Engineering Design Project


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Engineering Design
Background Information: Engineering is any engagement in a systematic practice of design to achieve solutions to particular human problems. (NRC 2012, p. 11-12) To solve engineering problems, engineers follow a series of steps often called the “engineering design process” The design process may be described in many ways, but it generally looks like this -

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Engineering is similar to science in many ways. Engineers and scientists:
• Ask questions (for science) and define problems (for engineering) • develop and use models • Plan and carry out investigations • Analyze and interpret data • Use mathematics and computational thinking • Construct explanations (for science) and design solutions (for engineering) • Engage in argument from evidence • Obtain, evaluate, and communicate information
Engineering projects have criteria and constraints. Design criteria are requirements that will be used to make decisions about how to build the product. Criteria usually come from needs expressed by customers. Criteria define the product’s physical and functional characteristics. Some examples of criteria are shape, size, weight, speed, ruggedness, and ease of manufacture. Constraints are factors that limit the engineer’s flexibility. Some typical constraints are cost, time, and knowledge; legal issues; natural factors such as topography, climate, raw materials; and where the product will be used. Good designs will meet important design criteria within the limits fixed by the constraints. Good designs are also economical to make and use because cost is always a design constraint!
Purpose: to design and test a solution to an engineering design challenge
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What to do: • Work with a team of 3-4 • Select an engineering challenge (only one team per class on a problem) • Using the engineering design model: • Define your problem. • What are you trying to do? – This has been given to you. • Imagine solutions to your problem. • Brainstorm with your team. • Research what has been done before. • Consider the criteria and constraints. • Plan and Create a solution. • Choose your best ideas. • Build a model or prototype. • Test your model or prototype. • Improve your solution. • After testing, what would make your solution better? • Re-design your model to be faster, slower, stronger, last longer, less material… • Communicate your results • In written and verbal form, describe what you did and your results • Keep a daily journal of your work. • May be hand written on the journal provided or typed. The typed version must follw the same format as the provided journal. • These are individual journals, not team journals. • Pay attention to the timeline!!! Don’t get behind.
Engineering Challenges

Build a vehicle with an attached container that can carry a payload

Criteria

 Payload a minimum of 250g



 Travels a minimum of 10m



Constraints Materials include a balloon & fishing line Container must be attached to the balloon

Build a bridge Criteria
 A span of at least 30cm  A height of at least 10cm at shortest point  Can support a minimum of 200g on top of the
bridge

Constraints  Materials are newspaper & 2m of masking tape

Build a domed structure Criteria
 At least 15cm high  Can support a minimum of 1000g on top

Constraints  Materials are gumdrops & toothpicks

Build a bridge Criteria
 Span of at least 40cm  A height of at least 10cm at shortest point  Can support a minimum of 200g hanging from
the bottom of the bridge

Constraints  Materials are spaghetti & miniature
marshmallows

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Make something that flies Criteria
 Will fly a minimum of 10m

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Constraints  Materials are 1 sheet of printer paper & 1 straw

Build a machine that will move a marble across the floor Criteria
 Exactly 5 meters

Constraints  Machine cannot touch the floor  Machine cannot be thrown by a person

Build a car Criteria
 Can travel a minimum of 10m  Propelled by a mousetrap

Constraints 

Build a boat or raft Criteria
 Will float a minimum of 1 minute  Can support a minimum of 500g in pennies

Constraints  Material is a 30cm x 30cm piece of aluminum foil

Build a catapult Criteria
 Will knock over a wall of 15 paper cups

Constraints  Material that is launched is a large marshmallow  Wall of cups is 2m from catapult

Create a paper airplane launcher

Criteria

 Will send the paper airplane a minimum 0f 20m



Constraints

Make a table Criteria
 Strong enough to hold a science book  At least 20cm tall

Constraints  Materials are 10 sheets of newspaper & 1m of
masking tape

Build a hovercraft Criteria
 Will hover at least 10 seconds

Constraints  Materials may not include battery or electric-
powered devices

Build a catapult

Criteria

Constraints

 Will launch an object through a hole in a target

 Material that is launched is a large marshmallow

 Hole is 20cm x20cm

 Target is 1.5m from catapult

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Day 1 Homework

Day 2 In class

Day 3 In class

Do you have another idea???? Check with the teacher first.

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Suggested Timeline

What to do  Read the provided
information  Think about who you want on
a team  Think about possible design
challenges  Select your team  Select design challenge  Begin assigning tasks  Begin brainstorming ideas  Write in journal  Continue brainstorm ideas  Choose solution  Sketch solution in journal  Label diagram  Write in journal
 Build first model  Test first model  Write in journal
 Test first model  Collect data  Improve your solution – re-
design your model to work better, go faster, slower, hold more mass…  Write in journal  Build an improved model  Test your improved model  Collect data  Write in journal
 Communicate results  Share with class  Completed journal due at the
beginning of class

In your journal
N/A
 Record the date  Record the name(s) of your teammates  Record your design challenge  Record your brainstorming notes
 Record the date  Record your brainstorming ideas  Record chosen solution  Explain the reason for choosing the particular solution  Include at least two sentences describing how the team works
together. Include your role as a team member.  Record the date  Include a labeled sketch or photo of your model  Describe difficulties with your model and how you overcame
them  Include at least two sentences describing how the team works
together. Include your role as a team member.  Record the date  Record your data (describe what happened when you tested
your model)  Describe how and why you will improve your model  Include a labeled sketch or photo of the improved model  Include at least two sentences describing how the team works
together. Include your role as a team member.  Record the date  Test the improved model  Record data (describe what happened when you tested your
model)  Include at least two sentences describing how the team works
together. Include your role as a team member.
N/A

Day 4 In class

Day 5 In class

Day 6 In class

Day 7 In class

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Engineering Design Journal ________________________________

Date

Journal Entry
Engineering Design Challenge
Team Members

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Teacher Check

Team Brainstorming & Discussion Notes Ideas for solving the problem
_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________

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Date

Journal Entry
The Solution The Team Chose How we are going to solve the problem

Teacher Check

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________

Rationale For the Solution Why we chose this design
_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________ Sketch of First Model
Draw & label your model

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Date

Journal Entry
Issues & Difficulties Building the Model What happened & how you overcame obstacles

Teacher Check

_____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________ Model Test Data
What happened when you tested your model?

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

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Date

Journal Entry
Design Improvements How will you improve your design?

Teacher Check

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
How will this improvement change the design? _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
Sketch of new design Draw and label the model. Point out changes.

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Date

Journal Entry
Improved Model Test Data What happened when you tested your improved model?

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Teacher Check

_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________ Conclusions
What worked well, what didn’t and why
_______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________
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Teamwork Reflections How did you work as a team? What worked well? What didn’t? What did your team do to work through problems? How did you contribute in a positive way to your team?
__________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________________________________
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Engineering Design Project