Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide


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Oracle® Real Application Clusters
Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide
19c
E95728-08 April 2021

Oracle Real Application Clusters Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide, 19c
E95728-08
Copyright © 1999, 2021, Oracle and/or its affiliates.
Primary Author: Subhash Chandra
Contributing Authors: Janet Stern
Contributors: Troy Anthony, Lance Ashdown, Ram Avudaiappan, Prasad Bagal, Mark Bauer, Anand Beldalker, Eric Belden, Gajanan Bhat, David Brower, George Claborn, Maria Colgan, Carol Colrain, Jonathan Creighton, Rajesh Dasari, Mark Dilman, Richard Frank, GP Prabhaker Gongloor, Wei Hu, Yong Hu, Dominique Jeunot, Sameer Joshi, Raj K. Kammend, Ankita Khandelwal, Sana Karam, Roland Knapp, Karen Li, Barb Lundhild, Venkat Maddali, Bill Manry, John McHugh, Saar Maoz, Matthew Mckerley, Markus Michalewicz, Anil Nair, Philip Newlan, Michael Nowak, Muthu Olagappan, Bharat Paliwal, Hanlin Qian, Hairong Qin, Mark Ramacher, Sampath Ravindhran, Kevin Reardon, Kathy Rich, Dipak Saggi, Daniel Semler, Ara Shakian, Cathy Shea, Khethavath P. Singh, Kesavan Srinivasan, Leo Tominna, Peter Wahl, Tak Wang, Richard Wessman, Douglas Williams, Mike Zampiceni, Michael Zoll
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Contents

Preface

Audience

xxii

Documentation Accessibility

xxii

Related Documents

xxiii

Conventions

xxiii

Changes in This Release for Oracle Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide

Changes in Oracle Real Application Clusters Release 19c Changes in Oracle Real Application Clusters Release 18c, Version 18.1 Changes in Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c Release 2 (12.2) Changes in Oracle Real Application Clusters 12c Release 1 (12.1)

xxv xxviii xxix
xxx

1 Introduction to Oracle RAC

Overview of Oracle RAC Overview of Installing Oracle RAC
Understanding Compatibility in Oracle RAC Environments Oracle RAC Database Management Styles and Database Installation Oracle RAC Database Management Styles and Database Creation Overview of Extending an Oracle RAC Cluster Overview of Oracle Real Application Clusters One Node Overview of Oracle Clusterware for Oracle RAC Overview of Oracle Flex Clusters Overview of Reader Nodes Overview of Local Temporary Tablespaces Overview of Oracle RAC Architecture and Processing Understanding Cluster-Aware Storage Solutions Oracle RAC and Network Connectivity Overview of Using Dynamic Database Services to Connect to Oracle Databases Overview of Virtual IP Addresses Restricted Service Registration in Oracle RAC

1-1 1-3 1-4 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-8 1-9 1-10 1-10 1-10 1-17 1-17 1-18 1-18 1-19 1-20

iii

About Oracle RAC Software Components About Oracle RAC Background Processes Overview of Automatic Workload Management with Dynamic Database Services Overview of Server Pools and Policy-Managed Databases Introduction to Server Pools
Examples of Using Server Pools Deploying Policy-Managed Databases Managing Policy-Managed Databases Policy-Based Cluster Management Overview of Oracle Database Quality of Service Management Overview of Hang Manager Overview of Oracle Multitenant with Oracle RAC Overview of Database In-Memory and Oracle RAC Overview of Managing Oracle RAC Environments About Designing and Deploying Oracle RAC Environments About Administrative Tools for Oracle RAC Environments About Monitoring Oracle RAC Environments About Evaluating Performance in Oracle RAC Environments

1-20 1-21 1-22 1-25 1-25 1-26 1-29 1-30 1-32 1-32 1-33 1-34 1-34 1-35 1-35 1-36 1-37 1-38

2 Administering Storage in Oracle RAC

Overview of Storage Management for Oracle RAC

2-2

Data File Access in Oracle RAC

2-2

NFS Server for Storage

2-3

Redo Log File Storage in Oracle RAC

2-3

Automatic Undo Management in Oracle RAC

2-4

Oracle Automatic Storage Management with Oracle RAC

2-4

Storage Management in Oracle RAC

2-5

Modifying Disk Group Configurations for Oracle ASM

2-6

Oracle ASM Disk Group Management

2-6

Configuring Preferred Mirror Read Disks in Extended Distance Clusters

2-7

Converting Nonclustered Oracle ASM to Clustered Oracle ASM

2-7

Administering Oracle ASM Instances with SRVCTL in Oracle RAC

2-7

3 Administering Database Instances and Cluster Databases

Overview of Oracle RAC Database Administration

3-1

Tools for Administering Oracle RAC

3-4

Administering Oracle RAC with SRVCTL

3-4

Administering Oracle RAC with Oracle Enterprise Manager

3-5

Administering Oracle RAC with SQL*Plus

3-5

iv

Starting and Stopping Instances and Oracle RAC Databases Starting One or More Instances and Oracle RAC Databases Using SRVCTL Stopping One or More Instances and Oracle RAC Databases Using SRVCTL Stopping All Databases and Instances Using CRSCTL Starting and Stopping Individual Instances Using SQL*Plus
Starting and Stopping PDBs in Oracle RAC Verifying That Instances are Running
Using SRVCTL to Verify That Instances are Running Using SQL*Plus to Verify That Instances are Running Terminating Sessions On a Specific Cluster Instance Overview of Initialization Parameter Files in Oracle RAC Setting SPFILE Parameter Values for Oracle RAC Parameter File Search Order in Oracle RAC Backing Up the Server Parameter File Initialization Parameter Use in Oracle RAC Parameters That Must Have Identical Settings on All Instances Parameters That Have Unique Settings on All Instances Parameters That Should Have Identical Settings on All Instances Converting an Administrator-Managed Database to a Policy-Managed Database Managing Memory Pressure for Database Servers Quiescing Oracle RAC Databases Administering Multiple Cluster Interconnects on Linux and UNIX Platforms Use Cases for Setting the CLUSTER_INTERCONNECTS Parameter Customizing How Oracle Clusterware Manages Oracle RAC Databases Advanced Oracle Enterprise Manager Administration Using Oracle Enterprise Manager Cloud Control to Discover Nodes and Instances Other Oracle Enterprise Manager Capabilities Administering Jobs and Alerts in Oracle RAC
Administering Jobs in Oracle RAC Administering Alerts in Oracle RAC with Oracle Enterprise Manager Using Defined Blackouts in Oracle Enterprise Manager

3-7 3-8 3-9 3-10 3-11 3-12 3-13 3-14 3-14 3-15 3-17 3-18 3-19 3-19 3-20 3-23 3-23 3-24 3-25 3-27 3-28 3-28 3-29 3-31 3-32
3-33 3-33 3-34 3-34 3-35 3-35

4 Administering Oracle RAC One Node

Creating an Oracle RAC One Node Database

4-1

Converting Databases

4-2

Converting a Database from Oracle RAC to Oracle RAC One Node

4-2

Converting a Database from Oracle RAC One Node to Oracle RAC

4-3

Online Database Relocation

4-4

v

5 Workload Management with Dynamic Database Services

Connection Load Balancing Server-Side Load Balancing Generic Database Clients Client-Side Connection Configuration for Older Clients JDBC-Thin Clients OCI Clients Client-Side Load Balancing
Load Balancing Advisory Overview of the Load Balancing Advisory Configuring Your Environment to Use the Load Balancing Advisory Load Balancing Advisory FAN Events Monitoring Load Balancing Advisory FAN Events
Enabling Clients for Oracle RAC Overview of Oracle Integrated Clients and FAN Enabling JDBC-Thin Clients for Fast Connection Failover Oracle Notification Service for JDBC-Thin Clients Configuring FCF for JDBC/OCI and JDBC-Thin Driver Clients Enabling JDBC Clients for Run-time Connection Load Balancing Configuring JDBC-Thin Clients for Application Continuity for Java Configuring JDBC-Thin Clients for Transaction Guard Enabling OCI Clients for Fast Connection Failover Enabling OCI Clients for Run-time Connection Load Balancing Configuring OCI Clients to use Transaction Guard Enabling ODP.NET Clients to Receive FAN High Availability Events Enabling ODP.NET Clients to Receive FAN Load Balancing Advisory Events Configuring ODP.NET Clients to use Transaction Guard
Distributed Transaction Processing in Oracle RAC Overview of XA Transactions and Oracle RAC Using Global Transactions and XA Affinity for XA Transactions Using Services with XA Transactions on Oracle RAC Configuring Services for XA Applications Relocating Services in Administrator-Managed Databases
Oracle RAC Sharding Automatic Workload Repository Measuring Performance by Service Using the Automatic Workload Repository Automatic Workload Repository Service Thresholds and Alerts
Example of Services and Thresholds Alerts Enable Service, Module, and Action Monitoring Using Oracle Services

5-1 5-2 5-2 5-3 5-3 5-4 5-4 5-5 5-5 5-6 5-6 5-7 5-8 5-9 5-10 5-10 5-10 5-12 5-12 5-14 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-16 5-17 5-18 5-18 5-19 5-20 5-20 5-21 5-22 5-22 5-23 5-24 5-25 5-26 5-26 5-27

vi

Service Deployment Options Service Usage in an Oracle RAC Database Oracle Clusterware Resources for a Service Database Resource Manager Consumer Group Mappings for Services Performance Monitoring by Service with AWR Parallel Operations and Services Oracle GoldenGate and Oracle RAC Service Characteristics Service Name Service Edition Service Management Policy Database Role for a Service Instance Preference Service Co-location Server Pool Assignment Load Balancing Advisory Goal for Run-time Connection Load Balancing Connection Load Balancing Goal Distributed Transaction Processing Default Service Connections Restricted Service Registration
Administering Services Overview of Service Administration Administering Services with Oracle Enterprise Manager Administering Services with SRVCTL Creating Services with SRVCTL Creating Services for Application Continuity and Transaction Guard Starting and Stopping Services with SRVCTL Enabling and Disabling Services with SRVCTL Relocating Services with SRVCTL Obtaining the Status of Services with SRVCTL Obtaining the Configuration of Services with SRVCTL
Global Services Service-Oriented Buffer Cache Access Connecting to a Service: An Example

5-27 5-28 5-28 5-28 5-28 5-28 5-29 5-29 5-29 5-30 5-30 5-31 5-31 5-32 5-32 5-33 5-33 5-33 5-34 5-34 5-35 5-36 5-37 5-38 5-39 5-39 5-41 5-41 5-41 5-42 5-42 5-42 5-43 5-44

6 Ensuring Application Continuity

Fast Application Notification

6-2

Overview of Fast Application Notification

6-2

Fast Application Notification High Availability Events

6-6

Subscription to High Availability Events

6-9

vii

Using Fast Application Notification Callouts Managing Unplanned Outages Managing Planned Maintenance
Managing Planned Maintenance Without User Interruption Managing a Group of Services for Maintenance
Starting Services Pluggable Database-Level Operations Relocating Services Stopping Services Server Draining Ahead of Planned Maintenance About Application Continuity Key Concepts for Application Continuity Transparent Application Continuity About Transparent Application Continuity Transparent Application Continuity for Various Applications Application Continuity Protection Check About Application Continuity Protection Check Creating ACCHK Views and Role for Oracle Database 19c Enabling and Disabling Application Continuity Protection Check Running Application Continuity Protection Check Application Continuity Operation and Usage How Application Continuity Works for Applications Actions for Using Application Continuity Support for Oracle Application Continuity and Transparent Application Continuity Overview of Application Continuity Configuration Tasks Configuring Connections for High Availability and Application Continuity Configuring Oracle Database for Application Continuity Establishing the Initial State Before Application Continuity Replays Delaying the Reconnection in Application Continuity Using Application Continuity for Planned Maintenance Running Without Application Continuity Disabling Replay in Application Continuity Terminating or Disconnecting a Session Without Replay Mutable Functions and Application Continuity Administering Mutable Values Granting and Revoking Keep Permissions for Mutables Granting Permission to Keep Mutables for Oracle Sequences Rules for Grants on Mutables Protection-Level Statistics Session State Consistency

6-9 6-10 6-11 6-11 6-14 6-15 6-15 6-16 6-17 6-17 6-23 6-24 6-25 6-26 6-27 6-29 6-29 6-29 6-30 6-31 6-35 6-35 6-38
6-38 6-39 6-42 6-43 6-44 6-54 6-56 6-57 6-57 6-60 6-60 6-62 6-62 6-62 6-63 6-63 6-64

viii

Auto Session State Consistency Dynamic Session State Consistency Static Session State Consistency Potential Side Effects of Application Continuity Restrictions and Other Considerations for Application Continuity Transaction Guard for Improving Client Failover Transaction Guard Configuration Checklist Configuring Services for Transaction Guard Failing Over OCI Clients with Transparent Application Failover

6-65 6-65 6-66 6-68 6-69 6-71 6-72 6-72 6-73

7 Configuring Recovery Manager and Archiving

Overview of Configuring RMAN for Oracle RAC Archiving Mode in Oracle RAC Configuring the RMAN Snapshot Control File Location Configuring RMAN to Automatically Backup the Control File and SPFILE Crosschecking on Multiple Oracle RAC Nodes Configuring Channels for RMAN in Oracle RAC
Configuring Channels to Use Automatic Load Balancing Configuring Channels to Use a Specific Node Managing Archived Redo Logs Using RMAN in Oracle RAC Archived Redo Log File Conventions in Oracle RAC RMAN Archiving Configuration Scenarios Oracle Automatic Storage Management and Cluster File System Archiving Scheme
Advantages of the Cluster File System Archiving Scheme Initialization Parameter Settings for the Cluster File System Archiving Scheme Location of Archived Logs for the Cluster File System Archiving Scheme Noncluster File System Local Archiving Scheme Considerations for Using Noncluster File System Local Archiving Initialization Parameter Settings for Noncluster File System Local Archiving Location of Archived Logs for Noncluster File System Local Archiving File System Configuration for Noncluster File System Local Archiving Monitoring the Archiver Processes

7-1 7-1 7-2 7-3 7-3 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-4 7-5 7-6
7-6 7-7
7-7 7-8 7-8 7-8 7-9 7-9 7-10 7-10

8 Managing Backup and Recovery

RMAN Backup Scenario for Noncluster File System Backups

8-1

RMAN Restore Scenarios for Oracle RAC

8-2

Restoring Backups from a Cluster File System

8-2

Restoring Backups from a Noncluster File System

8-3

ix

Using RMAN or Oracle Enterprise Manager to Restore the Server Parameter

File (SPFILE)

8-4

Instance Recovery in Oracle RAC

8-4

Single Node Failure in Oracle RAC

8-4

Multiple-Node Failures in Oracle RAC

8-5

Using RMAN to Create Backups in Oracle RAC

8-5

Channel Connections to Cluster Instances with RMAN

8-5

Node Affinity Awareness of Fast Connections

8-6

Deleting Archived Redo Logs after a Successful Backup

8-6

Autolocation for Backup and Restore Commands

8-7

Media Recovery in Oracle RAC

8-7

Parallel Recovery in Oracle RAC

8-8

Parallel Recovery with RMAN

8-8

Disabling Parallel Recovery

8-8

Disabling Instance and Crash Recovery Parallelism

8-9

Disabling Media Recovery Parallelism

8-9

Using a Fast Recovery Area in Oracle RAC

8-9

9 Cloning Oracle RAC to Nodes in a New Cluster

Introduction to Cloning Oracle RAC

9-1

Preparing to Clone Oracle RAC

9-2

Deploying Oracle RAC Clone to Nodes in a Cluster

9-3

Locating and Viewing Log Files Generated During Cloning

9-7

10 Using Cloning to Extend Oracle RAC to Nodes in the Same Cluster

About Adding Nodes Using Cloning in Oracle RAC Environments Cloning Local Oracle Homes on Linux and UNIX Systems Cloning Shared Oracle Homes on Linux and UNIX Systems Cloning Oracle Homes on Windows Systems

10-1 10-1 10-3 10-4

11 Adding and Deleting Oracle RAC from Nodes on Linux and UNIX
Systems

Adding Oracle RAC to Nodes with Oracle Clusterware Installed

11-1

Adding Policy-Managed Oracle RAC Database Instances to Target Nodes

11-3

Adding Administrator-Managed Oracle RAC Database Instances to Target

Nodes

11-4

Using DBCA in Interactive Mode to Add Database Instances to Target

Nodes

11-5

Using DBCA in Silent Mode to Add Database Instances to Target Nodes

11-6

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Real Application Clusters Administration and Deployment Guide