The Framework for Developing Annual Status of Education


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The Framework for Developing Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) Nepal Testing Tools

1. Introduction
This framework is designed to guide the preparation of testing tools for Annual Status of Education Report (ASER) in Nepal. The objective of this framework is to provide standard guidelines to the item writers for the development of ASER test items in Nepal The framework has been informed by efforts in the Nepali context as well as best practices found in the global People’s Action For Learning (PAL) network. This framework has learned from the EGRA and NASA assessment tools used by the Education Review Office, Nepal. It has also drawn from testing approaches used by ASER in India, ASER in Pakistan, and Uwezo (conducted in three East African countries). ASER Nepal tests are pegged to the Nepali national curriculum at the Standard 2 and 3 levels. This reflects the best practices of Citizen-led Assessments around the world as well as conformity with SDG 4 demands. This framework is important as it allows for the development of uniform and standard tests across the samples, contexts and the years. The development of this framework is particularly need at this moment where ASER Nepal methodologies are being adapted across contexts - as a way to reach the very marginalized in households in Province 2 and Province 3 as well as a simple easy to use way to assess all school going students in various municipalities in Province 5.
The framework is pegged to the literacy and numeracy skills at the grade 3 level as per national curriculum of Nepal. However, ASER Nepal will not assess all competencies of literacy and numeracy as stipulated in the Syllabus and recommended textbooks. Rather it will assess the foundational competencies at the specific grades which are specified in the following sections.
This framework has been divided into following sections: 1. Framework and Minimum Proficiency of Nepali Literacy Test 2. Framework and Minimum Proficiency of English Literacy Test, 3. Framework and Minimum Proficiency for Numeracy Test.

2. Framework and Minimum Proficiency for Nepali Literacy Test

Level

National Curriculum of Nepal

ASER Nepal Minimum Proficiency

Description

Beginner Letter

Below Basic
ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: sIff – ! M j0f{dfnfsf ;Unf j0f{sf] z'4 pRrf/0f ug{ .

The curriculum of Grade 1 notes this proficiency as follow:
sIff – ! M j0f{dfnfsf ;Unf, ;+o'Qm / dfqf ;lxtsf j0f{ / tL j0f{ k|of]u ePsf zAbsf] z'4 pRrf/0f ug{ .

Student should be able to recognize alphabets. There will be 10 random Nepali alphabets. There will be at least 2 vowels, and balance between the range (Ka-Gha, Cha-Jha, Ta-Da, Pa-Ma). The confusing letters (ª, `, 7, 8, 9, 0f, if, z, If, q, 1) will be omitted.
Total Number of Items: 10 Total Number of Attempts: 5 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 4 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

-
Student shows basic proficiency by being able to recognize 5 Devanagari alphabets.
He/she has to pronounce them correctly.
Basic: Requires least cognitive skills
The font will be in “Preeti.”

Word

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:
sIff – ! M j0f{dfnfsf ;Unf, ;+o'Qm / dfqf ;lxtsf j0f{ / tL j0f{ k|of]u ePsf zAbsf] z'4 pRrf/0f ug{ . ;/n zAbx? k9\g .
sIff – @ M ;+o'Qm j0f{ ePsf / p:t} Wjlg ;'lgg] zAbx?sf] sf] z'4 pRrf/0f ug{ . hf]8] df]8]sf ;/n zAbx? k9\g .
sIff – # M ;+o'Qm j0f{ ePsf zAbx?sf] sf] z'4 pRrf/0f ug{ .

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: sIff – ! M j0f{dfnfsf ;Unf / dfqf ;lxtsf j0f{ / tL j0f{ k|of]u ePsf zAbsf] z'4 pRrf/0f ug{ .
Student should be able to identify 4 out of 5 words correctly, with the correct pronunciation. Words should include maximum 3 single letter, and 2 Matras.
Total Number of Items: 10 Total Number of Attempts: 5 (50% of the total items.) Total Number must be correct: 4 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows basic proficiency by being able to recognize words.
He/she has to pronounce them correctly.
Proficient: Requires a reasonably moderate level of cognitive skills

Sentence Story

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:
sIff – ! M j0f{dfnfsf ;Unf, ;+o'Qm / dfqf ;lxtsf j0f{ / tL j0f{ k|of]u ePsf zAbsf] z'4 pRrf/0f ug{ . ;/n zAbx? k9\g . ;/n jfSox? -rf/kfFr zAb;Ddsf stf{, sd{ / lqmof ePsf] jfSo_ k9\g .
sIff – @ M ;/n jfSox? -rf/kfFr zAb;Ddsf stf{, sd{ / lqmof ePsf] jfSo_ k9\g .
sIff – # M ;/n jfSox?, ;fwf/0f ;'rgf, ljj/0f, kf]i6/, leQ]kfqf] - rf/kfFr zAb;Ddsf ;+o'Qm j0f{ k|of]u ePsf zAbx? ;d]t x'g]u/L stf{, sd{ / lqmof ePsf] jfSo_ k9\g .

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: sIff – @ M ;/n jfSox? -rf/kfFr zAb;Ddsf stf{, sd{ / lqmof ePsf] jfSo_ k9\g .
Student should be able to read at least 2 out of 4 sentences correctly or with 1 mistake per sentences. A sentence might have up to one joint letters. The words in a sentence will be no longer than 5 letters.
Total Number of Items: 4 Total Number of Attempts: 2 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 2 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows slightly advanced proficiency being able to recognize sentences. He/she able to pronounce each word in the sentences correctly in flow.
Higher Proficiency: Requires higher level order of proficiency

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:
sIff – ! M ;/n afnuLt / sYffx? ;:j/ k9\g .
sIff – @ M ;/n afnuLt / sYffx? ;:j/ k9\g .
sIff – # M cfkm'n] hfg]sf afnsyf eGg . ;/n afn ;flxTox? ;:j/ k9\g .

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: sIff – # M tLg jf ;f] eGbf sd unt pRrf/0f ;lxt ;/n afn ;flxTox? ;:j/ k9\g .

Student should at least be able to read the story fluently with 3 or less than 3 mistakes. Use simple present and simple past tense. There will be not more than 10 sentences having maximum 5-7 words per sentences. Use full stop, comma, inverted comma and question mark as punctuation mark. No more than 5 joint words will be included.
Total Number of Items: 1 Total Number of Attempts: 1 (100% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 1 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows advanced level proficiency by being able to read the story fluently. Student also has to make sense of the story.
Advanced: Requires an advanced level of cognitive skill

Comprehension

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:
syfsf] d'Voljifo af]w ug{, kfq klxrfg ug{ / d'Vo d'Vo 36gf sf/0f ;lxt eGg .

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: syfsf] d'Voljifo af]w ug{, kfq klxrfg ug{ / d'Vo d'Vo 36gf sf/0f ;lxt eGg .

Student should be able to tell some sense of the story, a conclusion, and/or a character´s motivations or intentions. The first question will be simple direct question coming from either second, third or fourth sentence. The second question will be inference question which might include ‘how’ or ‘why’ and answer can be found in the last few sentences.

Student shows higher level proficiency by being able to answer the comprehension questions correctly.
Advanced: Requires an advanced level of cognitive skill

Total Number of Items: 2 Total Number of Attempts: 2 (100% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 2 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

3. Framework and Minimum Proficiency of English Literacy Test

Level

National Curriculum of Nepal

ASER Nepal Minimum Proficiency

Description

Beginner

Below Basic

-

Small Case Letters
Word

The curriculum of Grade 1, and Grade 2 have noted this proficiency as follow:
Grade 1: To recognize and pronounce sounds of small letters.
Grade 2: To recognize all letters by sounds.

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: “Grade 1: To recognize and pronounce sounds of small letters.”
Only small letters are to be included and arranged random. The difficult and confusing letters (q, x, i, l) will be avoided. Test children’s ability to differentiate at least a pair of b & d, n & u, w & m.
Total Number of Items: 10 Total Number of Attempts: 5 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 4 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows basic proficiency by being able to recognize small case (small) alphabets with ease.
The pronunciation and the shape recognition have to be correct.
The Font will be in “Times New Roman”.

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have mentioned about this proficiency as follow:

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: “Grade 1: To read well-known words.”

Grade 1: To read well-known words. To read figures 1-10.
Grade 2: To recognize sounds of common diphthongs and read words containing them. To recognize all active vocabulary words. To read figures 1-100.

Student should be able to identify words correctly, with the correct pronunciation. There will be balanced mix of noun and verbs which are familiar in national textbooks and composed of 4 or 5 letters. The word with silent letters (hour, knife) will not be included. Some samples of high frequency word from the Grade 1 textbooks are: small, driver, book, father, playing, mother, evening, night, sister, white.

Grade 3: To recognize all diphthongs and consonant blends and read words containing them.

Total Number of Items: 10 Total Number of Attempts: 5 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 4 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows slightly advanced proficiency by being able to recognize the words and also comprehend the meanings of these words.
The student is able to pronounce the words correctly and fluently.

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:

Grade 1: To read short, well known sentences.

Sentences

Grade 2: Read out simple sentences with acceptable pronunciation including instructions.

Grade 3: To read and follow simple instructions.

Story

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:
Grade 1: To read very simple, wellillustrated “story”.
Grade 2: Understand and enjoy simple stories.
Grade 3: Develop interest in reading short poems and stories. To read simple stories (including comic-strip style and guessing word-meanings)

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: “Grade 2: Read out simple sentences with acceptable pronunciation.”
Student should be able to read at least 2 out of 4 sentences made of 4-6 words correctly or with 1 mistake per sentences. Not more than 1 word having silent letters in any of sentences.
Total Number of Items: 4 Total Number of Attempts: 2 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 2 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)
ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: “Grade 3: To read simple stories.”
Student should at least be able to read the story fluently with 3 or less than 3 mistakes. Use simple present and simple past tense. There will be not more than 10 sentences having maximum 5-7 words per sentences. Use full stop, comma, inverted comma and question mark as punctuation mark.
Total Number of Items: 1 Total Number of Attempts: 1 (100% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 1 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows advanced proficiency by being able to read the sentences, pronouncing each word correctly and reading the sentence fluently.
Student also has to comprehend the meaning of the sentences and has to explain the meaning in their own native language.
Student shows advanced level proficiency by being able to read the story fluently. Student also has to make sense of the story.
Advanced: Requires an advanced level of cognitive skill

Comprehension

The curriculum of Grade 2 and Grade 3 have mentioned about this proficiency as follow:
Grade 2: Understand and enjoy simple stories.
Grade 3: Understand and enjoy simple stories including comic-strip style and guessing meaning.

Student should make some sense of the story by generating conclusions about a character´s motivations or intentions. The first question will be simple direct question coming from either second, third or fourth sentence. The second question will be inference question which might include ‘how’ or ‘why’ and answer can be found in the last few sentences.
Total Number of Items: 2 Total Number of Attempts: 2 (100% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 2 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows higher level proficiency by being able to answer the comprehension questions correctly.
Advanced: Requires an advanced level of cognitive skill

4. Framework and Minimum Proficiency for Arithmetic test

Level

National Curriculum of Nepal

ASER Nepal Minimum Proficiency

Description

Beginner

Below Basic

-

1 Digit Number

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have mentioned about this proficiency as follow:
sIff – ! M Ps b]lv ;o cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g, lrGg / n]Vg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las, cª\sdf _
sIff – @ M tLg cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g / n]Vg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las, cª\s / cIf/df _
sIff – # M 5 cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g / n]Vg .

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: sIff – ! M Ps b]lv !) cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof k9g / lrGg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las s'g} Psdf _
Student should be able to recognize digits (between 0-9 either in Devnagari or in Hindu-Arabic) correctly. All 0-9 numbers will be included in different positions in different question sets.
Total Number of Items: 10 Total Number of Attempts: 5 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 4 (80% - 100% of the total attempts) ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision:

Student shows basic level proficiency in arithmetic ability by being able to recognize one-digit numbers.
Basic: Requires a basic level of cognitive skills

2 Digit Number

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:
sIff – ! M Ps b]lv ;o cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g, lrGg / n]Vg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las, cª\sdf _
sIff – @ M tLg cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g / n]Vg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las, cª\s / cIf/df _

sIff – ! M bz b]lv ;o cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof k9g / lrGg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las s'g} Psdf_ .
Student should be able to identify numbers (between 10-99 either in Devnagari or in Hindu-Arabic) correctly. The items will be balanced on even-odd, last digit below-above 5, and at least one from all the range of 10 (10-19, 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69, 70-79, 80-89 and 90-99). A digit will not be repeated more than 4 times within a set.

Student shows basic level proficiency by being able to recognize two-digit numbers.
Basic: Requires a basic level of cognitive skills

sIff – # M 5 cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g / n]Vg .

Total Number of Items: 10 Total Number of Attempts: 5 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 4 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)
ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision:

3 Digit Number

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:
sIff – ! M Ps b]lv ;o cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g, lrGg / n]Vg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las, cª\sdf _
sIff – @ M tLg cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g / n]Vg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las, cª\s / cIf/df _
sIff – # M 5 cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof uGtL ug{, k9g / n]Vg .

sIff – @ M tLg cª\s;Ddsf ;ª\Vof k9g / lrGg . -b]jgfu/L / lxGb' c/]las s'g} Psdf_
Student should be able to recognize at least 4 out of 5 numbers (between 100-999 either in Devnagari or in Hindu-Arabic) correctly. The items will be balanced on even-odd, tenth digit below-above 5, and at least one from all the range of 10 (100-190, 200-290, 300-390, 400-490, 500-590, 600-690, 700-790, 800-890 and 900-990). A digit will not be repeated more than 4 times within a set.
Total Number of Items: 10 Total Number of Attempts: 5 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 4 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows advanced ability by being able to recognize threedigit numbers.
Proficient: Requires a reasonable moderate level of cognitive skills

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:

sIff – ! M b'O{ cª\sn] ag]sf ;ª\Vofx?sf] 36fp -;fk6L lng'gkg]{_ ug{ .

Subtraction

sIff – @ M tLg cª\s;Ddn] -b'O{ jf tLg cª\s_ ag]sf ;ª\Vofx?sf] 36fp -;fk6L lng'kg]{_ ug{ .

sIff – # M $ cª\s;Ddn] ag]sf -s'g} tLg :yfgdf ;fk6L lng'kg]{_ ;ª\Vofx?sf] 36fp ug{ / tt\;DaGwL Jofjxfl/s ;d:of agfpg / xn ug{ .

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: sIff – @ M b'O{ cª\sn] ag]sf ;ª\Vofx?sf] 36fp -;fk6L lng'kg]{_ ug{ .
Student should be able to solve at least two of four subtraction problems with borrowing correctly.
Total Number of Items: 4 Total Number of Attempts: 2 (50% of total items.) Total Number must be correct: 2 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows slightly complex level of proficiency by being able to compute subtractions with borrowing with two digit numbers.
Advanced: Requires higher order cognitive skills

Division

The curriculum of Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 have noted this proficiency as follow:
sIff – ! M clwstd @) cf]6f;Ddsf j:t'x?nfO{ @ b]lv % cf]6f ;Ddsf] a/fa/ ;d"xdf afF8g .
sIff – @ M b'O{ cª\s;Ddsf] ;ª\VofnfO[{ Ps cª\ssf] ;ª\Vofn] efu ug{ / hfRFg -lgz]if efu hfg]_]
sIff – # M tLg cª\s;Ddsf] ;ª\VofnfO{ b'O{ cª\s;Ddsf] ;ª\Vofn] efu ug{ / hfRg . -efhs X efukmn ± z]if Ö efHo x'G5 eGg] wf/0ff lbg .

ASER Nepal aims to test the basic level of the curriculum provision: sIff – # M tLg cª\s;Ddsf] ;ª\VofnfO{ Ps cª\s;Ddsf] ;ª\Vofn] efu ug{ -z]if cfpg] _ .
Student should be able to solve one 3 digit by 1 digit numerical division problem with remainder correctly.
Total Number of Items: 2 Total Number of Attempts: 1 (50% of total items) Total Number must be correct: 1 (80% - 100% of the total attempts.)

Student shows advanced proficiency level by being able to compute division sums with threedigit numbers as the dividends and one-digit number as the divisor.
Advanced: Requires higher order cognitive skills

5. General Guiding Principles of ASER Nepal
ASER Nepal aims to develop and use assessment tools that are low cost, simple and easy to use. All items should be selected to the level found in the national curriculum and its recommended text books. The test items shall be original. The direct lifting of items from the textbooks is not be recommended. The items shall take into consideration concerns about gender, environmental, cultural, political and religious biases. For each subject, four test sets will be developed to assess the same level of competencies. All the set of tests should be at the same level of difficulty.

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The Framework for Developing Annual Status of Education