List of Commonly Encountered Petroleum and Petroleum Products


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LIST OF COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS1

May 11, 2006

PETROLEUM OR
PETROLEUM PRODUCT GROUP1
Crude Oil1

TYPE

Natural Gas1

Unleaded Gasoline

Leaded Gasoline Motor Gasoline

Gasohol

Aviation Gasoline

Ethanol (E85) AVGAS

White Gas Kerosene2

Kerosene (non-jet fuel)

Jet Fuel

Kerosene-Based Jet Fuel

Naphtha-Based Jet Fuel

GRADE
Regular Midgrade Premium
AVGAS 80 AVGAS 100 AVGAS 100LL
No. 1K (low sulfur) No. 2K (high sulfur)
JP-5 JP-6 JP-7 JP-8 Jet A Jet A-1 JP-4 Jet B

SYNONYMS

USES

COMMENTS

Petroleum

Crude oil is converted at the refinery to petroleum products that are later used for fuel and non-fuel
applications. Used as a fuel and as a raw
material for creating petrochemicals.

Crude oil is unrefined oil. The viscosity of crude oil varies from a light volatile fluid to a very viscous fluid that is difficult to pour.
A gaseous mixture of hydrocarbons that primarily consist of methane.

Plus Super, Supreme, Ultimate

MTBE is an oxygenate additive that is blended (15% or less by volume) with unleaded gasoline. Unleaded gasoline also contains numerous other additives such as detergents and rust inhibitors.

Gasoline-Alcohol Blend

Motor vehicle and equipment fuel for spark-ignition internal combustion engines.

Leaded motor gasoline use has been discontinued in the United States. Common additives include: tetraethyl and tetramethyl lead, 1,
2-dicloroethane (also called ethylene dichloride or EDC), and 1,2dibromoethane (also called ethylene dibromide or EDB).
Gasohol consists of a blend of 10% or less by volume of alcohol (generally ethanol, but sometimes methanol) and unleaded gasoline. The alcohol serves as an oxygenate additive replacement for MTBE.

Grain Alcohol, Ethyl Alcohol

Airplane fuel for spark-ignition internal combustion engines.

Ethanol (E85) consists of a blend of 85% by volume of ethanol and 15% by volume of unleaded gasoline.
Aviation gasoline is a leaded fuel that is in current use today. AVGAS 100LL is the most commonly used grade and is a lower-lead content
version of AVGAS 100.

Camp Fuel, Stove Fuel, Lantern Fuel

Portable camp stoves and lanterns.

White gas is similar to unleaded gasoline, but white gas does not contain any of the additives that are present in unleaded gasoline. It
is a clean burning gasoline fuel.

Fuel Oil No. 12

Primarily used for heating and for stoves.

No. 1K does not need a flue for burning. No. 2 K requires a flue for burning.

Aviation Turbine Fuel

Commercial and military turbojet and turboprop engines.

JP stands for jet propulsion. Jet A, Jet A-1, and Jet B are commercialgrade fuels. Jet A is the primary commercial and general aviation jet fuel that is used in the United States. JP-4 through JP-8 are military-
grade jet fuels.

Page 1 of 6

LIST OF COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS1
May 11, 2006

PETROLEUM OR
PETROLEUM PRODUCT GROUP1
Distillate Diesel Fuel3
Distillate Diesel Fuel or
a Light Residual Diesel Fuel3
Distillate Fuel Oil3

TYPE Diesel Fuel No.1 Diesel Fuel No. 2
Diesel Fuel No. 4 Fuel Oil No. 12 Fuel Oil No. 2

GRADE

SYNONYMS

USES

COMMENTS

Diesel No. 1 (low sulfur)
Diesel No.1 (high sulfur)
Diesel No. 2 (low sulfur)
Diesel No. 2 (high sulfur)
Fuel Oil No. 1 (low sulfur)
Fuel Oil No. 1 (high sulfur)
Fuel Oil No. 2 (low sulfur)
Fuel Oil No. 2 (high sulfur)

High speed diesel engines operated under frequent speed and load changes (i.e., city buses).

Consists of a blend of kerosene and diesel fuel no. 2.

Automotive Diesel, OnRoad Diesel
Off-Road Diesel, Farm Diesel, Red Diesel
Marine Diesel Fuel, Distillate Marine Diesel Fuel, Diesel Fuel No. 4-D,
Railroad Diesel
Kerosene2

High speed diesel engines operated under uniform speeds and loads (i.e., cars and trucks).
Non-automotive applications for low- to medium-speed diesel
engines under constant speeds and loads. Railroad diesel. Also
used for large, low-speed ship propulsion engines.
Primarily used for heating and for stoves.

A middle distillate used primarily by motor vehicles for on-highway use.
Used by off-road vehicles such as construction and farm vehicles.
A heavy distillate or a blend of distillate and residual oil.
A middle distillate fuel. It is intended for use in vaporizing type burners (oil is converted to a vapor upon contact with a heated
surface or radiation).

Home Heating Oil

Primarily used for domestic heating and for medium-sized industrial/commercial burners.

A middle distillate fuel that is slightly heavier than no. 1 fuel oil. It is intended for use in atomizing type burners (oil is sprayed into droplets
into a chamber and burn while in suspension).

Heavy Distillate or Light Residual
Fuel Oil3

Fuel Oil No. 4

Light Fuel Oil No. 4 Heavy Fuel Oil No. 4

Light Residual Fuel

Primarily used for industrial/commercial burners.

A heavy distillate fuel or a distillate/residual oil blend.
Usually a heavy distillate/residual fuel oil blend, but also can be a heavy distillate fuel.

Page 2 of 6

LIST OF COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS1

May 11, 2006

PETROLEUM OR
PETROLEUM PRODUCT GROUP1
Residual Fuel Oil
Used Oil Oil/Water Separator Petroleum
Lubricating or Mineral Oils (Automotive Applications)7

TYPE

GRADE

Fuel Oil No. 54 Light Fuel Oil No. 5 Heavy Fuel Oil No. 5
Fuel Oil No. 64

Gear Oil Automatic Transmission Fluid
Power Steering Fluid
Brake Fluid Motor Oil
Hydraulic Oil

Various

SYNONYMS
Bunker B, Navy Special, Heating Oil No. 5
Bunker C, Grade 6, Heating Oil No. 6, Black Oil
Waste Oil, Spent Oil, Used Crankcase Oil
Liquid Trap Petroleum Manual Transmission Oil
ATF
Hydraulic Brake Fluid Engine Oil
Hydraulic Lift Oil

USES
For commercial/industrial burners that are capable of burning fuel more viscous than fuel oil no. 4
without preheating. Also used for marine bunkering5 and by power
plants. Use is similar to light fuel oil no. 5,
except that preheating is necessary in some burner types
and in cold climates. Used mostly in large-size commercial and industrial heating. Also used in power plants to generate electricity and for marine
bunkering5. Recycled used oil may be utilized
as a fuel. Recycled oil/water separator petroleum may be utilized as a
fuel. Lubricating automotive manual transmissions and transaxles.
Lubricating automatic transmissions.
Automotive power steering systems.
Automotive disc or drum braking systems.
Automotive engine oil lubricant. Used in hydraulic lift systems at service station repair facilities.

COMMENTS
Light fuel oil no. 5 is a residual fuel of intermediate viscosity.
Heavy fuel oil no. 5 is more viscous than light fuel oil no. 5.
Heavyweight residual fuel that is a high viscosity oil. It is difficult to pump and requires preheating prior to use.
Used oil is defined in Rule 62-770.200(64), FAC. Oil/water separators are liquid trap systems that are designed to separate the liquid petroleum fraction and to temporarily store the
petroleum.
Applies only to gear oils, automatic transmission fluids, power steering fluids, brake fluids, motor oils, and hydraulic oils that contain
petroleum distillates.

Page 3 of 6

LIST OF COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS1

PETROLEUM OR
PETROLEUM PRODUCT GROUP1

TYPE Specialty Oils

Lubricating or Mineral Oils
(NonAutomotive Applications)7

Electrical Oils Manufacturing Process Oils
General Lubricant Oils

Asphalt and Road Oils4

Metalworking Oils Miscellaneous Oils

Petrochemical Feedstocks4

Benzene, Toluene, Xylenes,
Naphthalene, Ethylene, Propylene,
Butadiene, etc.

Liquified Petroleum
Gases4

Principal Gases (Propane and
Butane)
Other Gases (Ethane, Ethylene, Propylene, Butylene,
Isobutane, Isobutylene, etc.)

GRADE Various

May 11, 2006

SYNONYMS

USES

COMMENTS

Penetrating Oil, Bar and Chain oil, etc.
Transformer Oil, Circuit Breaker Oil, etc.
Mineral Seal Oil, Textile Oil, Chemical and Rubber Industry Oil, etc.
Spindle Oil, General Machine Oil, Railroad Diesel Oil, Steam Cylinder Oil, etc.
Quenching Oils, Cutting Oils, etc.

Various

Applies to all other lubricating or mineral oils that are not specified above under the Lubricating or Mineral Oils (Automotive Application)
product group.

Bitumen, Asphaltene

Asphalt and Road Oils are used for paving, roofing, and waterproofing.

Asphalt and road oils are very heavy petroleum oils.

Used for the manufacturing of nonfuel products such as chemicals,
synthetic rubber, and plastics.

Chemical feedstocks (inputs) that are used by industry and are derived from petroleum products.

LPGs

The major non-fuel use is as inputs (feedstocks) for the
petrochemical industry. Fuel uses include domestic heating, cooking, and as alternative to gasoline for
internal combustion engines.

Gaseous hydrocarbons that have been liquified and stored in tanks for use as a fuel.

Page 4 of 6

LIST OF COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS1

PETROLEUM SOLVENT GROUP1

TYPE

Industrial Spirit (SBP or Special Boiling Point)

Mineral Spirits8 White Spirit

GRADE

May 11, 2006

SYNONYMS

USES

COMMENTS

Rubber Solvent, Lacquer Diluent, Benzine, Special Naphtholite, Petroleum Benzine and Ether, etc.
Stoddard Solvent, Dry Cleaning Safety Solvent, Naphthal Safety Solvent, Spotting Naphtha, High and Low Aromatic White Spirits, Mineral turpentine, Solvent
naphtha, etc.

Main use is in the rubber industry for tires. Also used in cements
and adhesives.
Uses include paints, varnishes, paint thinners, photocopier toners, adhesives, dry cleaning solvent,
and a general cleaner and degreaser.

Mineral Spirits generally consist of various solvents that are derived from refined petroleum-based products. Mineral Spirits are
sometimes referred to as Special Naphthas or Petroleum Solvents.

High Boiling Aromatic Solvents

Caromax, Shellsol A-150, Benzene, Toluene, Xylenes,
etc.

Uses include paint thinners, fuel additives, cleaners, printing inks,
rubber and textile industry.

NONPETROLEUM
PRODUCT GROUP1

TYPE

GRADE

Injection Cleaners Techron, Techroline, etc.

Additives Not Blended With
Petroleum Products

Lead substitutes

Fuel Oil Treatments

SYNONYMS

USES

COMMENTS

Used for cleaning the fuel injectors in automobiles.
Additive typically used for older vehicles that require leaded gasoline.
Uses include home heating oil and diesel engine treatments.

Consists of various chemicals that are stored either at manufacturing sites, oil refineries, oil terminals, or other bulk storage facilities.
Tanks at oil terminals are sometimes labeled as "Exxon Additive", "Techron", etc. The additives are blended with the gasoline at the refinery or at the terminals before it is delivered to the retail station. If the additives have already been blended into the gasoline or the fuel
oil, then the cleanup of the gasoline or the fuel oil discharge is regulated by Chapter 62-770, F.A.C. If the additives have not been
blended into the gasoline or the fuel oil, then the discharge of the additive should be regulated by Hazardous Waste rule (Chapter 62-
730, F.A.C.) or by the Contaminated Site Cleanup Criteria rule (Chapter 62-780, F.A.C.).

Page 5 of 6

LIST OF COMMONLY ENCOUNTERED PETROLEUM AND PETROLEUM PRODUCTS1
May 11, 2006
FOOTNOTES
1 Section 376.301(30), F.S., defines "petroleum" as all crude oil that is produced at the well in liquid form and natural gas, and all other hydrocarbons. Section 376.301(31), F.S., defines "petroleum product" as "any liquid fuel commodity made from petroleum" and specifically excludes as petroleum products liquified petroleum gas, no. 5 and no. 6 residual oils, bunker C residual oils (bunker C and fuel oil no. 6 are synonymous), intermediate fuel oils used for marine bunkering with a viscosity of 30 and higher, asphalt oils, and petrochemical feedstocks. All of the petroleum products listed in this table can be classified as petroleum, but only the petroleum substances that can be used for fuel and are not specifically excluded from the petroleum product definition in Section 376.301(31), F.S. can be classified as petroleum products. Additives not blended with petroleum products and mineral spirits are also listed in this table to clarify that they are classified as petroleum solvents (mineral spirits) or as non-petroleum derivatives (additives not blended with petroleum products).

2
Kerosene and fuel oil no. 1 are sometimes listed in the literature as being synonymous.

Other sources list kerosene as a type of fuel oil no. 1.

3 The terms "diesel fuel" and "fuel oil" are often used interchangeably for diesel fuel no.1, no. 2, and no. 4 and fuel oil no. 1, no. 2, and no. 4. The term "diesel fuel" is most often used when referring to fuel for diesel engines. The term "fuel oil" is most often used when referring to fuel used for heating purposes. For example, diesel fuel no. 2 and fuel oil no. 2 are very similar in physical and chemical respects. The main differences between diesel fuel no. 2 and fuel oil no. 2 are the intended use of the two petroleum products and the additives that are added to each product for the particular use. Biodiesel can contain no petroleum or it can consist of a blend of petroleum and fatty acids derived from the refining of vegetable oils. Biodiesel that does not contain any petroleum (biodiesel B100), is not considered a petroleum product. Biodiesel that contains any petroleum (i.e., biodiesel B20, which contains 20% biodiesel and 80% petroleum diesel) is considered a petroleum product.

4 Section 376.301(31), F.S., specifically excludes liquified petroleum gas, no. 5 and no. 6 residual oils, bunker C residual oils (bunker C is synonymous with fuel oil no. 6), intermediate fuel oils used for marine bunkering5 with a viscosity of 30 and higher6, asphalt oils, and petrochemical feedstocks in the definition of petroleum products.

5
Bunkering is the process of refueling the fuel tanks (bunkers) on marine ships.
6 The viscosities of the fuel oils have a wide range and will vary based on temperature and the degree of blending. Blending of heavy fuel oil with lighter fuel oils is often performed by the refiner to change the viscosity of the oil. This makes it easier to handle for transport and delivery to the user.

7
The general terms "lubricating oil" and "mineral oil" are often used interchangeably by industry.

8
Mineral spirits consist of a variety of products that are often used as solvents.

Section 206.9925(6), F.S., includes mineral spirits as one of the group of organic compounds that are listed in the

definition of solvents. In Section 376.301(31), F.S., mineral spirits are not specifically excluded from the definition of a petroleum product; however, Section 376.3071(4)(o), F.S., states that

solvent contamination is not eligible for funding under the Inland Protection Trust Fund. Depending on the particular type and use, mineral spirits should be regulated by either the Drycleaning

Solvent Cleanup Criteria rule (Chapter 62-782, F.A.C.), the Hazardous Waste rule (Chapter 62-730, F.A.C.), or by the Contaminated Site Cleanup Criteria rule (Chapter 62-780, F.A.C.).

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List of Commonly Encountered Petroleum and Petroleum Products