Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Gujarat


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Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests

RESEARCH ARTICLE

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Gujarat Forests

S. P. S. Kushwaha1*, G. D. Bhatt2, D. M. Tadvi3,4, S. Nandy1

DOI: 10.18811/ijpen.v6i01.02

Abstract

This study focused on the ecological and ethnobotanical characteristics of the natural forests, forest plantations, and forest orchards in the Gujarat state of India through an extensive field survey of trees, shrubs, and herbs over a span of four years. We inventoried 345 tree, 345 shrub, and 1,380 herb plots using a stratified random sampling design. In all, 706 species [trees (224), shrubs (68), and herbs (414)] were recorded. The highest number of species were noted in teak mixed dry deciduous forest (207), followed by scrub (132), thorn forest (91), grassland (78), teak mixed moist deciduous forest (51), forest plantations (34), degraded forest (30), Prosopis juliflora scrub (24), forest orchard (19), ravine thorn forest (16), Anogeissus pendula forest (8), riverain forest (8), Eucalyptus plantation (6), mangrove forest (1), and mangrove scrub (1). Fabaceae was observed to be the dominant family. Out of total species, twenty-nine (29) species were found to be rare (25), endangered (2), and threatened (2). Fabaceae was also the dominant family for rare, endangered, and threatened (RET) species. Six endemic species were recorded. The highest value of Shannon’s Index of plant diversity was noticed in teak mixed dry deciduous forest (3.14), followed by teak mixed moist deciduous forest (2.96), ravine thorn forest (2.08), forest plantations (1.97), thorn forest (1.64), riverine forest (1.41), and degraded forest (1.49). Two hundred fifty-two species, including trees (24), shrubs (101), herbs (123), climbers (3), and bamboo (1) found to be ethnobotanically important. Fabaceae happened to be the dominant family in terms of ethnobotanically important plants too.

Keywords: Ethnobotanical species, RET species, Satellite imagery, Shannon’s index, Stratified random sampling.

International Journal of Plant and Environment (2020);

ISSN: 2454-1117 (Print), 2455-202X (Online)

Introduction
Biodiversity provides stability to the ecosystem and maintains the ecological balance. Plants and animals in the ecosystem are linked to each other through the food chain and food web (NRC, 1992). The diversity of plant and animal life is an essential underpinning of the terrestrial ecosystems (Singh and Kushwaha, 2008). Worldwide, tens of thousands of species of higher plants and several hundred lower plants are used by humans for food, fuel, fiber, oil, medicine, spices, dye, fodder, timber, and other uses (Belal and Springuel, 1996). In tropics, 25,000 plant species have been widely used in traditional medicines (Heywood, 1996), whose sources are natural forests. Provisioning of ecosystem services is another vital role of plants through stabilization of slopes, improvement of soils, moderation of climate, and the provision of a habitat for much of wild fauna (Krupnick, 2001). It is now generally accepted that conservation of biodiversity should be humans’ top priority, especially through the management and sustainable use of natural habitats and resources. This is an important idea that can be achieved and there are convincing scientific, economic, and sociological reasons (Hamilton, 2003). The study of the distribution of species, which has long been a central focus on ecology and biogeography, is taking on new urgency as evidence of the global biodiversity crisis mounts.
The Indian subcontinent holds prominence as one of the twelve mega-diversity regions of the world (Arora and Nayar, 1984). It is floristically rich, with about 33 % of its botanical wealth (overall 15,000 species of higher plants) being endemic. There are about 141 endemic genera distributed over 47 families (Nayar, 1980). Furthermore, of the 4,900 endemic species, a large percentage is localized in the Himalaya (about 2,532 species) than in other regions like peninsular India (1,788 species) and Andaman and Nicobar Islands (185 species). It is also estimated

1Forestry and Ecology Department, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, ISRO, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, INDIA 2School of Agriculture, Galgotias University, Greater Noida-203201, INDIA 3Department of Botany, MS University of Baroda, Vadodara-390003, Gujarat, INDIA 4Present address: Government Science College, The Dangs-394715, Gujarat, INDIA
*Corresponding author: Dr. S. P. S. Kushwaha, Forestry and Ecology Department, Indian Institute of Remote Sensing, ISRO, Dehradun-248001, Uttarakhand, INDIA, Mobile: +91-9411106224 Email: [email protected]
How to cite this article: Kushwaha, S. P. S., Bhatt, G. D., Tadvi, D. M. and Nandy, S. (2020). Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Gujarat Forests. International Journal of Plant and Environment, 6(1): 9-27. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None Submitted: 24/12/2019  Accepted: 25/01/2020  Published: 31/01/2020
that floristic richness is highest in the north-eastern region, which holds about 50 % of India’s total species diversity, i.e., more than 7,000 species and is considered as the cradle of flowering plants (Nayar, 1989).
The use of herbs in ayurvedic preparations of the Indian system of traditional medicines has been an alternative system of medicine for thousands of years (Chopra, 2003). The earliest literature on Indian medicinal practice appeared during the Vedic period in India, viz., mid-second millennium BC. The Susruta Samhita and the Charak Samhita were among the foundational works of Ayurveda. Up to 80 percent people

International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020) 9

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests

in India used some form of traditional medicines, a category which includes Ayurveda (Wujastyk, 2003). The unchecked degradation and deforestation of natural forest has significantly depleted ethnobotanically important species over time. In this context, a study was conducted in Gujarat to assess the ecological and ethnobotanical characteristics of the forests and forest plantations using field inventory techniques. It is expected that the information, so generated, would be helpful in the conservation and management of the forest ecosystems in the State.
M at e r ia l s a n d M e t h o d s
Study area The State of Gujarat in western India (20°07’-24°43’N and 68°10’74°29’E) covers a geographical area of 196,244 km2. To its northwest is the international boundary shared with Pakistan and to its western and south-western sides lies the Arabian Sea with two gulfs- the Gulf of Kachchh and Gulf of Khambhat (Fig. 1). Gujarat has a 1650 km long coastline, which is longest for any state in the country. As per the 2011 census, the total population of Gujarat was 60.44 million, of which 25.74 million (42.60%) lives in urban and 34.70 million (57.40%) in rural areas. The average human population density in Gujarat is 308 persons per km-2. The tribal population in the State is 8.92 million (14.75%). The temperature in the State varies from 6 to 45ºC and humidity is generally low (Ray et al., 2009). The State receives 250 to 2500 mm rainfall from the south-west monsoon (June to September).
Fig. 1: The study area.

The Dangs region in south Gujarat receives as high as 2500 mm while Kachchh district in north receives only 250 mm rainfall, though changing pattern of rainfall has been observed during the past decade (Dave et al., 2017).
Gujarat has a range of natural habitats like dry saline Rann of Kachchh, grasslands, rivers, wetlands, reservoirs, and coastal areas, with dry and moist deciduous forests, thorn forests, grasslands, mangroves, and coral reefs though most of the forests are now restricted to hilly tracts. Diverse physiographic, climatic, and ecological conditions in the State are responsible for the high diversity of flora and fauna (GEC, 1996). As per the India State of Forest Report 2019 (FSI, 2019), forests in Gujarat occupy an area of 14,857 km2 (7.57% of the geog. area). Gujarat has 26 forest types belonging to 4 major type groups, viz., Tropical Dry Deciduous, Tropical Moist Deciduous, Tropical Thorn, and Littoral and Swamp Forests. The major type groups are further classified into Dry Teak Forest, Moist Teak Bearing Forests, Northern Tropical Thorn Forest, Mangrove Forest, Mangrove Scrub, Dry Tropical Riverine Forest, Ravine Thorn Forest, Anogeissus pendula Forest, and Dry Grassland (Champion and Seth, 1968).
Methodology
Ecosystem level biodiversity assessment requires robust phytosociological data collected using appropriate field sampling techniques (Kushwaha and Nandy, 2012). The fieldwork consisted of a pilot survey, sample plot inventory of trees, shrubs, and herbs and collection and documentation of the species of ethnobotanical importance. The study was conducted from September 2008 to May 2012. A total of 345 tree plots of 31.62m x 31.62m size were laid for a sampling of trees, shrubs, and herbs. Each tree plot had 1 shrub plot of 5m x 5m size at the center and 4 herb plots of 1m x 1m size in four corners as nested plots. Thus, 354 sample plots for trees, 345 plots for shrubs, and 1380 plots for herbs were inventoried. Plot sizes were decided on the basis of the pilot survey. The forest type strata sizes, mapped by digital interpretation of the satellite imagery in a nationwide biodiversity characterization project (Bhatt et al., 2015), were used for the determination of the number of plots to be inventoried following stratified random sampling (SRS) design. The coordinates of the sampled plots were recorded using hand-held GPS for future monitoring.
In each tree plot, the number of shrubs, herbs, epiphytes, and climbers were recorded. The field data were subjected to Shannon’s Index of diversity (Shannon, 1949) and ethnobotanical analyses. Local tribals (Bhils, Gamits, Gonds, Konknas, Kotwalias, Rabaris, Varlis, and Rathod), with comprehensive knowledge in the use of different species for medicinal purposes, were involved in the field survey. Additional ethnobotanical information was collected through questionnaires, village-level interviews, and interactions with herbal medicine practitioners. The RET species list was prepared following IUCN (1994), Vié et al. (2008), and BSI (2013). Plant species were identified with the help of experts from the Department of Botany, MS University of Baroda, Vadodara and local floras (Borgesen, 1929; Santapau, 1955, 1962; Ahluwalia, 1964-1965; Bedi, 1970; Bhatt, 1971; Shah, 1978; Ambasht, 1986; Bhatt and Sabins, 1987; Joshi, 1987; Jadeja, 1999; Jasrai et al., 2004; Pandey et al., 2005).

10 International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020)

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests

Results and Discuss ion
In all, 706 species including trees (224), shrubs (68), and herbs (414) were found in the forests, forest plantations, and forest orchards of Gujarat. The highest number of species were noted in teak mixed dry deciduous forest (207), followed by scrub (132), thorn forest (91), grassland (78), teak mixed moist deciduous forest (51), forest plantations (34), degraded forest (30), Prosopis juliflora scrub (24), forest orchard (19), ravine thorn forest (16), Anogeissus pendula forest (8), riverain forest (8), Eucalyptus plantation (6), mangrove forest (1), and mangrove scrub (1) (Table 1).
The total number of tree species found was 224 in different forest areas of Gujarat; of which 73.21 % were from teak mixed dry deciduous, teak mixed moist deciduous, forest plantations, and thorn forest. Total number shrub species found were 68, of which 77.94 % were from the scrub, thorn forest, and tropical mixed dry deciduous forest. The total number of herb species found was 414, of which 79.23 % were from teak mixed dry deciduous forest, scrub, grassland, and thorn forest. Twenty nine (29) rare, endangered, and threatened (RET) species belonging to 20 herbs, 7 shrubs, and 2 trees were recorded (Table 2). The number of rare species was found to be nearly

Table 1: Number of species in different forest types.

Forest type

No. of species

Trees Shrubs Herbs

Tropical Mixed Dry Deciduous Forest

95 13

99

Tropical Mixed Moist Deciduous Forest

31 4

16

Thorn Forest

17 17

57

Ravine Thorn Forest

11 0

5

Mangrove Forest

1

0

0

Mangrove Scrub

0

1

0

Riverain Forest

8

0

0

Anogeissus pendula Forest

8

0

0

Degraded Forest

13 6

11

Forest Plantation

21 0

13

Eucalyptus Plantation

1

0

5

Prosopis juliflora Scrub

1

4

19

Scrub

15 23

94

Orchard

2

0

17

Grassland

0

0

78

Total

224 68

414

Total species 207
51
91 16 1 1 8 8 30 34 6 24 132 19 78 706

Table 2: RET species in different forest types.

S.No. Botanical name

Family

Status

Habit Forest type

Gujarati name

1.

Anogeissus sericea var. nummularia Combretaceae Rare

Tree TH, RTH

Andrakh

2.

Campylanthus ramosissimus

Plantaginaceae -do-

Shrub TMMD, TMDD

Bhinighilodi

3.

Canscora diffusa

Gentianaceae

Threatened Herb TMMD, TMDD

Zinkukariyatu

4.

Ceropegia odorata

Apocynaceae

Endangered -do- TMMD, TMDD

Kundernivel

5.

Chlorophytum bharuchae

Asparagaceae

Rare

-do- TMMD, TMDD

Safed musali

6.

Chlorophytum borivilianum

-do-

-do-

-do- TMMD, TMDD

Musali

7.

Convolvulus stocksii

Convolvulaceae -do-

-do- P, GR, TMDD, TH Uhishankhavali

8.

Dendrobium microbulbon

Orchidaceae

-do-

-do- TMMD

Button orchid

9.

Dipcadi ursulae var. longiracemosum Asparagaceae

Endangered -do-

P, GR, TMDD, RTH Jangalidungadi

10.

Eriocauloneury peplon

Eriocaulaceae

Threatened -do- RV

Nada chido

11.

Eulophia dabia

Orchidaceae

Rare

-do- TMMD, GR

Nano vando

12.

Fuirena tuwensis

Cyperaceae

Rare/Endemic -do- RV

Kansado

13.

Helichrysum cutchicum

Asteraceae

-do-

-do- GR

Safed munderi

14.

Heliotropium bacciferum

Boraginaceae

Rare

-do- GR

Okharad

15.

Hyphaene dichotoma

Arecaceae

Vulnerable

Tree SL,RV

Ravan tad

16.

Indigofera coerulea var. monosperma Fabaceae

Rare

Herb GR

Jangaligali

17.

Ischaemum santapaui

Poaceae

-do-

-do- GR, RV

Valerughas

18.

Limonium stocksii

Plumbaginaceae -do-

Shrub SL

Dariyaichitrak

19.

Pavonia ceratocarpa

Malvaceae

-do-

-do- GR, SC

Karandia

20.

Psilostachys sericea

Amaranthaceae -do-

Herb SL

Dariyaitandalajo

21.

Pycreus dwarkensis

Cyperaceae

Rare/Endemic -do- GR

Dariyaichido

22.

Schweinfurthia papilionacea

Plantaginaceae Rare

-do- GR

Sannipat

23.

Sesbania concolor

Fabaceae

-do-

Shrub GR

Ikad

24.

Solanum purpureilineatum

Solanaceae

-do-

-do- GR, BL

Ubhiringani

25.

Tamarix kutchensis

Tamaricaceae

-do-

-do- SL

Lai nijat

26.

Tamarix stricta

-do-

-do-

-do- SL

Lai

27.

Tephrosia collina

Fabaceae

Rare/Endemic Herb GR

Makhamalisarpankho

28.

Tephrosia jamnagarensis

-do-

-do-

-do- GR

Zinkosarpankho

29.

Viola cinerea

Violaceae

Rare

-do- SC

Banafasha

TMMD-Teak Mixed Moist Deciduous, TMDD-Teak Mixed Dry Deciduous, TH-Thorn, RTH-Ravine Thorn, M-Mangrove, MS-Mangrove Scrub, RVRiverine, DEG-Degraded, P-Prosopis julflora Scrub, SC-Scrub, GR-Grassland, SL-Salt-affected land, BL-Barren land.

International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020) 11

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests

twelve times higher than either endangered or threatened species.
Fabaceae, with 41 species, was the dominant family, followed by Malvaceae (23), Asteraceae (18), Acanthaceae (15), and Lamiaceae (12) (Fig. 2). Predominant genera (by a number of species) in different forest types were Euphorbia (5), followed by Acacia (4), Capparis (4), Corchorus (4), Ficus (4), Senna (4), and Sida (4). Six endemic species were also recorded in the study area. Fabaceae and Asparagaceae together had the maximum

number of endemic species. The highest Shannon’s index of plant diversity was noted in teak mixed dry deciduous forest (3.14), followed by teak mixed moist deciduous forest (2.96), ravine thorn forest (2.08), forest plantation (1.97), thorn forest (1.64), riverine forest (1.41), and degraded forest (1.49) (Fig. 3). As many as 252 ethnobotanically important plant species, comprising of trees, shrubs, and herbs, were listed from forests of Gujarat (Table 3). It may be thus, concluded that the forests of Gujarat support a rich plant diversity with high ecological and ethnobotanical potential.

Fig. 2: Number of species in top eleven families.
Fig. 3: Shannon’s index of plant diversity in different forest types (TMMD-Teak mixed moist deciduous forest, TMDD-Teak mixed dry deciduous forest, TH-Thorn forest, RTH-Ravine Thorn forest, M-Mangrove forest, RV-Riverine forest, AP-Anogeissus pendula forest, DEG-Degraded forest, FP-Forest plantation).
12 International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020)

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020) 13

Table 3: Ethnobotanically important plants in the forests of Gujarat.

SN. Species

Family

Vernacular name (Gujarati)

1.

Abelmoschus

moschatus

Malvaceae

Musk dana, Kasturi bhinda

2.

Acacia catechu

Fabaceae

Kher

3.

A. nilotica subsp. indica -do-

Bavad

4.

A. planifrons

-do-

5.

A. senegal

-do-

Chhatrobavad Gorad

Habit Herb Tree -do-doShrub

6.

Achyranthes aspera

Amaranthaceae

Agehdi, Aghedo.

Herb

7.

Acmella paniculata

Asteraceae

Marethi

-do-

8.

Aegle marmelos

Rutaceae

Bili

Tree

9.

Aerva javanica var.

bovei

10. A. lanata

Amaranthaceae Amaranthaceae

11.

Ageratum conyzoides

Asteraceae

Bur
Gorakhganjo, Velarogorak
Ajagandh, Gandhatisedaradi

Herb -do-do-

12. Ailanthus excelsa

Simaroubaceae

Arduso, rukhdo,

Tree

Moto arduso

13. Alangium salviifolium Cornaceae

Ankol

-do-

subsp. hexapetalum

Forest Medicinal importance

TMDD Seeds are carminative and used as tonic.

GR SC GR TH
SC
TMDD TMDD SC TMDD TMDD
TMDD TMDD

Plant parts are used as astringent in diarrhea with pyrosis and hypertrophy of tonsils and eruption of skin.
Decoction of bark is used as gargle and pods are used in urino-genital diseases treatment.
Seeds are astringent.
Gum arabic is used for emollient, intestinal troubles and applied externally on inflammation, viz., burns, sores and nodules in leprosy. Roots used for dysentery and nodular leprosy. Bark used for diabetes and urinary complaints treatment.
Astringent, diuretic, used in menorrhagia and diarrhea. It helps in abortion, decoction of plant is used as a laxative and promotes secretion, used in anasarca, dropsy, piles, boils, eruption of skin. Seeds and leaves used in hydrophobia and snake-bites. Dried plant powder given to children for colic and astringent in gonorrhea.
Pungent flowers are chewed for relief in throat infections and paralysis of tongue. Tincture of the capitula acts as a sialagogue and stimulant and used in caries and inflammation of jaw-bones. Herb is used in dysentery.
Bark used for heart diseases. Fruits are astringent, digestive, laxative and used in diarrhea and dysentery. Leaves cathartic, used in diabetes, fever, mouth ulcers and sun strokes. Roots used for fever, cough, sore throat and diabetes.
Roots are diuretic. Decoction of stem and roots used for flatulent colic. Flowers expectorant; their infusion used in aphthae and sore throat.
Flowers and leaves are used in asthma, bronchitis and jaundice. Roots are demulcent and diuretic. Whole plant used for cuts, burns, swellings and skin diseases.
Used in nervine tonic, juice of the herb is useful in prolepses. Decoction used in diarrhea, dysentery, colic with flatulence and other gastro-intestinal ailments. Extract of flowers is used in asiatic form of Schwartz Leukaemia and prolong the life span of mice. Leaves used for skin diseases and wounds.
Bark anthelmintic, febrifuge, expectorant and antispasmodic, used for asthma, bronchitis, also used for dysentery, etc. It contains several quasinoids.
Root used for cutaneous troubles; astringent, anti-thelmintic, purgative, emetic, and diaphoretic, also used for biliousness and colic and as a substitute for ipecac (Cephaelisipecacuanha). The bark exhibits anti-tubercular activity. Fruit acidic and asrtingent, relished by children. Fruits are laxative, tonic and refrigerant; used in haemorphages. Seeds tonic and refrigerant; also employed in haemorhages.
Cont...

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests 14 International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020)

Cont... 14.
15.
16. 17.
18. 19.
20.
21.
22. 23.

Albizia lebbeck
A. odoratissima
A. procera Alternanthera sessilis
Alysicarpus longifolius A. monilifer
A. vaginalis
Anogeissus latifolia
A. pendula Asparagus racemosus

Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Fabaceae Asteraceae
Fabaceae Fabaceae
Fabaceae
Combretaceae
Combretaceae Asparagaceae

24. Avicennia marina 25. Azadirachta indica

Acanthaceae Meliaceae

26. Balanites aegyptiaca

Zygophyllaceae

27. Barleria prattensis 28. B. prionitis

Acanthaceae Acanthaceae

29. Bauhinia racemosa

Fabaceae

30. Biophytum sensitivum Oxalidaceae

31. Blainvillea acmella

Asteraceae

Kaliosaras, Pilosarshio Dholo - sarsad, Kalosarasio Safed siris, Kilai Adbautandal, Jalajambi Dhodasamervo Sameravo
Bhoysameravo
Dhavdo
Dhav, Kalodhavado Shatavari, Satavari

-do-
-do-
-doHerb
-do-do-
-do-
Tree
-doHerb

Tivar, Cher Limdo, Limba
Ingorio, Angario
Sherio Pilokanthasherio
Ashetro
Risamnu, Zarero, Lajari

Tree -do-
-do-
Shrub -do-
Tree
Herb

Dholufuladu

-do-

TMDD Leaves and seeds used for eye troubles and bark for bolis.

TMDD TMDD TMDD TMDD TMDD TMDD TMDD TMDD TMDD
MF TMDD
TMMD
TMDD SC
FP
TMDD
SC

Bark applied externally in leprosy and inverted ulcers. Leaves used as remedy for cough.
Used for gonorrhoea.
Accredited with galactagogue properties and used for night blindness, contains carotenes.
Roots used as substitute for liquorice.
Leaves antipyretic and purgative. Roots used as antidote; also used in cough, leprosy and urinary complaints.
Leaves used in cancer and as a purgative. Roots used as a contraceptive. Roots used as expectorant, leprosy and urinary complaint.
Tree yields a gum, used in pharmaceutical preparations. Bark astringent and used in ophthalmia. Root used for urinary complains.
Seeds used in dysentery. Stem bark in gastritis.
Root is used as refrigerant, demulcent, diuretic, aphrodisiac, anti-diarrheatic and antidysenteric. Fresh root juice is mixed with honey and used in dyspepsia. Roots are a constituent of medicinal oils used for nervous and rheumatic complaints.
Aromatic; bitter juice used as an abortifacient.
Bark used in skin troubles. Leaves considered antiseptics, decoction for ulcers and echzema. Flowers tonic and stomachic. Berries purgative, emollient. Seed oil is used for skin affections.
Unripe fruits cathartic, ripe ones used for whooping cough and skin troubles. Bark anthelmintic. Seeds expectorant, used in whooping cough and for colic; seed extract hypotensive. Fruit pulp used for hair washing.
Roots used as antidote; and in boils, diarrhea, fever, flatulence and vomiting.
Juice of the leaves given with honey in catarrhal affection of children. A paste of roots applied to boils and glandular swellings. Leaves chewed to relieve toothache. Roots febrifuge.
Bark astringent used in dysentery. Leaves given with onion for diarrhea and as an anthelmintic. Decotion of leaves used in malaria. Root bark used in intestinal diseases. Leaves also used in skin diseases.
Tonic and stimulant, used in chest complaints, convulsions, cramps and inflammatory tumours. Ash is mixed with lime juice and given for stomachache. Leaves and roots styptic. Decoction of leaves given for diabetes, asthama and phthisis. Powdered seeds applied to abscesses to promote suppuration.
Leaves rheumatic.
Cont...

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020) 15

Cont... 32. 33.
34.
35.
36

Blepharis integrifolia B. maderaspatensis
Blumea lacera
Boerhavia plumbaginea Bombax ceiba

Acanthaceae Acanthaceae Asteraceae Nyctaginaceae Malvaceae

37. Boswellia serrata

Burseraceae

38. Bridelia retusa 39. Butea monosperma

Phyllanthaceae Fabaceae

40. Canscora diffusa
41. Capparis decidua
42. C. grandis 43. C. sepiaria
44. C. zeylanica 45. Cardiospermum
halicacabum
46. Careya arborea
47. Carissa spinarum
48. Caseari aesculenta 49. C. graveolens 50. C. tomentosa

Gentianaceae Capparaceae Capparaceae Capparaceae Capparaceae Sapindaceae
Lecythidaceae
Apocynaceae Salicaceae Salicaceae Salicaceae

Zinkuutingan

-do-

Untigan, Untanjan, -doChokdi

Burando, Kapurio

-do-

Punarnava

-do-

Savar, Sawar,

Tree

Shimlo, Shemolo

Salaigugal,

-do-

Dhupelio, Salai

Asan, Monj

-do-

Khakhro, Kesudo,

Tree

Palas

Zinkukariyatu

Herb

Ker, Kerdo, Kera

Shrub

Thikaridumro, Dhuti Tree

Kanthar

-do-

Waghat vel Karalio

Shrub Herb

Kumbh, Kumbhi

Tree

Karvanda, Karamda
Kirmira Kiramira Manjo

Shrub
Tree -do-do-

TMDD FP

Seeds used in diabetes, ulcers and urinary problems. Seeds used in ulcers and urinary problems.

TMDD SC TMDD
TMDD
TMDD TH
TMDD SC TMDD TMDD TMDD SC
TMMD
AP TMDD TMDD TMDD

Juice of the leaves used as an anthelmintic, particularly against threadworms. Herb also used as a febrifuge, diureticand anti-scorbutic.
Leaves diuretic and used in jaundice. Roots are used in asthma, bronchitis, inflammation jaundice, rheumatism and swellings.
Flowers stem bark and roots are blood purifier and used in cough, diarrhea, dysentery and inflammation. Root bark used for intestinal diseases and sexual disorders.
Bark used against diarrhea and skin troubles. Gum considered expectorant, diuretic and stomachic and used in diarrhea, dysentery, pulmonary infections and cutaneous troubles.
Bark and root astringent.
Bark astringent used for piles, tumours and menstrual disorded. Tree yields a gum called Butea gum which is astringent and used in diarrhea. Flowers decoction or infusion used in diabetes, digestive disorders and urinary complains.
Used as tonic and in fever. Fresh juice prescribed in insanity, epilepsy and nervous debility.
Fruits used in biliousness and cardiac troubles. Bark diaphoretic, alexiteric, used in cough and asthma.
Infusion of bark and leaves given for swellings and eruptions.
Accredited with febrifugal and tonic properties; also found useful for skin troubles.
Barks sedative and stomachic, used in cholera.
Roots diuretic, diaphoretic, emetic, emmenogogue and laxative; used for rheumatism, lumbago and nervous diseases. Leaves rubefacient, used as poultice in rheumatism.
Bark is anthelmintic, antipyretic, demulcent, used in diarrhea, small pox in snake bite and eruptive fevers. Flowers used as afrodisiac. Fruits and gum are astringent.
Root stomachic and anthelmintic. Decoction of leaves given in remittent fevers. Root also used as antidote.
Roots used in diabetes.
Root and stem bark used in stomachache.
Leaves used in swellings. Stem bark and root used in stomachache. Bark powder applied in dropsy.

Cont...

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests 16 International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020)

Cont... 51.

Cassia fistula

Fabaceae

52. Cassine albens

Celastraceae

53. Catunaregam spinosa Rubiaceae

54. Celosia argentea

Amaranthaceae

55. Cenchrus ciliaris 56. Chamaecrista absus
57. C. pumila 58. Cissampelos pareira
59. Cleome brachycarpa
60. C. viscosa
61. Clerodendrum phlomidis
62. Cocculus hirsutus

Poaceae Fabaceae Fabaceae Menispermaceae Cleomaceae Cleomaceae Lamiaceae Menispermaceae

63. Colebrookea oppositifolia
64. Commelina benghalensis
65. C. forskalaei
66. Commiphora wightii

Lamiaceae
Commelinaceae
Commelinaceae Commelinaceae

67. Convolvulus prostratus Convolvulaceae

68. Corchorus aestuans

Malvaceae

Garmala, Garmalo
Bhutalan, Bhutadi Mindhod, Midhal
Kangazaro
Jhinudhamnu Chimed Nanio chimed Venivel, Karan dhiu Aal Pili, Talavani Arani, Kami Vevdi, Vadhi, Vevati
Karvat Motu shishmuliu Shishmuliu Gugur, gugal
Shankhavali Gitali, Chunch, Chhadhar

-do-
-do-do-
Herb
-do-do-doClimber Herb -doShrub Climber
Shrub Herb -doShrub
Herb -do-

TMDD
TMDD TMDD
TMDD
GR TH SC TMDD SC GR TH RTH
TMMD

Dried fruits used as a pergative, laxative for habitual constipation. Root used for treatment of black water fever. Leaves and roots used for leprosy, skin diseases, syphilis and throat troubles.
Leaves used headache, hysteria and skin diseases. Roots used as antidote for snake poison and as an emetic.
Fruits emetic and used as a substitute of ipecacuanha. Seeds given to induce appetite. Bark astringent, given in diarrhea and dysentery, infusion used as an emetic, also used to be an abortifacient. Bark is a sedative given to relieve pain due to bruises, and bone-ache during fever; also given internally and used externally as an anodyne in rheumatism.
Seeds used in diarrhea, eye troubles, and sore mouth. Ash used in lung and chest diseases. Leaves used as antidote, antipyretic, aphrodisiac, gonorrhoea and urinary complains.
Abortifacient.
Seeds used in ophthalmia and skin troubles, also as a cathartic. Leaves used in cough.
Seeds used as pergative.
Roots diuretic, antiperiodic, purgative, used in dyspepsia, dropsy and urinary troubles.
Used in scabies and rheumatism and for inflammation. Leaves employed in leucoderma.
Leaves used in boils, heartcomplain and skin disease. Seeds anthelmitic; used in inflammation, skin diseases, tumours and ulcers.
Leaves used in boils, eart complain and skin diseases. Seeds anthelmitic; used in inflammation, skin diseases, tumours and ulcers.
Mucilaginous juice of leaves, mixed with water, used as refrigerant, also applied to eczema, prurigo and impetigo. Roots laxative and demulcent, rheumatism and stomachache in children.
Leaves applied to wounds and bruises. Roots used in prescription for epilepsy.

SC TMDD TMDD
P TMDD

Leaves used in diarrhea and wounds. Herb considered demulcent, emollient, laxative and refrigerant, used in leprosy.
Flowers used in catarrhal and eye complaints.
Gum is astringent and antiseptic. Also used as a stomachic and for muscular rheumatism. It stimulates appetite and act as a diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, and uterine stimulant.
Herb is tonic, blood purifier and purgative. Used in fever, diabetes and hysteria.
Seeds stomachic.

Cont...

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020) 17

Cont... 69. 70.
71. 72.
73.
74.

C. depressus C. olitorius
C. tridens Cordia dichotoma
C. perrottetii
Crateva adansonii

Malvaceae Malvaceae
Malvaceae Boraginaceae
Boraginaceae
Capparaceae

75. Crotalaria burhia

Fabaceae

76. C. linifolia

Fabaceae

77. C. medicaginea

Fabaceae

78. Cucumis prophetarum Cucurbitaceae

79. Curculigo orchioides

Hypoxidaceae

80. Curcuma inodora

Zingiberaceae

81. Cyanthillium cinereum Asteraceae

82. Cyclea peltata

Menispermaceae

83.

Cymbopogon martini

Poaceae

84. Cynodon dactylon

Poaceae

85. Cyperus rotundus

Cyperaceae

86. Dactyloctenium aegyptium

Poaceae

87.

Dalbergia lanceolaria

Fabaceae

88. D. latifolia

Fabaceae

89. Dendrocalamus strictus Poaceae

Jhidki, Bahuphali Chhunchhdo
Chhunchh Bargund, Gunda, Vadgunda Jangali gundi
Vayvarno
Kharshan Adabaushan Adabaumethi Indramana Kali musli
Jangaliharda Sedardi, Sehadadi
Karipat Roshado
Dharo, Dhrokhad
Chido
Tardi, Arotaro
Tantoshi Sisam Vans

-do-do-doTree Shrub Tree
Herb -do-do-do-do-
-do-do-
Climber Herb -do-do-do-

SC GR SC TMDD SC TMDD
GR OR FP GR TMDD
TMDD GR
SC TMDD FP OR GR

Leaves emollient. Seeds used as tonic.
Infusion of leaves tonic and febrifuge; also used as a demulcent in cystitis and dysuria.
Herbs used as coolant.
Fruit astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent, and expectorant, used in diseases of chest and urinary passage.
Fruit astringent, anthelmintic, diuretic, demulcent, and expectorant, used in diseases of chest and urinary passage.
Bark stimulate liver, its extract used as a laxative, and for promoting appetite; also given urinary affections. Root barks rubefacient. Flowers astringent and cholagogue.
Considered refrigerant.
Used in wounds.
Seeds used in hypertension.
Emetic and purgative and highly toxic.
Tuberous roots used for skin troubles. Considered demulcent, diuretic and tonic. In combination with aromatic and bitters, they are used in piles, diarrhea, jaundice and asthma.
Tubers diuretic, galactogogue and purgative.
Infusion of the herb makes a useful combination with quinine against malaria. Juice given in incontinence of urine. Roots bitter, used as an anthelmintic, their decoction given in diarrhea and stomach-ache; juice for cough and colic. Flower used in fever, rheumatism and conjunctivitis. Seeds anthelmintic and alexipharmac, effective against threadandround worms.
Tubers used as a febrifuge. Stomachic and tonic.
Used as an aromatic astringent; decoction used as a febrifuge; essential oil applied in rheumatism and neuralgia.
Decoction diuretic and used for anasarca. Rhizomes used in genito-urinary troubles.
Dried tuberous roots diuretic, diaphoretic, and astringent properties, used in stomach and bowel complaints.
Grains analgesic. Whole plant used in ulcers.

Tree -doArboreal

TMDD TMDD TMDD

Decoction of bark used in dyspepsia; seed oil for rheumatism.
Bark used in eczema, pimples, ulcers. Plant used as stimulant and tonic.
Leaves abortifacient and used in urinary complaints. Shoots used in rheumatism.

Cont...

Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Forests 18 International Journal of Plant and Environment, Volume 6 Issue 1 (2020)

Cont... 90.
91.
92.
93. 94. 95. 96.
97. 98.
99.

Desmodium gangeticum
Desmostachya bipinnata
Dichrostachys cinerea

Fabaceae Poaceae Fabaceae

Dicoma tomentosa Digera muricata Dillenia pentagyna Diospyros melanoxylon

Asteraceae Amaranthaceae Dilleniaceae Ebenaceae

D. montana Dolichandrone falcate

Ebenaceae Bignoniaceae

Drimia indica

Asparagaceae

100. Echinochloa colona 101. Eclipta prostrata

Poaceae Asteraceae

102. Ehretia laevis

Boraginaceae

103. Enicostema axillare

Gentianaceae

104. Eragrostis tremula 105. Eranthemum roseum 106. Erythrina suberosa 107. Eucalyptus globulus

Poaceae Acanthaceae Fabaceae Myrtaceae

108. Euphorbia heterophylla Euphorbiaceae

109. E. hirta

Euphorbiaceae

110. E. neriifolia

Euphorbiaceae

111. E. nivulia 112. E. prostrata

Euphorbiaceae Euphorbiaceae

Shalparni
Darbh
Madhat, Mordhundhiyu Dholoharancharo Kanjaro Karmal Timbru, Timbaroo
Dheki Matarsingi, Medsingi Jangalidungadi
Samo Bhangra
Nani vadhvardi, Vadhvardi Mamejavo
Moti bhumasi Dashmuli Jakhariokhakhro Nilgiri
Ubhidudheli Dudheli Thor
Thor Rati dudheli

Herb
-do-
Tree
Herb -doTree -do-
-do-do-
Herb
-do-do-
Tree
Herb
-do-doTree -do-
Herb -doShrub
-doHerb

TMDD Roots used as febrifuge, expectorant and diuretic.

OR

Culms diuretic, used in dysentery and menorrhagia.

TMDD Roots used in rheumatism. Tender shoots are bruised and used in opthalmia.

TMDD TMDD TMDD TH
AP TMDD

Used as a febrifuge. Flowers and seeds used for urinary diseases. Bark used to treat jaundice. Leaves diuretic, laxative, carminative and styptic; dried flower used in urinary and skin troubles. Decoction of bark used in diarrhea and dyspepsia. Bark used in stomachache and swellings. Fruits used in boils. Used in diarrhea.

SC
GR MS TMDD

Bulbs are the source of drug known as Indian Squill, used as a cardiatonic, stimulant, expectorant and diuretic; in large doses. However, it is emetic and cathartic and may cause cardiac depression. Bulbs employed as deobstruent, also used in dropsy, rheumatism and skin troubles. Externally used to remove wart and corns.
Used as a coolant in constipation.
Tonic and deobstruent, used in hepatic and spleen enlargements and skin troubles. Roots emetic and pergative; also applied to wounds in cattle.
Decoction of fresh roots given in venereal diseases.

OR
GR TMDD DF SC
TH OR SC
TH SC

Bitter tonic, stomachic and laxative, used as a substitute for Chirayita (Swertiachirayita Karst.) as a blood purifier; also used in dropsy and malaria. Seeds used in asthma. Roots boiled in milk and used in leucorrhoea. Bark astringent; used in fever. Leaves used as antidote. Essential oil used as anticeptic, expectorant, febrifuge, diaphoretic and diseases of the respiratory tract. Leaves used in swellings. Used in colic dysentery and diseasess of genito-urinary tract. Latex acrid, rubefacient, purgative, expectorant, used to remove warts and cutaneous erupyion. Juice purgative and diuretic. Root bark used in dropsy. Leaves anthelmintic, astringent, laxative and stimulant. Roots used in amenorrhoea and as an antibiotic. Plant used in diarrhea and ringworm.
Cont...

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Ecological and Ethnobotanical Characterisation of Gujarat