacts and Entitlement Framework
Most of the project roads will be improved to single lane using the existing alignments currently in the form of either earth tracks or brick pavements, by providing adequate geometry, pavement, drainage, bridges, and road safety engineering measures, including special treatment in build-up area. The rural roads will generally have a carriageway of 3 m and total formation width of 5-7 m depending on the site conditions.
All the roads and bridges will be designed using the standards and guidelines prescribed by the Indian Roads Congress (IRC) for rural roads and already included in PMGSY and MMGSY. However, the design will be suitably customized by making optimal use of the available right-ofway to serve the basic purpose of providing basic accessibility, carefully avoiding demolition of houses and other structures, cutting of old trees, and minimizing additional land requirements. Suitable passing places will be provided in such situations ensuring smooth flow of traffic in narrow sections. These modifications would suffice to meet the needs of most of the project roads as they carry low traffic, with high percentage of medium and small vehicles and two wheelers.
Thus the extent of social impacts is minimal as the requirement for land width accretion will not be significant and there will be no or negligible impact on structures or loss of livelihood. Any extra land taken in the project for the proposed improvements will be through a process of land lease/land acquisition/Donation.
Social Impact Statement: The DPRs for first batch of 1052 kms of roads have been prepared and Bids have been called. The DPRs have utilized the checklists and formats provided in the RPF to assess the need for land acquisition and adverse impact on assets. Social impact statement shall be prepared for all the batches of DPR for bidding. This is to ensure that all land take process is completed and entitlements are disbursed before initiating any civil works.
For the purpose of this project, following definition will apply:
Project affected area: To corridor/area required for the construction of the project road.
Project affected persons: All persons losing their assets or source of income/livelihood in the project affected area because of land take under the project.
Cut-off date: Project affected persons with formal claims to the land on the date of notification under Bihar land lease Policy/BLARR Act. Date of transect walk will be the cut off date in case of those having no formal or recognizable claim to land but have structure/other assets over the land. Eligible affected persons: Project affected persons occupying the land prior to cut off date.
The RPF framework addresses the following categories of impacts caused by the project.
pre
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IMPACT CATEGORY
THOSE WHO HAVE FORMAL/RECOGNISABLE LEGAL
RIGHTS TO THE LAND

ENTITLEMENTS
 In the event of non availability of land to provide basic access to the habitation, the project will aim at obtaining land on lease or through acquisition or, through donation. Compensation for land and structures will be paid to the PAP’s /PAF’s according to the provisions laid in Bihar Raiyati Land Lease Policy 2014/.BLARR Rules 2014/LARR act 2013.
 In Case of loss of livelihood the PAP’s/PAF’s will get financial assistance according to provisions laid in BLARR Rules 2014/LARR act 2013.

THOSE HAVING NO RECOGNISABLE OR FORMAL
CLAIM TO LAND

 Eligible only if they occupy the project area prior to a cutoff date
 No compensation for land  Project will not cause any physical displacement  In the event of partial loss/damage of shelter/structure/ any
other assets that do not involve physical relocation of the PAPs/PAFs, the affected structure will be restored as part of civil contracts.

COMMON PROPERTY

 Relocation/construction of common property by contractor shall take place after taking technical inputs from PIU. If the CPR has to be shifted or constructed then cost will be borne through the civil contracts. Cost will be determined by market value.

Impacts identified during construction: Minor impacts on structures and need for land take may be identified once the contactor starts preparing the site for construction. Contractor shall intimate such cases to the PIU and a joint inspection shall be carried out by PIU representative, contractor, Gram Panchayat representative and likely affected persons to assess the extent of impacts. It affected structures shall be restored as part of civil contracts.
Temporary Impacts during Construction: The temporary impacts during construction to the normal traffic, increased noise levels, dust generation, and damage to adjacent parcel of land due to movement of heavy machineries. The contractor shall be responsible for regulating time of usage of heavy equipment, dust suppression, schedule of construction work to allow normal traffic during morning and evenings and signage for sensitive areas where safety is a concern. The contractor shall bear the costs of any impact on roadside structure or land due to movement of machinery during construction. All temporary use of lands outside the proposed RoW shall be through written consent / approval of the landowner. The contractor shall locate construction

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camps in consultation with the local Panchayat to avoid any resentment or confrontation with the local or host community. Consultations with the community shall be undertaken by the contractor to sensitise the community on the construction works and its probable impacts through pamphlets / brochures.
Community Planning and Participation
Effective participatory mechanism for community level local government in decision-making at implementation and post implementation stage of the project has been evolved. The project envisages involvement of the local community, PAPs/PAFs& PIU during project implementation and monitoring stages. The PIU will be responsible for ensuring participation of the local community at the sub project levels. The involvement of the community is not only restricted to the interactions with the villagers but also disclosing the relevant information pertaining to the project and tasks encompassed in the project.
4. Vulnerability Framework
In rural India apart from poverty vulnerability is characterized by social isolation and marginalization resulting from gender bias or belonging to certain groups such as scheduled caste and tribes. While these two elements are critical in ensuring social outcomes of the project, they may not be captured while computing rural access index, if cultural context is not considered in the process. Thus, given that in rural India, birth identity and gender are key determinants of social inclusion within the dominant society, the project sanctions the below framework to achieve equity in distribution of project benefits.
Objective of the Framework
The objective of the framework is to ensure that the development process generated by the MMGSY fully addresses the needs of the vulnerable population and enables measures to promote equity and participation. The framework endorses information sharing, consultation and collaboration as participatory techniques to develop the abilities and reinforce the capacities of the vulnerable while preserving their historical identity. While all population below poverty line are vulnerable, for the purpose of the project, framework also endorses the below as “vulnerable” given their birth identity and gender, which exhilarates the already existing poverty related vulnerability. The three categories of vulnerable are identified as:
 Women Headed Households;  Scheduled caste population; and  Scheduled tribes.  Divyang  Below poverty Line
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The framework warrants inclusion of these groups of population in design, implementation and monitoring, thus empowering them from beneficiary to a primary stakeholder in the process. In particular, the guidelines stated in the framework will ensure that the above populations do not suffer any negative effects during the project that they receive gender sensitive benefits compatible with their traditions and they participate as stakeholders in planning, implementing and evaluating the Project.Project will avoid impact on land/structure/otherassets under the project from vulnerable people but in case if required then it will be through the process of lease or through acquisition against compensation.
5. Environment Management Framework
Environmental Management Framework (EMF) for the project offers the required flexibility in guiding the process of dealing with the unwarranted impacts and would help in augmenting the positive benefits for both situations – for sub-project/s where engineering interventions are known and those roads/sections where engineering design is yet to be initiated.
The framework describes the principles, objectives and approach to be followed in avoiding, minimizing and mitigating the adverse environmental impacts that are likely to arise as a result of the implementation of the various reconstruction activities under the MMGSY.
Purpose and Objectives of EMF
 Establish clear procedures and methodologies for environmental planning, review, approval and implementation of sub-projects to be financed under the Project.
 To provide practical guidance for planning, designing and implementing the environmental management measures.
 Specify appropriate roles and responsibilities, and outline the necessary reporting procedures, for managing and monitoring environmental and related social concerns of the sub-projects and;
 Determine the institutional arrangements, including those related to training, capacity building and technical assistance (if required) needed to successfully implement the provisions of the EMF.
Key Issues of Major Concern in Road Infrastructure
 Air Pollution  Cultural Heritage  Land Use Management  Resource Consumption  Soil Contamination  Soil Erosion & Sediment Management  Drainage & Storm Water Management  Vegetation control & Management  Vehicle & Traffic Noise  Water Pollution
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Legislations and policies applicable in MMGSY
 Environmental Clearance as per EIA Notification 2006 and subsequent amendments  Forest Clearance under The Forest (Conservation) Act 1980  Wildlife Clearance under The Wildlife (Protection) Act,1972  Eco-sensitive Zone as per The Environmental (Protection) Act, 1986  Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act 1974, as amended 1988.
Environmental Impacts (likely) in MMGSY
 Felling of some limited number of roadside trees;  Adverse impacts on water resources, including from silt flow during construction of
works;  Induced environmental impacts due to improper borrowing of earth;  Flooding/rain water accumulation in habitation areas Impairment to or worsening of the
local/regional drainage;
6. Environmental Code of Practices (ECOPS)
The ECoPs have been developed to guide the planning, design, construction and maintenance stages of MMGSY in terms of avoidance or mitigation of the adverse environmental impacts that may result from the projects. The codes define methods and procedures to be followed by the executing agencies, contractors and other agencies involved
Scope of Environmental Code of Practice:
 To form a field guide manual to the planners, Field engineers and contractors  Identify project activities that can have potential environmental impacts and to provide
mitigation measures  Demonstrate road design and construction practices that are cost effective and address
environmental impacts  Illustrate recommended practices to address the environmental concerns during project
planning implementation and operation  Define role of involvement of the rural communities at different stages of the project  Achieve MMGSY objectives of rural connectivity through roads planned and constructed
to blend with the natural surroundings
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[
Applicable Environmental Codes Of Practices in MMGSY

ECoPs

Title

Key Issues Addressed

ECoP 1.0

Project Planning &  Incorporation of environmental concerns in

Design

project preparation to avoid impacts in construction and operationstages

 Avoidance of roads through sensitive areas as reserved

forests/sanctuaries/wetlandsetc

 Compliance with legalrequirements

 Devising enhancement measures into project design

ECoP 1A

Roads in Flood Prone  Key provisions to be included in project preparation

Areas

and design in Flood Prone areas

ECoP 2.0

Site Preparation

 Relocation of utilities, common property resources and

cultural properties

 Avoidance of affect on roadside vegetation.

ECoP 3.0 ECoP 4.0

Construction Camps Alternate Materials

 Avoidance of sensitive areas for location of construction camps
 Infrastructure arrangements for workers and construction equipment
 Useof fly ash as per MoEF&CC Notification

for Construction

 Minimizing earthrequirement

ECoP 5.0

Borrow Areas

 Avoidance of agriculture lands

 Redevelopment of borrowareas

ECoP 6.0

Topsoil Salvage,

 Topsoil removal from areas temporarily/permanently

Storage & Replacement

used for construction  Storage of topsoil in stockpiles and protection from
erosion

 Reuse of topsoil at areas to be revegetated and in

agriculture lands

ECoP 7.0

Quarry Management  Redevelopment of quarries in case new quarries are

setup for the project

ECoP 8.0

Water for

 Extraction of water in water scarce areas with consent of

Construction

community

 Scheduling construction activities as per water

availability

ECoP 9.0

Slope Stability and  Adequacy of drainage for erosion control.

Erosion control

ECoP 10.0 Waste Management  Reuse of cut material in hill roads

 Safe disposal of wastes

ECoP 11.0 Water Bodies

 Avoidance from cutting due to alignment

 Protection of embankment slopes in case of

alignment on embankments

 Rehabilitation of water body

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Mukhya Mantri Gram Sampark Yojana Executive Summary