Selected Miticides for Use on Ornamental Plants


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ENH1118

Selected Miticides for Use on Ornamental Plants1

Robert H. Stamps and Lance S. Osborne2

Mites are among the most difficult arthropod pests to control on ornamental plants. Adult mites have eight legs and piercing/sucking mouthparts that are used to suck fluids from the cells of host plants (Denmark, 1969). The first immature stage of a mite, referred to as the larva, has only six legs, like insects. The exceptions are the Eriophyid mites, which have four legs in all stages. Mites are not insects, but are more closely related to spiders and ticks. Thousands of species of mites feed on plants.
Spider mites, members of the Tetranychidae family, are perhaps the most important mite pests of ornamental plants. The name, spider mites, is due to the many members of this family that produce silk webbing. Spider mites are medium-sized mites that feed on a wide variety of host plants from many different plant families. Some spider mites are bamboo, Lewis, southern red, spruce, tumid and twospotted mites.
Members of the false spider mites family, Tenuipalpidae, do not produce silk webbing, but a number of these species feed on ornamental plants. False spider mites are generally smaller than spider mites. Examples of false spider mites are flat and red palm mites.

Some Tarsonemid mites (family Tarsonemidae) are smaller than even false spider mites. This family includes broad and cyclamen mites.
Eriophyid mites (Eriophyidae family) are too small to be seen with the naked eye and include bud, gall, purple tea and rust mites, among others. As their names suggest, these mites can cause galls, rusts and other abnormal plant growth.
There are other families of mites that have crop-damaging members, but the mites named above are the main mite pests of ornamental plants.
Mites of a given species can develop very rapidly when temperatures, relative humidities, host plants and other factors are optimal. In fact, for many, the time to develop from an egg to an adult can be less than a week. Generally, development occurs more rapidly at higher temperatures, up to a point. Due to mitesˇ rapid development, scouting should be performed frequently (at least once per week), and miticide applications may need to be made on weekly or more-frequent intervals (be sure to check the miticide labels for instructions and restrictions associated with spray intervals) during the summer.

1. This document is ENH1118, one of a series of the Environmental Horticulture Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida. Original publication date, April 2009. Visit the EDIS Web site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu.
2. Robert H. Stamps, professor, Environmental Horticulture Department, and Lance S. Osborne, professor, Entomology and Nematology Department, and associate director, Mid-Florida Research and Education Center--Apopka, FL, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
The Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (IFAS) is an Equal Opportunity Institution authorized to provide research, educational information and other services only to individuals and institutions that function with non-discrimination with respect to race, creed, color, religion, age, disability, sex, sexual orientation, marital status, national origin, political opinions or affiliations. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Cooperative Extension Service, University of Florida, IFAS, Florida A. & M. University Cooperative Extension Program, and Boards of County Commissioners Cooperating. Millie Ferrer, Interim Dean

Selected Miticides for Use on Ornamental Plants
Detection
Frequent, careful inspection of plants is necessary to detect mite infestations before they reach epidemic levels and cause severe plant damage. By the time plant symptoms become very obvious to the unaided eye, control of the mites will be difficult and potentially expensive. Early detection can limit damage and facilitate economical control of mites. Careful inspection is necessary because damage due to mites can, on some plants, resemble that from other causes. For example, symptoms can look similar to insect feeding, nutritional deficiencies, physiological stress, herbicide damage, etc.
Since many mites feed on the undersides of leaves, these are important sites to check. Spider mites can usually be detected on older leaves, whereas Tarsonemids are often found on young leaves. False spider mites often feed near the midrib or veins. Silvery speckling/stippling of the upper leaf surface is a characteristic symptom of leaf feeding. Fine thread-like webbing may also be present (spider mites). Mites may also feed on petioles, stems, buds and other plant parts. Mite feeding can cause a multitude of symptoms, such as leaf cupping, discoloration, distortion, spotting, speckling and stunting, stem russeting and discoloration, as well as distorted and discolored flowers.
Because mites are so small, the use of a magnifying hand lens (10x) will make it easier to observe them. Another technique frequently used to detect mites, especially on crops with fine foliage like ornamental asparagus, is to slap stems firmly on a light-colored surface, such as a white painterˇs palette or a sheet of white paper on a clipboard. If mites are present, they will be easily seen as small, moving spots.
Control
Both biological control agents and miticides are available for controlling mites. For example, the predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus persimilis, can effectively control twospotted spider mites. At least 15 other predators are commercially available for control of this and other pests (Osborne and Peña, 1997). P. persimilis has been used successfully to control twospotted

2
spider mites on many plants growing in protected culture (greenhouses and shadehouses). N. californicus is just as effective, and it tolerates pesticide residues better than P. persimilis and also feeds on broad mites [Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks)]. For more information on biological control of mites, refer to the following Web site: http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/SpMite/b853a1.htm.
A listing of commercial suppliers of biological mite control agents is available at the following Web site: http://www.cdpr.ca.gov/docs/pestmgt/ipminov/ ben_supp/contents.htm.
Besides frequently scouting crops to detect mite infestations early, growers should avoid using pesticides that are harmful to eggs, immatures and adults of predatory mites. Companies that supply mite predators furnish customers with lists delineating the effects of pesticides on the predators. (See “side effects” at the following Web site: http://www.biobest.be and http://www.koppert.nl/e005.shtml)].
For chemical mite control, the use of broad-spectrum insecticides/miticides (especially products with long-lived residual activity, such as the pyrethroids listed in Table 1) is generally not recommended. These insecticides/miticides may directly or indirectly harm beneficial insects and/or mites, and a rapid increase in existing plant-feeding mite populations may result. Use of the insecticide carbaryl is also known to occasionally increase twospotted spider mite infestations on susceptible plants. Therefore, selective chemicals that specifically target plant-feeding mites should be used.
Predatory mites must be released as soon as pest mites are detected, and the number of predatory mites released must be sufficient to ensure control of the pest mites (Osborne et al., 1985). As mentioned previously, check with biological control suppliers for guidance and to find out which predatory-mite strains are resistant or susceptible to specific pesticides. This information can help in making decisions regarding pesticide use. For more information on biological control, see Osborne and Peña, 1997.

Selected Miticides for Use on Ornamental Plants
Although mites can become resistant to miticides; several techniques can reduce the likelihood of this happening. First, minimize miticide usage by incorporating biological and cultural methods into your pest management program. Practice good sanitation methods and use mite resistant crops and varieties. Scout frequently (at least once a week) and only apply miticides when necessary. Design growing areas so all areas can be easily and effectively treated.
Do not use miticides with the same mode of action in succession. Rather, practice long-term rotations, using as many products with different modes of action as possible. For example, carbamates and organophosphates both work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is important in the proper functioning of the nervous system. Most of the other classes of miticides have different modes of action. Table 1 lists miticides commonly used on ornamental crops and the mode of action groups for these miticides. Active ingredients, trade names, formulations and labeling (application locations, restricted use designations, restricted entry intervals [REIs] and manufacturer/distributors' names are also given. Users of any pesticide should make sure they have the current label since labels may change over time. In addition, users should read labels in their entirety and comply with the labelˇs directions and restrictions. Table 2 lists the addresses of the manufacturers/distributors of the miticides listed in Table 1. Another useful strategy for controlling mites is to include products with a non-specific mode of action, where possible, into a rotation. This group includes insecticidal soaps and horticultural oils.
Miticides should only be used as labeled (“the label is the law”). Fortunately, some miticides have general labeling that allows them to be used, at the growerˇs risk, on a broad range of crops not specifically listed on the label. Prudent growers should test multiple applications of any miticide if it is likely that it will be used more than once. In addition, to enhance miticide efficacy, surfactants and adjuvants maybe included if there are no label restrictions.
Allow sufficient time after treating the test plants for phytotoxicity symptoms to develop. If a new

3
miticide will be used in tank mixes or in close sequences with other pesticides, evaluate the potential for plant injury (phytotoxicity) on a small number (about 10) of plants of each species and cultivar before treating all the plants of each crop. These tolerance tests should take into consideration the potential interactions with other pesticides used in the pest control program.
It is essential to read pesticide labels since all restrictions related to where each product can be used (greenhouse, shadehouse, interiorscape, outdoor field nursery, outdoor nursery, landscape, residential landscape), how it can be applied (chemigation, spray, aerial, etc.), on what growing media it can be used, etc., must be observed. State and local labeling may differ from and be more restrictive than federal labeling. Pesticide applicators should always review product labels before using any pesticide and have all pertinent labels (including supplemental labels) in their possession prior to use of any pesticide.
Selected References
Denmark, H. A. 1969. Two-spotted spider mite on chrysanthemum. Fla. Dept. of Agr. and Consumer Serv., Div. of Plant Industry, Ento. Circ. No. 89.
Osborne, L. S., L. E. Ehler and J. R. Nechols. 1985. Biological control of the twospotted spider mite in greenhouses. Univ. of Fla., Inst. of Food and Agr. Sci., Agr. Expt. Sta. Bul. 853 (technical) http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/SpMite/b853a1.htm.
Osborne, L. S. and J. Peña. 1997. More than you want to know about mites and their biological control on ornamentals. Proc. of the 13th Society of American Floristsˇ Conference on Insect and Disease Management on Ornamentals. pp. 53–85.
Sabelis, M. W. 1981. Biological control of twospotted spider mites using phytoseiid predators. I. Agric. Res. Report 910, Pudoc, Wageningen, the Netherlands.
Zhang, Z. 2003. Mites of Greenhouses: Identification, Biology and Control. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK.

Table 1. Selected products for use in controlling mites on ornamental plants.

Mode
of
action groupz

Active ingredient

Trade name(s) Formulation(s)

Mites controlled y

Mite
stages controlledx

1A

carbaryl

Carbaryl, Sevin®

80 S, 4 SL (43% ai s), 4 S (44.1%)

Eriophyid

Location w O

Broad crop labeling
Yes

1B

diazinon

1t Diazinon®
AG500

4 EC (48% ai)

Certain spider mites, cyclamen, mites, carnation bud and shoot mites

dimethoate

Cygon®,

2 EC (23% ai); Eriophyid,

I, A

Dimethoate

4EC (43.5–

Tarsonemid,

44.8% ai)

Tenuipalpid,

Tetranychid

disulfoton

1Di-Syston® 15 G

2A

endosulfan

1Endosulfan, 3 EC (33.7–

Taxus bud

I, A

1Thionex®

34.0% ai)

mite

1Thionex®

50 W

Taxus bud mite, cyclamen

3 r

bifenthrin

Attain® TR

aerosol (4% ai) Spider

On

No

On

No

O

No

On

No

On

No

G

Yes

REI v (hours)
12
12
48
48 48, 24
24 12

Manufacturer/ Distributor u Drexel, Bayer, Prokoz, others
Helena
Southern Agricultural Insecticides, Cheminova, Drexel, Helena Bayer
Drexel, MakhteshimAgan MakhteshimAgan
Whitmire MicroGen

Comments Thorough coverage of upper- and lower-leaf surfaces is important. Use may increase twospotted spider mite populations. Only for certain labeled crops.
Label lists only certain plant uses and for some kinds of spider mites.
Labeled only for use on firs (Christmas trees). Shrubs and trees.
Total release aerosol. Significant resistance has been detected in some populations of spider mites.

Selected miticides for use on ornamental plants

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Table 1. Selected products for use in controlling mites on ornamental plants. (continued)

Mode
of
action groupz

Active ingredient

Trade name(s)
1 Attain®,
Bifenthrin, Broadcide™, Talstar®, UPStar, etc.

Formulation(s)
0.67 F [SC] (7.9% ai)

Mites controlled y
Spider and broad

Mite
stages controlledx

Location w G, On, S

cyhalothrin

1 Scimitar®

0.88 GC (9.7% ai)

Spider

G, I, O, S

Broad crop labeling Yes
yes

fenpropathrin 1 Tame®

2.4 EC (30.9% ai)

Spider

G, I, O, S

Yes

fluvalinate

Mavrik Aquaflow®

2 F (22.3% ai) Spider

G, I, O

Yes

6

abamectin

Abamectin,

0.15 EC (1.9– Eriophyid,

I, A

G, O, S

Yes

Avid®

2% ai)

Spider,

Tarsonemid

10A q

milbemectin clofentezine

1 Ultiflora™
Ovation™

0.0775 EC (1% ai)
1 SC (42% ai)

Eriophyid, Spider, Tarsonemid, Tenuipalpid
Spider

E, I, A E, I

Of

Yes

G, On, S

Yes

REI v (hours)
12
24 24 12 12
12 12

Manufacturer/ Distributor u Whitmire MicroGen, Quali-Pro, Regal, FMC, United Phosphorus Syngenta
Valent
Wellmark International
Quali-pro, Syngenta
Gowan
Scotts

Comments
Significant resistance has been detected in some populations of mites.
Significant resistance has been detected in some populations of mites.
Significant resistance has been detected in some populations of mites.
Significant resistance has been detected in some populations of mites.
Translaminar, also suppresses aphids, thrips and whiteflies. Do not use on Shasta daisies or ferns. Resistance has been detected in some populations of twospotted spider mites
Apply no more than 128 fl oz per acre per year.
Only one application per crop cycle. Good residual control. Unstable in alkaline solutions. Useful in IPM programs. Bright magenta in color, residue may be noticeable.

Selected miticides for use on ornamental plants

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Table 1. Selected products for use in controlling mites on ornamental plants. (continued)

Mode
of
action groupz

Active ingredient

Trade name(s) Formulation(s)

Mites controlled y

Mite
stages controlledx

Location w

hexythiazox

Hexygon™

50 WP

Spider

E, I

G, I, O, S

Can also be used in
landscapes

10B r

etoxazole

TetraSan

5 WDG

Spider, Tenuipalpid

E, I

G, I, Lr, O,

S

Broad crop labeling Yes
Yes

12B r

1 fenbutatin-
oxide (also known as hexakis)

ProMITE™ (formerly Vendex)

50 WP

Spider

I, A

G, O

Yes

13

chlorfenapyr Pylon®

2 SC

Eriophyid,

I

Spider,

Tarsonemid

G

No

REI v (hours)
12 12 48
12

Manufacturer/ Distributor u Gowan Valent USA
SePRO
OHP

Comments
Provides residual control.
Translaminar activity, useful in IPM programs. Best used in early stages of infestations. Use no more than twice per cropping cycle. Sterilizes adult mites.
For best results, apply when mite populations are just beginning to build. Thorough and complete coverage is necessary for optimum control. Performs best when daily temperature at application averages above 70°F. May be applied when honeybees and beneficial mites are present.
Translaminar activity. Avoid applying to blooming flowers. No more than three applications (not more than the 41 fl oz of product per 100 gal per crop per season or 0.64 lb ai per 100 gal per crop per season) should be applied during a crop growing cycle (start to finish for one ornamental crop). Note sensitive plants on label.

Selected miticides for use on ornamental plants

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Table 1. Selected products for use in controlling mites on ornamental plants. (continued)

Mode
of
action groupz

Active ingredient

Trade name(s) Formulation(s)

Mites controlled y

Mite
stages controlledx

Location w

20B

acequinocyl

Shuttle™

15 SC

Spider, Tenuipalpid

E (some), I G, On, S

Broad crop labeling
Yes

21A

fenpyroximate Akari®

pyridaben

Sanmite®

23

spiromesifen Judo™

Forbid™

5 SC

Eriophyid,

I

G, I, On

Yes

Spider

Tarsonemid

75 WP

Spider,

I, A (some) G, O, S

Yes

Tarsonemid

4 F [SC] (45.2% Eriophyid,

E, I, A

G, On, S

Yes

ai)

Spider,

(some)

Tarsonemid,

4 F [SC] (45.2% Tenuipalpid

Ol

ai)

un r

bifenazate

Floramite®

2 SC (22.6%) Spider,

E (some), I, G, I, O, S

Yes

Tenuipalpid

A

— oils r

oil; cottonseed, clove, garlic
oil, neem

GC-Mite™ Triact®

70 LC 70 EC

Spider Spider

E, I, A E, I, A

Yes

G, O

Yes

REI v (hours)
12
12 12 12 na p
12
4

Manufacturer/ Distributor u Arysta LifeScience
SePRO Scotts OHP Bayer
OHP
JH Biotech OHP

Comments
Compatible with IPM programs. Do not apply successive applications, rotate with treatments having different modes of action. Not for use on miniroses.
Do not apply more than 48 fl oz per crop cycle or growing season.
Do not exceed 21.34 oz per acre per year.
Translaminar activity. Do not apply more than three times per season and do not make successive applications. Check Judo Technical Bulletin at www.OHP.com for list of sensitive plants.
Compatible with IPM and resistance management programs. Do not apply more than 32 fluid oz per acre per year. Not effective against eriophyid or tarsonemid mites. Adjust spray water pH to below 7.
Good coverage important. OMRI listed.

Selected miticides for use on ornamental plants

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Table 1. Selected products for use in controlling mites on ornamental plants. (continued)

Mode
of
action groupz

Active ingredient

Trade name(s) Formulation(s)

Mites controlled y

Mite
stages controlledx

Location w

oil, paraffinic Omni Oil, Omni 6E (98% ai)

Eriophyid,

E, I, A

O

Supreme Spray

Spider

Broad crop labeling
No

Ultra-Fine® Oil (98.8% ai)

Spider

oil, petroleum Saf-T-Side

EC (80.0% ai)

oil, rosemary and mint

Omni Supreme Spray (paraffin base)
Target™
Damoil™, PureSpray™ Green, UltraPure™ Oil
EcoTrol®

(98% ai) EC (80.0% ai) (98% ai)
EC (12% ai)

Eriophyid, Spider
Eriophyid, Spider, Tarsonemid

E, I, A E, I, A E, I, A
E, I, A E, I, A

G, I, O

Yes

G, O

No

O

No

G, O, Sh

Yes

G, O, S

Yes

G, I, O, S

Yes

oil, soybean

— soap

soap (potassium salts of fatty acids)

Golden Pest Spray Oil™
M-Pede®

93% ai LC (49% ai)

Spider
Eriophyid, Spider

E, I, A E, I, A

G, O, S

Yes

G, I, O

Yes

REI v (hours)
4
4 4 4 4 4
0
4 12

Manufacturer/ Distributor u Helena
Whitmire MicroGen Brandt Consolidated Helena
Florikan E.S.A. Drexel, PetroCanada, Whitmire MicroGen EcoSMART
Stoller
Dow AgroSciences

Comments Spray no more than 4 times during the growing season; use a two-week-minimum application interval.
Total coverage important.
For shade trees and shrubs.
OMRI listed except Damoil™.
“Minimum-risk” pesticide, meets the requirements for the USDA National Organic Program. Good coverage very important, leaves an oily residue. OMRI listed.
OMRI listed. Thorough coverage very important. Do not use with sulfur or within three days of a sulfur application.

Selected miticides for use on ornamental plants

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Table 1. Selected products for use in controlling mites on ornamental plants. (continued)

Mode
of
action groupz

Active ingredient

Trade name(s) Formulation(s)

Mites controlled y

Mite
stages controlledx

Location w

Broad crop labeling

REI v (hours)

Manufacturer/ Distributor u

Comments

— sulfur

sulfur, micronized

Thiolux® Jet

80 DF

Spider, Tenuipalpid,

G, On

No

24

Syngenta

OMRI listed. Do not use within two weeks of an oil treatment. Complete coverage important.

z Mode of action classification scheme (version 6.1, Aug 2008 ) developed by the Insecticide Resistance Action Committee (IRAC) (http://www.irac-
online.org/Crop_Protection/MoA.asp). 1 = Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors; 2 = Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-gated chloride channel antagonists; 3 = Sodium channel
modulators; 5 = Nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists (allosteric) (not group 4), 6 = Chloride channel activators; 10 = Compounds of unknown or non-specific mode of action
(growth inhibitors); 12 = Inhibitors of oxidative phosphorylation, disruptors of ATP formation; 13 = Uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation via disruption of proton gradient, 20 =
Mitochondrial complex III electron transport inhibitors, 21 = Mitochondrial complex I electron transport inhibitors; 23 = Inhibitors of lipid synthesis; un = Compounds with unknown
mode of action; — = not IRAC listed but may control mites physically (i.e., desiccation, membrane disruption, suffocation, etc.). y Eriophyid (bud, gall, purple tea, rust), Tarsonemid (broad, cyclamen), Tenuipalpidae (flat mites, false spider mites, red palm mite), Tetranychidae [spider mites] (bamboo, clover,
Lewis, southern red, spruce, tumid, twospotted). x E = egg, I = immatures, A = adult w Location: G = greenhouse; I = interiorscape; Lr = residential landscape; Of = outdoor field nurseries; On = outdoor nurseries; O = outdoor (includes landscape and nurseries); S =
shadehouse. v REI = restricted entry interval. u See Table 2 for complete names and addresses.
t 1 = restricted-use pesticide
s ai = active ingredient. r Use of pyrethroids can disrupt biological control organisms (predatory beneficials, etc.) and thereby cause subsequent mite population increases following the use of these broad
spectrum insecticide/miticides. q Can be used in IPM programs where predatory mites are used. p na = not applicable. o OMRI = Organic Materials Review Institute (www.omri.org).

Selected miticides for use on ornamental plants

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Table 2. List of miticide manufacturers/distributors.

Company/Division

Address

City

State/ Province

Zip Code

URL

Bayer Environmental Science Brandt Consolidated Industries Cheminova Dow AgroSciences Drexel Chemical EcoSMART/EcoIPM Florikan E.S.A. FMC/Agricultural Products Group Gowan Helena Chemical JH Biotech Makhteshim-Agan of North America (MANA) OHP Petro-Canada Prokoz
Quali-Pro
Regal Chemical Scotts Company, The SePRO
Southern Agricultural Insecticides Stoller Enterprises

2 T.W. Alexander Drive 2935 S. Koke Mill Rd.
9330 Zionsville Rd 1700 Channel Avenue 318 Seaboard Lane, Ste 208 1523 Edger Place 1735 Market Street
370 Main Street 225 Schilling Blvd. 4951 Olivas Park Dr 4515 Falls of Neuse Toad, Suite 300 P.O. Box 230 P.O. Box 2844 100 North Point Center East, Suite 330 4515 Falls of Neuse Toad, Suite 300 600 Branch Drive 14111 Scottslawn Road 11550 North Meridian Street, Suite 600 P.O. Box 218
4001 W Sam Houston Pkwy N, Suite 100

Research Triangle Park Springfield Wayne Indianapolis Memphis Franklin Sarasota Philadelphia
Yuma Collierville Ventura Raleigh
Mainland Calgary Alpharetta
Raleigh
Alpharetta Marysville Carmel
Palmetto
Houston

NC IL NJ IN TN TN FL PA
AZ TN CA NC
PA Alberta GA
NC
GA OH IN
FL
TX

27709 62711
46268 38113 37067 34240 19103
85366 38017 93003 27609
19451-0230 T2P 3E3 30022-8242
27609
30004 43041 46032
34221
77043

http://www.bayerprocentral.com http://www.brandtnews.com http://www.cheminova.us.com http://www.dowagro.com http://www.drexchem.com http://www.ecosmart.com http://www.florikan.com http://www.fmcprosolutions.com
http://www.gowanco.com http://www.helenachemical.com http://www.jhbiotech.com http://www.manainc.com
http://ohp.com http://www.petro-canada.ca http://www.prokoz.net/
http://www.Quali-pro.com
http://www.regalchem.com http://www.scottsprohort.com http://www.sepro.com
http://www.southernag.com
http://www.stollerusa.com

Selected miticides for use on ornamental plants

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Selected Miticides for Use on Ornamental Plants