Ground Water Information Booklet North Tripura District, Tripura

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Technical Report Series: D

No: 56/2011-12

Ground Water Information Booklet North Tripura District, Tripura

Central Ground Water Board
North Eastern Region
Ministry of Water Resources
March 2012

AT A GLANCE North Tripura District, Tripura

SL. NO. 1.
3. 4. 5.

ITEMS GENERAL INFORMATION i) Geographical Area (sq. km) ii) Administrative Divisions (as on 31.3.2008)
No. of Blocks No. of Gram Panchayats No. of ADC villages iii) Population (as per 2001 census) iv) Average Annual Rainfall (mm) GEOMORPHOLOGY Major Physiographic units
Major Drainages LAND USE (SQ. KM)
a) Forest Area b) Net area sown c) Cultivable area MAJOR SOIL TYPES
Irrigation by Different Sources (Areas and Numbers of Structures)
Dug wells Tubewells / borewells Canals Other sources - Lift irrigation
- Medium irrigation



8 103 79 5,90,913 2430

Hills- Jampui,Sakhantlang and Longtarai
Valleys-Dharmanagar and Kailashahar
Manu, Juri, Deo and Langai




Transported soil, residual soil and

lateritic soil.


40815 ha

Oil seeds 913 ha


565 ha


341 ha

nil 360 ha nil 9534 ha 600 ha

Net Irrigated Area

8395 ha

Gross Irrigated Area

14523 ha





No. of Dug wells


No. of Piezometers




Recent formation of Quaternary age


and Dupitila, Tipam and Surma

formations of Upper Tertiary age




Major water bearing formation

Tipam sandstone

Pre-monsoon depth to water level during 2008 1.45 – 8.14 m bgl

Post-monsoon depth to water level during 2008 1.20 – 4.37 m bgl

Long term trend for 10yrs (1999-2008) in m/ yr

Pre-monsoon Rise-4 stations

0.105 - 0.571

Fall- 3 stations

0.047 - 0.112

Post-monsoon Rise-7 stations

0.028 - 0.313



CGWB (As on 31.03.07)

No. of wells drilled (EW, OW, PZ, SH, Total)

EW-13 nos.OW-3 nos.Pz- Nil

Total- 16 nos

Depth Range (m)


Discharge (lps)
Storativity (S) Transmissivity (m2/ day)

1.08 to 26.5 2.2 x 10-3 to 4.2 x 10-4
4.5 to 1212



Presence of chemical constituents more than

Iron up to 12 ppm (in deeper aquifer)

permissible limit (e.g., EC, F, As, Fe)



RESOURCES (2004) in mcm

Annual Replenishable Ground Water Resources 341.1

Net Ground water Draft


Projected demand for domestic and industrial


uses up to year 2025

Stage of ground water development

6.89 %



Mass Awareness programme organized


Water Management Training Programme






Projects completed by CGWB (no. & amount



Projects under technical guidance of CGWB






No. of OE/ Critical/ Notified blocks




Ground water contain high iron


concentration. In shallow aquifer

conc. of iron varies from 0.06 to 3.93

ppm and in deeper aquifer it varies

from 0.06 to 12 ppm.


North Tripura district is situated between North Latitudes 23º36/26// and 24º34/22// and East Longitude 91º52/20// and 92º51/00// falling in the Survey of India degree sheet number 78P, 79M, 83D and 84A. It is bounded by Mizoram and Assam in the east, Bangladesh on north, south and northwestern sides, by Dhalai district on west and southwestern sides. The total geographical area of North Tripura District is 2106.16 Kailashahar, the district headquarters of North Tripura district. Administratively, the district is divided into 3 nos. of sub–divisions which are in turn sub-divided into 8 nos. of blocks. There are 103nos. of gram panchayats and 79 Autonomous District Council (ADC) villages in the district.
Forests cover 1223.31 (58%) of the total geographic area of the district. Land not available for agricultural use is 284.68 (14%). The net area sown is 424.28 which is only 20% of the total geographical area.
As per 2001 census, the total population of the district is 5,90,913 persons with a density of 280 persons/ The decadal growth rate is 26.49% (1991-2001).
The anticlinal hill ranges forms the watersheds from which various drainage channels emerged. The common drainage patterns are sub-parallel to parallel and dendritic. Up to 4th order streams are found in the area. The major rivers in the area are Manu, Deo, Juri and Longai. These perennial rivers are a part of Barak sub-basin which in turn forms a part of Meghna basin.
There is no major irrigation project in the district. However, there is one medium irrigation project viz., Manu irrigation project located at Nalkata in Dhalai district which has command area in North Tripura district. The gross command area under the project is 5220 ha.
The total irrigation potential created so far (2006-07) in the district is 10494 ha only i.e., only about 25% of the net sown area. Agriculture is mostly dependent on minor irrigation schemes apart from rainfall. The minor irrigation schemes found in the area are (1) lift irrigation schemes on perennial rivers and cherras, (2) diversions (3) weir (4) tanks, (5) deep tube wells (6) shallow tube wells and (7) artesian wells.
The surface water schemes are the major irrigation sources. During the year 2006-07, out of 10494 ha of irrigation potential created, the surface water schemes constitute 10134 ha (97%) and the ground water irrigates only 360 ha (3%) of the total irrigation potential created. This shows that the ground water utilization is in the primitive stage in the district.
The major crops grown in the area are rice, pulses, oilseeds, potato and other crops. Cropping pattern in the area is paddy oriented. During the year 2006-07, rice is grown in 40815 ha. During Kharif season farmers cultivate Aman paddy, the main crop of the district. This crop rarely requires any irrigation due to abundant rainfall during the period

Studies / Activities carried out by CGWB
The earlier work on the hydrogeological conditions of Tripura state was carried out by the officers of the Ground Water Divisions of Geological Survey of India and later by the officers of the Central Ground Water Board. Systematic hydrogeological investigations carried out in the district during 1972 – 75. Then the district is covered by Re-appraisal hydrogeological investigations and ground water explorations by CGWB. During 2005-06, ground water management studies in the entire district and exploration at Panisagar were carried out.
The climate in the area is characterized by moderate temperature and is highly humid in nature. There are three prominent seasons summer, rainy and winter. The summer season spans from March to May and is followed by S W monsoon lasting till September. Winter season starts from November and lasts till the end of February.
The district is having 3 nos. of rain gauge stations located at Dharmanagar, Kailashahar and Kanchanpurr. The average annual rainfall for last 35 years (1971 – 2008) of the area is 2430 mm. Out of that the average monsoon rainfall is 1630 mm. The average nos. of rainy days for last 5 years is 110. Maximum rainfall of 4026 mm (1993) recorded at Kailashahar and minimum rainfall of 1598 mm (2001) recorded at Kanchanpur. The co-efficient of variation of rainfall in the area ranges from 19 – 21% suggested a low variability of annual rainfall.
Other Climatic features
The temperature in the area varies from 5.1oC to 35.6oC. The humidity is generally high throughout the year. In summer season the relative humidity varies between 50 to 90 percent and in rainy season, the relative humidity is over 85 percent in morning and in evening it varies between 70 to 80 percent.
Physiographically, the area can be divided into two parts, Anticlinal Hill Ranges and Synclinal flat-bottomed valleys. The major hill ranges are Jampui, Sakhantlang and Longtarai. The trend of the hill ranges is almost N – S. The height of the hill ranges increases from west to east. The highest elevation being 975 m above MSL at Betlingshib in Jampui hill ranges. The broad synclinal valleys are Dharmanagar valley and Kailashahar valley. All the valleys become narrow and constricted towards south and widens towards north. The master slope of the valleys is towards north. The valleys are gently undulating with intermittent flood plains of rivers and streams. The undulation formed by 10 – 30 m high mounds with gullies in between them, locally called “loonga.”

In general, soils of the area are acidic in nature. The pH of soil ranges from 5.50 to 5.64. Nitrogen and phosphate is low, available potash is medium to high, calcium, magnesium and sulfur are deficient in these soils. In the area lateritic soil is found in tilla (hilly / small mounds) area, younger soils or river valley soils are found along all major river courses. Clayey soils are found in paddy fields. Apart from these, sandy loam, clayey loam and loamy soils are also available.
Water Bearing Formations There are three hydrogeological units / water bearing formations found in the district.
They are Alluvial formation, Dupitila formation and Tipam formation and are shown in fig.1. The details of the water bearing formations are as follows:
(i) Alluvial formation: It occurs along the banks of main rivers and its thickness varies 10 to 15 m. Ground water occurs under unconfined condition. Ground water development in the area has not been very significant because of high clay and sandy clay content. Ground water is developed through dug wells and ordinary hand pumps.
(ii) Dupitila formation: Dupitila formation is nearly horizontal in disposition and its thickness varies from 10 to 30m. The formation consists of mainly clay and silt with some intercalations of gritty and ferruginous sandstones. It is exposed in the central portion of Dharmanagar and Kailashahar valley. In general, it has low permeability and low storage capacity due to high clay content. It has been developed through dug wells and hand pumps.
(iii) Tipam formation: Sandstone of Tipam formation constitutes the principal aquifer in the area. The permeability of this sandstone is much higher than that of Dupitila sandstone or Surma sandstone. The recharge area of the sandstone is in the anticlinal hills. This formation consists of sub-rounded, fine to medium grained, friable sandstone with intercalated clay. Tipam formation is found along the peripheries of valleys. Ground water occurs under semi-confined to confined conditions. This sandstone is developed by deep tube wells and shallow tube wells.
Occurrences of ground water
In shallow aquifer ground water occurs under unconfined and semi-confined to confined conditions. In major part of the area ground water occurs under unconfined condition in shallow depth. Ground water occurs under confined condition within shallow depths in small isolated zones, e.g., in Samrurpar and Jarultali area of Gournagar block, in Radhanagar – Krishnanagar area of Kumarghat block etc. In deeper aquifers of the district ground water occurs under semiconfined to confined conditions.

Nature and depth of Aquifer system in the area
Aquifer system of the area is divided into two types, viz, shallow aquifer within 50 m bgl and deep aquifer between 50 to 300 m bgl.
Dharmanagar valley
This valley is dominated by thick sandstone horizons with thin intervening shale / clay horizons. In the valley 2 to 4 nos. of aquifers can be identified. The first aquifer occurs at 5 to 10 m bgl and its thickness varies from 5 to 15m. In the central part of the valley good productive but comparatively thin granular zones intercalated with shale occur within 90m bgl. However, towards north (Ichailalcherra) and south (Machmara) the thickness of clay / shale is more. Granular zones showing significant thickness are encountered between 110 and 240 m bgl. The deeper aquifers are more consistent and their thickness varies from 15 to 80m.
Kailashahar valley
In the central part of the valley, Kumarghat area, a continuous granular zone of thickness varies from 100 – 135 m occur below 5 m. The thickness of this zone gets reduced towards north and south due to the presence of clay / shale horizons. Other granular zones present at depth are comparatively much thinner and intercalated with clay / shale horizons. Another granular zone of some significance occur below 200m with thickness varies from 25 to 40m.
Depth to water level and seasonal fluctuation
The Board is monitoring water levels of observation wells four times in a year i.e., during January, March, August and November. There are seven observation wells in the district which are located at Bagbasa, Dharmanagar, Gouranagar, Kanchanpur, Kumarghat, Panisagar and Pecharthal. During pre-monsoon period (March 2008), depth to water level in unconfined aquifer varies from 1.45 – 8.14 m bgl. During post-monsoon period (November 2008), depth to water level in unconfined aquifer varies from 1.20 – 4.37 m bgl. The seasonal fluctuation of water level (2008) varies from 0.25 to 4.58 m.
Long term Trend of Water Level
The Board is generating water level data over the years through monitoring of network stations. There are 7 nos. network stations in the district. The data generated was utilised for long-term trend of water levels.
During pre-monsoon season, the trend of water level for the last decade (1999 – 2008) shows a rise of water level in 4 stations ranging from 0.105 to 0.571 m/yr and fall of water level in 3 stations ranges from 0.047 to 0.112 m/yr.
During post-monsoon season, the trend of water level for the last decade (1997 – 2008) shows a rise in three stations with 0.013 to 0.062 m/yr and fall in three stations with 0.013 to 0.333 m/yr.

Aquifer parameters of confined / deeper aquifers
Under Ground Water Exploration programme CGWB has constructed 13 nos. of deep tube wells down to a maximum depth of 255 m bgl tapping Tipam sandstone to determine the aquifer characteristics of the deeper aquifer.
In Dharmanagar valley, 10 nos. of exploratory wells were constructed in the depth range of 145 to 237m. The discharge of the wells varies from 4 to 95 m3/hr (1 to 26 lps) and the drawdown varies from 4 to 42 m. The transmissivity of the wells varies from 4 to 627 m2/day, permeability varies from 0.1 to 12.6 m/day and storativity varies from 2.7x10-4 to 4.20x10-4.
Exploratory wells constructed at Ichaicherra, Nayapasra, Pecharthal are found to be in flowing / artesian condition. The piezometric head measured varied from 0.42 to 2.85 magl.
In Kailasahar valley, 3 nos. of exploratory wells constructed in the depth ranges from 159 to 255 m. In South Irani a pilot hole was drilled up to 300 m bgl but due to lack of granular zone it was abandoned. The discharge of the wells varies from 85 to 90 m3/hr and the drawdown varies from 6 to 26 m. The transmissivity of the wells varies from 189 to1212 m2/day, and the permeability varies from 3 to 24 m/day. The hydrogeological details of exploratory wells constructed is given in table-1.
Springs / seepage zones
Springs / seepage zones are available in the area. Traditionally tribal people living in the hilly areas are using spring water for drinking and domestic purposes. In the foothill areas people used to arrest the spring water by constructing seasonal / permanent bund on small streamlets / cherras and used this water for irrigation purpose and sometimes used for drinking and domestic purposes also. In Kadamtala, Gournagar and Kumarghat seepage zones occur in paddy fields. In hilly areas of Damcherra, Pecharthal and Jampui hill blocks it is reported that springs are available.
Artesian zones
A few artesian zones occur in the district and are depicted in fig.5. These wells are mainly used for drinking and domestic purposes but some of the wells are even used for irrigation purposes. Artesian zones are found in Kadamatala, Panisagar, Dasda, Gournagar and Damcherra blocks. The artesian zones found are discontinuous and are localized phenomenon. It is reported that the wells are constructed within a depth range of 10 to 100 m bgl. Discharge of the wells varies from 0.01 to 0.83 lps during pre-monsoon period and from 0.02 to 1.00 lps during post-monsoon period.
Ground water resources for year 2004-05 of the district were estimated by the GEC’97 methodology. During resource estimation the smallest administrative unit i.e., Block is taken as the unit of computation. The main source of ground water recharge in the district is precipitation.

Other sources of ground water recharge in the area are return flow from irrigation and seepage from ponds / tanks.

Recharge from rainfall in the area accounts for 99% of the total annual recharge. Comparison of monsoon and non-monsoon rainfall recharge shows that monsoon recharge accounts for 51% and non-monsoon recharge accounts for 49% of total rainfall recharge.

Ground water in the area is mostly used for domestic and irrigational purposes. Ground water draft for industrial purpose is negligible and has not been considered. Net ground water available in the district is 341 mcm and ground water draft for all uses is 23.5 mcm. Ground water draft for irrigation and drinking purposes accounts for 47% and 53% of total ground water draft respectively. Block-wise net ground water availability, ground water draft, stage of development and balance ground water available for future irrigation purposes are given in Table–2. It is found that Dasda block having the highest available ground water while Damcherra block is having the lowest. In Panisagar block utilization of ground water is maximum i.e., 582ham. All the 8 blocks of the district falls under SAFE category. Panisagar block has the highest stage of development i.e. 12.72% and Jampui hill block has the lowest stage of development i.e. 3.04%.

Table 2: Ground Water Resources Available and Stage of Ground Water Development in the North Tripura district as on 31st March 2004 (in ha m)



Net Annual Existing Allocation for Net Annual Stage of



Gross domestic and Ground Water ground




industrial Availability for water

Availability Water

requirement future irrigation develop

Draft for upto next 25 development -ment

All Uses



1 Kadamtala






2 Panisagar




3475.95 12.72

3 Pecharthal






4 Damcherra






5 Dasda






6 Jampui hill






7 Gournagar






8 Kumarghat




4653.74 10.07


34111.64 2350.58





The analytical results show that there is no considerable difference between quality of water from shallow and deeper aquifers.

Suitability of Ground Water for Drinking and Domestic Use:
The pH values of the ground water ranges from 7.14 to 7.90 for shallow aquifer and from 6.36 to 8.19 for deeper aquifer. The BIS (1991) has recommended acceptable range of pH from


6.5 to 8.5 for domestic use. The water of the tube well at Panisagar in North Tripura has pH value of 6.36 otherwise all water of the area is acceptable for domestic use in view of pH ranges.
Ground water quality in the area is potable and range of all the chemical constituents are within the permissible limit set by BIS (1991), except iron. In shallow aquifer EC values ranges from 75 to 447 and in deeper aquifer it ranges from 105 to 365. Fluoride content in ground water from shallow aquifer ranges from 0.03 to 0.39 ppm and in deeper aquifer it ranges from 0.12 to 0.29ppm.
The iron concentration in ground water from shallow aquifer ranges from 0.06 to 3.93 ppm and in deeper aquifer it ranges from 0.06 to 12.00ppm. During ground water exploration at Panisagar the concentration of iron is found to be 12 ppm.
Suitability of Ground Water for Irrigation Use:
In general, ground water in the area is suitable for irrigation purpose, except concentration of iron is higher than permissible limit.
Ground water is being developed mostly by construction of deep tube wells, shallow tube wells and RCC wells etc .for drinking, domestic and irrigation purposes. These structures are fitted with suitable pumps, Mark II/III or with ordinary hand pumps for withdrawing ground water .In addition to that, there are some shallow tube wells which are auto flow in nature drawing ground water in the district.
Drinking water scenario
In urban areas water supply is done mainly from surface water sources. But in rural areas, deep tube wells and shallow tube wells fitted with suitable pumps provide drinking water to villagers. Water is being supplied directly from deep tube wells without any treatment and certain places water is supplied after iron removal wherever the iron concentration is beyond permissible limit.
There are 138 deep tube wells, 1103 RCC wells in the district. In addition there is one surface water treatment plant in the district.
As on 31-03-2008, out of 1092 habitations, 291 are fully covered, 593 are partially covered and 208 are uncovered so for. The Block-wise no of existing sources and coverage is given in Table-3.
Irrigation scenario
Ground water is being developed for irrigation purposes through deep tube wells; shallow tube wells fitted with pump sets (both electric and diesel pumps) and artesian wells. The use of dug wells for irrigation purpose is negligible. In Kadamtala, Dhamchera, Panisagar and

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Ground Water Information Booklet North Tripura District, Tripura