Design and Analysis Mini CNC Plotter Machine


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Design and Analysis Mini CNC Plotter Machine

This study Submitted to the College of Engineering University of Al-Qadisiyah in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Bachelor's degree of Science in Mechanical Engineering.
2018

Barra Jabbar Sujud Abd-Alstar Ahmed Yahya

Ahmed Jasim

Mohammed Iskander

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Al-Qadisiyah

Supervisor Yousif Mohsin Hasan

Table of Contents
TABLE OF CONTENTS........................................................................................... 2 LIST OF FIGURES ...................................................................................................3 LIST OF TABLES ..................................................................................................... 3 ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................ 4 CHAPTER ONE ........................................................................................................ 6 INTRODUCTION...................................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER TWO ....................................................................................................... 8 MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY OF PROJECT..........................................8
MECHANICAL SYSTEM DESIGN .................................................................................. 8 ELECTRONICS SYSTEM AND WIRING .......................................................................... 9 Arduino Uno R3 .......................................................................................................................... 10 CNC V3 Shield with A4988 stepper Driver Module and Heatsink for Arduino ........................... 11 Stepper Motor ............................................................................................................................ 11 CIRCUIT AND WIRING ............................................................................................. 12 COMPUTER AND SOFTWARE TOOLS ......................................................................... 14 Arduino IDE.................................................................................................................................14 Easel software ............................................................................................................................ 15 CHAPTER THREE ................................................................................................. 16 CALIBRATION ....................................................................................................... 16 STEPS TO RUN CNC PLOTTER MACHINE...................................................... 16 CHAPTER FOUR....................................................................................................18 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION .............................................................................. 18 CONCLUSIONS ...................................................................................................... 21 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 22
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List of Figures
Figure 1. flow chart to implementation CNC plotter machine. ..................................................... 7 Figure 2. subsystem of CNC plotter Machine. ............................................................................... 8 Figure3 . Plotter machine Modelling by solidwork.........................................................................9 Figure 4. Arduino Uno circuit.........................................................................................................10 Figure 5. CNC V3 Shield with A4988 Stepper driver and Heatsink. .......................................... 11 Figure6 . Steeper Motor..................................................................................................................12 Figure 7. Electronics Circuit. .......................................................................................................... 13 Figure 8. Wiring of CNC Plotter Machine. ................................................................................... 13 Figure 9. Arduino Software (IDE)..................................................................................................14 Figure 10. easel software tools. ....................................................................................................... 15 Figure 11. Shows Complete CNC Plotter Machine.......................................................................18 Figure12 . Comparison of text file (a) original text (b) plotted text. ...........................................19 Figure 13. Comparison of geometric shape (a) original shape (b) plotted shape.......................20
List of Tables
Table 1. .............................................................................................................................................. 17
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ABSTRACT
This project shows how to design and building low cost Arduino plotter machine based on the open source hardware and software. The Arduino plotter machine has been dependent on the principle of Computer Numerical Control with limited area depends on the motion X, Y and Z axes. The objectives of this project are to design the Plotter and to develop open source software for control the machine. Basically, the system of this plotter machine is modeling by solidwork software to work with three axes stepper motors (as X, Y and Z axes), these three stepper motors are controlled by shield for movement (X, Y and Z axes). This machine’s movement on the X axis is 215 mm and Y axis is 235 mm. Length of travel means the linear movement of stepper motors that control for X, Y and Z axes from point to another point. The left and right movement controlled by X axis stepper motor, front-back movement controlled by Y axis stepper motor and the pen is up-down that is controlled by Z axis stepper motor.
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
The world has become a high technology with a lot of things becoming smaller and thinner. The fast-growing development of technology and manufacturing, Industrial requirement such as good and high precision quality has helped in developing the CNC machine plotter all of those can be achieved through machines that can be controlled by computers such as Computer Numerical Control (CNC) machine. To implement CNC plotter machine, several concepts must be understood such as: understanding fundamentals, Machine Mechanical design, CNC machine hardware, software developing, test each one of three axis stepper motors and connecting CNC Machine with the software tools and test it, Figure 1 bellow shows the steps that has been used to implement this project. Three axes of CNC plotter machine can do movement starting with three primary axes which are X, Y and Z axis. The Z axis is being paralleled with the X-axis (Micheal W. Mattson, 2010). Figure 1 shows the steps to implement this paper must be understood fundamental of the plotter machine, Machine design by solidwork software, implementation Machine hardware and wiring connection, Development software, test each one of three axes stepper motors, finally connect machine with Easel software tools and test Machine. Objectives: The objectives of this project are to design the CNC Plotter Machine and to develop open source software and hardware to control it.
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Figure 1. flow chart to implementation CNC plotter machine. 7

CHAPTER TWO
MATERIAL AND METHODOLOGY OF PROJECT
This chapter shows how to build and do experimental the project, method of this project is generally a guiding principle to handle the problem. The project implementation method is discussed briefly focusing on basic components. The framework must be clear to ensure that the project runs smoothly, and project objectives are capable of success. Figure 2 shows three subsystems of this CNC plotter machine; Mechanical system design, electronics system, and computer for software tools.
CNC plotter Machine

Mechanical system design

Electronics system and Wiring

Computer and Software tools

Figure 2. subsystem of CNC plotter Machine.

Mechanical system design
In this section of project, the structure of CNC plotter machine has been designed and modelling in solidwork software with desired dimensions and all parts of CNC machine will be achieved before implementation the hardware of actual CNC plotter machine. Before starting the design, there
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are many steps of criteria must be explained. Length of travel mean the
linear movement of steppers motors that controls X, Y and Z axes. The left-right motion is controlled by X axis stepper motor, front-back motion controlled by Y axis stepper motor and the pen goes up and down by Z axis stepper motor controller. Finally, the length travel of CNC plotter machine that decided as 235 mm for X axis, 215 mm for Y axis and 1 mm up-down for Z axis. Figure 3 show CNC plotter machine design and modelling by solidwork.
Figure3 . Plotter machine Modelling by solidwork.
Electronics system and wiring
This section will discuss the electronic parts and wiring which is needed for designing and building our CNC plotter machine. So, the main electronic component required are one Arduino UNO R3, one CNC V3 Shield with A4988 Driver Module with Heatsink for Arduino, stepper motors, D.C. power supply, pen holder, some wires and USB to serial adapter.
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Arduino Uno R3 Arduino Uno is microcontroller based on ATmega328P Atmel AVR family microcontroller (MCU). It is an open source software and hardware design and manufacture a single of microcontroller. It has 14 digital Input/output pins and 6 Analogue input can be sampled using on-chip ADC. By using open source can be programming Arduino Uno. It also has 6 PWM outputs multiplexed on to the digital IO pins. The dimensions of Arduino Uno measured are [68.6 mm x 53.4 mm]. Figure 4 below shows the Arduino Uno R3 circuit.
Figure 4. Arduino Uno circuit.
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Design and Analysis Mini CNC Plotter Machine