Managerial Economics: Applications, Strategy and Tactics, 12th Ed


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Managerial Economics
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Managerial Economics
Applications, Strategy, and Tactics
TWELFTH EDITION
JAMES R. MCGUIGAN
JRM Investments
R. CHARLES MOYER
University of Louisville
FREDERICK H. deB. HARRIS
Schools of Business Wake Forest University
Australia • Brazil • Japan • Korea • Mexico • Singapore • Spain • United Kingdom • United States
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

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Managerial Economics: Applications, Strategy, and Tactics, 12th Edition James R. McGuigan, R. Charles Moyer, Frederick H. deB. Harris
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Brief TABLE OF CONTENTS

Preface, xvii About the Authors, xxi

PART I

INTRODUCTION

1

1 Introduction and Goals of the Firm

2

2 Fundamental Economic Concepts

26

PART II

DEMAND AND FORECASTING

61

3 Demand Analysis

62

4 Estimating Demand

95

4A Problems in Applying the Linear

Regression Model

126

5 Business and Economic Forecasting

137

6 Managing in the Global Economy

175

6A Foreign Exchange Risk Management

227

PART III

PRODUCTION AND COST

229

7 Production Economics

230

7A Maximization of Production Output

Subject to a Cost Constraint

265

7B Production Economics of Renewable and

Exhaustible Natural Resources

267

8 Cost Analysis

275

8A Long-Run Costs with a Cobb-Douglas

Production Function

301

9 Applications of Cost Theory

305

13 Best-Practice Tactics: Game Theory

444

13A Entry Deterrence and Accommodation

Games

488

14 Pricing Techniques and Analysis

499

PART V

ORGANIZATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

AND REGULATION

545

15 Contracting, Governance, and

Organizational Form

546

15A Auction Design and Information

Economics

580

16 Government Regulation

610

17 Long-Term Investment Analysis

644

APPENDICES

A The Time Value of Money

A-1

B Tables

B-1

C Differential Calculus Techniques in

Management

C-1

D Check Answers to Selected

End-of-Chapter Exercises

D-1

Glossary

G-1

Index

I-1

Notes

WEB APPENDICES
A Consumer Choice Using Indifference Curve Analysis

PART IV

B International Parity Conditions

PRICING AND OUTPUT DECISIONS:

STRATEGY AND TACTICS

333

10 Prices, Output, and Strategy: Pure and

Monopolistic Competition

334

11 Price and Output Determination:

Monopoly and Dominant Firms

382

12 Price and Output Determination:

Oligopoly

409

C Linear-Programming Applications D Capacity Planning and Pricing Against a
Low-Cost Competitor: A Case Study of Piedmont Airlines and People Express E Pricing of Joint Products and Transfer Pricing F Decisions Under Risk and Uncertainty
vii

Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Contents

Preface, xvii About the Authors, xxi

PART I

INTRODUCTION

1

1 Introduction and Goals of the Firm

2

Chapter Preview

2

Managerial Challenge: How to Achieve

Sustainability: Southern Company

2

What is Managerial Economics?

4

The Decision-Making Model

5

The Responsibilities of Management

5

The Role of Profits

6

Risk-Bearing Theory of Profit

7

Temporary Disequilibrium Theory of Profit 7

Monopoly Theory of Profit

7

Innovation Theory of Profit

7

Managerial Efficiency Theory of Profit

7

Objective of the Firm

8

The Shareholder Wealth-Maximization

Model of the Firm

8

Separation of Ownership and Control: The

Principal-Agent Problem

9

Divergent Objectives and Agency Conflict 10

Agency Problems

11

What Went Right/What Went Wrong:

Saturn Corporation

13

Implications of Shareholder Wealth

Maximization

13

What Went Right/What Went Wrong:

Eli Lilly Depressed by Loss of

Prozac Patent

14

Caveats to Maximizing Shareholder Value 16

Residual Claimants

17

Goals in the Public Sector and Not-for-Profit

Enterprises

18

Not-for-Profit Objectives

18

The Efficiency Objective in Not-for-Profit

Organizations

19

Summary

19

Exercises

20

Case Exercise: Designing a Managerial

Incentives Contract

21

Case Exercise: Shareholder Value of

Wind Power at Hydro Co.: RE < C

23

2 Fundamental Economic Concepts

26

Chapter Preview

26

Managerial Challenge: Why Charge

$25 per Bag on Airline Flights?

26

Demand and Supply: A Review

27

The Diamond-Water Paradox and the

Marginal Revolution

30

Marginal Utility and Incremental Cost

Simultaneously Determine Equilibrium

Market Price

30

Individual and Market Demand Curves

31

The Demand Function

32

Import-Export Traded Goods

34

Individual and Market Supply Curves

35

Equilibrium Market Price of Gasoline

36

Marginal Analysis

41

Total, Marginal, and Average Relationships 41

The Net Present Value Concept

45

Determining the Net Present Value of an

Investment

46

Sources of Positive Net Present Value

Projects

48

Risk and the NPV Rule

48

Meaning and Measurement of Risk

49

Probability Distributions

49

Expected Values

50

Standard Deviation: An Absolute Measure

of Risk

51

Normal Probability Distribution

51

Coefficient of Variation: A Relative Measure

of Risk

53

What Went Right/What Went Wrong:

Long-Term Capital Management

(LTCM)

53

Risk and Required Return

54

Summary

56

Exercises

56

Case Exercise: Revenue Management at

American Airlines

58

viii Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part.

Contents ix

PART II

DEMAND AND FORECASTING

61

3 Demand Analysis

62

Chapter Preview

62

Managerial Challenge: Health Care

Reform and Cigarette Taxes

62

Demand Relationships

64

The Demand Schedule Defined

64

Constrained Utility Maximization and

Consumer Behavior

65

What Went Right/What Went Wrong:

Chevy Volt

69

The Price Elasticity of Demand

69

Price Elasticity Defined

70

Arc Price Elasticity

72

Point Price Elasticity

73

Interpreting the Price Elasticity:

The Relationship between the Price

Elasticity and Revenues

73

The Importance of Elasticity-Revenue

Relationships

78

Factors Affecting the Price Elasticity of

Demand

80

International Perspectives: Free Trade

and the Price Elasticity of Demand:

Nestlé Yogurt

82

The Income Elasticity of Demand

83

Income Elasticity Defined

83

Arc Income Elasticity

84

Point Income Elasticity

85

Cross Elasticity of Demand

87

Cross Price Elasticity Defined

87

Interpreting the Cross Price Elasticity

87

Antitrust and Cross Price Elasticities

87

An Empirical Illustration of Price, Income,

and Cross Elasticities

89

The Combined Effect of Demand

Elasticities

89

Summary

90

Exercises

91

Case Exercise: Polo Golf Shirt Pricing

93

4 Estimating Demand

95

Chapter Preview

95

Managerial Challenge: Global Warming

and the Demand for Public

Transportation

95

Estimating Demand Using Marketing

Research Techniques

98

Consumer Surveys

98

Consumer Focus Groups

98

Market Experiments in Test Stores

99

Statistical Estimation of the Demand

Function

99

Specification of the Model

99

A Simple Linear Regression Model

101

Assumptions Underlying the Simple Linear

Regression Model

102

Estimating the Population Regression

Coefficients

103

Using the Regression Equation to Make

Predictions

106

Inferences about the Population Regression

Coefficients

108

Correlation Coefficient

111

The Analysis of Variance

112

Multiple Linear Regression Model

114

Use of Computer Programs

115

Estimating the Population Regression

Coefficients

115

Using the Regression Model to Make

Forecasts

115

Inferences about the Population Regression

Coefficients

115

The Analysis of Variance

118

Summary

118

Exercises

119

Case Exercise: Soft Drink Demand

Estimation

124

4A Problems in Applying the Linear

Regression Model

126

Introduction

126

Nonlinear Regression Models

132

Summary

135

Exercises

135

5 Business and Economic Forecasting

137

Chapter Preview

137

Managerial Challenge: Excess Fiber

Optic Capacity at Global

Crossing Inc.

137

The Significance of Forecasting

139

Selecting a Forecasting Technique

139

Hierarchy of Forecasts

139

Criteria Used to Select a Forecasting

Technique

140

Evaluating the Accuracy of Forecasting

Models

140

What Went Right/What Went Wrong:

Crocs Shoes

140

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Managerial Economics: Applications, Strategy and Tactics, 12th Ed