CS6703 GRID AND CLOUD COMPUTING Unit 1


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CS6703 GRID AND CLOUD COMPUTING Unit 1

UNIT I INTRODUCTION
Evolution of Distributed computing: Scalable computing over the Internet – Technologies for network based systems – clusters of cooperative computers - Grid computing Infrastructures – cloud computing service oriented architecture – Introduction to Grid Architecture and standards – Elements of Grid – Overview of Grid Architecture.

Distributed Computing
Definition “A distributed system consists of multiple autonomous computers that communicate through a computer network. “Distributed computing utilizes a network of many computers, each accomplishing a portion of an overall task, to achieve a computational result much more quickly than with a single computer.” “Distributed computing is any computing that involves multiple computers remote from each other that each have a role in a computation

Introduction
 A distributed system is one in which hardware or software components located at networked computers communicate and coordinate their actions only by message passing.
 In the term distributed computing, the word distributed means spread out across space. Thus, distributed computing is an activity performed on a spatially distributed system.
 These networked computers may be in the same

Introduction

Agent

Agent

Agent

Cooperation

Distribution

Subscription

Distribution

Cooperation Distribution

Internet

Distribution

Job Request

Cooperation Agent

Resource Management

Large-scale Application

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Motivation

 Inherently distributed applications

 Performance/cost

 Resource sharing

 Flexibility and extensibility

 Availability and fault tolerance

 Scalability

 Network connectivity is increasing.

 Combination of cheap processors often more cost-effective

than one expensive fast system.

 Potential increase of reliability.

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History

 1975 – 1985

Parallel computing was favored in the early years

Primarily vector-based at first

Gradually more thread-based parallelism was introduced

The first distributed computing programs were a pair of

programs called Creeper and Reaper invented in 1970s

Ethernet that was invented in 1970s.

ARPANET e-mail was invented in the early 1970s and

probably the earliest example of a large-scale distributed

application.

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History
 1985 -1995 Massively parallel architectures start rising and message passing interface and other libraries developed Bandwidth was a big problem The first Internet-based distributed computing project was started in 1988 by the DEC System Research Center. Distributed.net was a project founded in 1997 - considered the first to use the internet to distribute data for calculation and collect the results,
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History
 1995 – Today Cluster/grid architecture increasingly dominant Special node machines eschewed in favor of COTS technologies Web-wide cluster software Google take this to the extreme (thousands of nodes/cluster) [email protected] started in May 1999 - analyze the radio signals that were being collected by the Arecibo Radio Telescope in Puerto Rico.
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Goal
 Making Resources Accessible Data sharing and device sharing
 Distribution Transparency Access, location, migration, relocation, replication, concurrency, failure
 Communication Make human-to-human comm. easier. E.g.. : electronic mail
 Flexibility Spread the work load over the available machines in the most cost effective way
 To coordinate the use of shared resources

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CS6703 GRID AND CLOUD COMPUTING Unit 1