Egon Schieleâ•Žs Double Self Portraiture


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Bryn Mawr College
Scholarship, Research, and Creative Work at Bryn Mawr College
Bryn Mawr College Dissertations and Theses 2015
Egon Schiele’s Double Self Portraiture
Lori Anne Felton
Bryn Mawr College, [email protected]
Follow this and additional works at: https://repository.brynmawr.edu/dissertations Custom Citation
Felton, Lori Anne. “Egon Schiele’s Double Self Portraiture” PhD diss., Bryn Mawr College, 2015. This paper is posted at Scholarship, Research, and Creative Work at Bryn Mawr College. https://repository.brynmawr.edu/dissertations/133 For more information, please contact [email protected]

EGON SCHIELE’S DOUBLE SELF-PORTRAITURE
By LORI ANNE FELTON
October 9, 2015 Submitted to the Faculty of Bryn Mawr College
in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in the Department of History of Art

ABSTRACT
With few visual precedents, Egon Schiele (1890-1918) was the first artist to systematically explore double self-portraiture’s potential to convey multiple meanings, by painting, drawing and collaboratively photographing thirteen works in the genre. In this dissertation, I argue that these works reflect Schiele’s interest in establishing a deep engagement with the viewer. I consider Schiele’s double self-portraiture in two distinct categories: as an original, intended group from 1910 and 1911 that, borrowing from two of the works’ titles, I call the Self-Seers, and as a sequence of unique, experimental works after 1913. While the Self-Seers paintings exhibit Schiele’s concern with the act of viewing, his subsequent works suggest double self-portraiture’s potential to be multivalent, engaging with the opposite qualities such as inner and outer, the spiritual and the mundane, and death and life in a highly experimental, yet strategic manner.
To Schiele, the work of art is itself an animate being and art itself is eternal. His views on art’s eternal nature stand in stark contrast to the impermanence of selfhood that scholars agree was his deepest concern, as evinced by his serial self-portraits. While his double self-portraits evoke similar themes found in the Romantic Doppelgänger topos, Schiele’s interpretation of topics such as mirror images, shadows, and death are distinct from it because he does not depict his double as a threat. Instead, the doubles beseech the viewer to be understood differently, for their kinship with the metaphysical to be explored and even embraced. These singular works address Schiele’s creative concerns as well as the preoccupations of Viennese culture, and they display his capacity to create art that is thoughtful and thought provoking, presenting an unexamined facet of Expressionistic art.
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to offer my deepest gratitude to countless individuals who have shown me generosity and support. I must name a selection of people and institutions below for their extraordinary support and kindness, but I am no less grateful to those who remain unmentioned.
My dissertation advisor, Christiane Hertel, has been especially generous with her time, supportive, rigorous, and intellectually challenging, while always remaining kind-hearted. I could not imagine a more fitting advisory relationship. Alessandra Comini, a pioneer Schiele scholar, has likewise been incredibly generous and supportive of my work, adopting me as a mentee in 2011 and becoming a friend throughout the years. Johann Thomas Ambrózy has been a guide and mentor to me since 2011, when he very kindly showed me the ropes on conducting my research in Vienna and shared his own research material with me. My committee members, Steven Levine, Imke Meyer, and Lisa Saltzman have been challenging, stimulating, and supportive instructors and mentors, and they will each find elements of their teachings in this dissertation. Pedro Marenco served as my outside committee chair, for which I am thankful.
The Fulbright Commission funded my research year in Vienna in 2011-2012, and their outstanding support was not only financial, but also bureaucratic and social. I wish to thank the United States Congress and the Austrian National Government for continuing to fund this extremely important exchange program for future scholars. I am also deeply indebted to Bryn Mawr College for generously supporting my scholarship from 2012-2015, and I extend my deepest gratitude to the Theodore Ely Grant for their contribution to my funding in my final year.
I wish to thank the entire curatorial and library staff of the Albertina Museum, the Belvedere Museum and Library, the Lentos Museum, the Leopold Museum and Library, the Wien Museum, and the Wienbibliothek im Rathaus, especially Sandra Tretter of the Leopold Museum, Stella Rollig of the Lentos Museum, and Martina Pichler of the Albertina Museum. I would like to extend special thanks to Bernard Eipper of the Universalmuseum Joanneum, who generously shared his knowledge as a conservator with me. I am similarly indebted to Jane Kallir for her invitation to conduct research at the Galerie St. Etienne in New York.
A great community of fellow scholars, friends, and family has provided its support throughout the years. Jennifer Egolf inspired me to begin. Chris Brooks encouraged me to finish. Maeve Doyle, Tienfong Ho, and Jamie Richardson have steadfastly supported me in a way that others could not. Manuela Wade, Vera Pummer, and Heidi Danzl assisted me with complicated translations. I am indebted to countless friends in Europe and in the States who have listened to my ideas, bought me drinks, meals, and housed this itinerant scholar.
I dedicate this dissertation to several family members, namely my parents, Bill and Kitty Felton, for their bewildered tolerance of me living abroad for several years, and likewise to my sisters, Barb, Aubrey, and Janice, for their unyielding encouragement and moral support.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT…………………………………………………………………......………...1
LIST OF FIGURES………………………………………………………….……………4
INTRODUCTION: DOUBLE TROUBLE: THE DOUBLE SELF-PORTRAITS AS AN INDEPENDENT CATEGORY..............................................................................9
1. EGON SCHIELE’S DOUBLE SELF-PORTRAITS AND DOUBLING IN VIENNA 1900....................................................................................................................................32
1.1 The Double and Early Psychoanalysis.............................................................36 1.2 Doubling as a Device in Vienna 1900.............................................................43 1.3 Images of Doubles in Vienna 1900..................................................................58
2. ARTISTIC IDENTITY AND THE YOUNG ARTIST.................................................68 2.1 Painting the Artist: Schiele’s Early Self-Portraits (1906-1909)......................69 2.2 Doubles and Opposites....................................................................................76 2.3 Nude Study: A Fresh Perspective in the Mirror...............................................80 2.4 Modern and Eternal: An Eclectic New Style...................................................84
3. THE 1910-1911 DOUBLE SELF-PORTRAITS: “GREAT PERSONALITIES” AND “SELF-SEERS”.................................................................................................................90
3.1 “Great Personalities”.......................................................................................93 3.2 The Self-Seers as a Medium to Sight.............................................................108
4. AFTER THE SELF-SEERS: THE “INNER LIGHT OF THE PAINTING”.............133 4.1 The Doubled Self and the Mirror...................................................................138 4.2 Schiele’s Reinterpretation of The Self-Seers Concepts.................................147 4.3 Kristallgestalten: The “Inner Light of the Painting”.....................................155 4.4 Unveiling the Truth........................................................................................166
CONCLUSION................................................................................................................186
BIBLIOGRAPHY............................................................................................................194
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LIST OF FIGURES
1. Egon Schiele, Transfiguration (The Blind II), 1915, oil on canvas, (78 3/4 x 67 3/4”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
2. Egon Schiele, Seated Male Nude (Self-Portrait), 1910, oil on canvas, (60 x 59”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
3. Egon Schiele, The Self-Seers I (Double Self-Portrait), 1910, oil on canvas, (31 1/2 x 31 3/8”). Presumed lost.
1.1. Egon Schiele, The Self-Seers I (Double Self-Portrait), 1910, oil on canvas, (31 1/2 x 31 3/8”). Presumed lost.
1.2. Egon Schiele, The Self-Seers II (Death and Man), 1911, oil on canvas, (31 5/8 x 31 1/2”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
1.3. Arnold Böcklin, Self-Portrait with Fiddling Death, 1872, oil on canvas, (29.5 × 24”). Berlin: Alte Nationalgalerie.
1.4. Ignác Šechtl. Double Self-Portrait as a Laboratory Worker and a Chemist, c. 1870, photograph. Tábor: Šechtl & Voseček Museum of Photography.
1.5. Anton Joseph Trčka, Trick photograph of Schiele shown twice, 1914, photograph. Český Krumlov: Egon Schiele Art Centrum.
1.6. Lorenzo Lotto. Portrait of a Goldsmith in Three Views, 1525-1535, oil on canvas, (52 x 79 cm.). Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum.
1.7. Hans von Aachen, Two Laughing Young Men (Double Self-Portrait), ca. 1574, oil on oak panel, (48×38.5 cm.). Kroměříž: Olomouc Archdiocese Museum.
2.1. Egon Schiele, Self-Portrait with Palette, 1905, gouache, pencil and black crayon on paper, (9 3/4 x 6 1/2”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
2.2. Portrait of Egon Schiele in 1906, photograph. Vienna: Albertina Museum.
2.3. Adolf Bernhard, Photograph of Egon Schiele, 1906, photograph. Vienna: Albertina Museum.
2.4. Egon Schiele, Self-Portrait with Long Hair, 1907, oil on canvas, (14 x 11 1/4”). Private collection.
2.5. Egon Schiele, Self-Portrait with Red Background, 1906, gouache on cardboard, (12 x 11”). Private collection.
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2.6. Albrecht Dürer, Self-Portrait with Fur-trimmed Robe, 1500, oil on limewood panel (67.1 x 48.9 cm). Munich: Alte Pinakothek.
2.7. Book 148 from Egon Schiele’s Library. Photograph courtesy of Johann Thomas Ambrózy, 2012.
2.8. Egon Schiele, Self-Portrait, Facing Right, 1907, oil on canvas, (12 3/4 x 12 1/4”). Private collection.
2.9. Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait as a Young Man, ca. 1628, oil on panel, (22.5 x 18.6 cm). Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam.
2.10. Egon Schiele, Head of a Bearded Man I, 1907, oil on cardboard, (13 1/8 x 9 3/4”). Private collection.
2.11. Egon Schiele, Portrait of Leopold Czihaczek, 1907, oil on canvas, 24 5/8 x 19 1/2”). Private collection.
2.12. Egon Schiele, Professor Strauch at His Easel, 1908, charcoal on paper, (8 7/8 x 13 3/4"). St. Pölten: Niederösterreichisches Landesmuseum.
2.13. Egon Schiele, Cain Slaying Abel, 1907, pencil, (10 x 15 3/8”). Private collection.
2.14. Egon Schiele, Nude Study Standing over a Mirror, 1908, oil on canvas, (9 5/8 x 7 1/8”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
2.15. Gustav Klimt, Medicine, 1901, oil on canvas, (4.3 x 3 m.). Destroyed.
2.16. Parmigianino, Self-Portrait in a Convex Mirror, 1524, oil on convex panel, (9.6” diameter). Vienna: Kunsthistorisches Museum.
2.17. Detail from Jane Kallir, Egon Schiele: The Complete Works, page 386.
2.18. Detail from Jane Kallir, Egon Schiele: The Complete Works, page 387.
2.19. Rembrandt van Rijn, Self-Portrait with a Cap, Mouth opened Wide, 1630, etching, (2 1/16 x 1 13/16”). Pasadena: Norton Simon Museum.
3.1. Egon Schiele, Selbstbild, July, 1910. Vienna: Leopold Museum.
3.2. Egon Schiele, Letter from Egon Schiele to Andreas Thom, August, 1910. Vienna: Wienbibliothek.
3.3. Egon Schiele, Cain Slaying Abel, 1907, pencil, (10 x 15 3/8”). Private collection.
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3.4. Egon Schiele: Melancholia, 1910, oil on canvas, (59 x 39 3/8”). Painted over by the artist.
3.5. Lucien Lévy-Dhurmer, Silence, 1895, pastel (54 x 29 cm.). Paris: Musée d'Orsay.
3.6. Egon Schiele, The Self-Seers I (Double Self-Portrait), 1910, oil on canvas, (31 1/2 x 31 3/8”). Presumed lost.
3.7. Egon Schiele, Prophets, 1911, oil on canvas, (43 3/8 x 19 3/4”). Stuttgart: Staatsgalerie Stuttgart.
3.8. Egon Schiele, The Self-Seers II (Death and Man), 1911, oil on canvas, (31 5/8 x 31 1/2”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
3.9. The Birth of Genius (Dead Mother II), 1911, oil on panel, (12 5/8 x 10”). Presumed destroyed.
3.10. Egon Schiele, The Poet, 1911, oil on canvas, (31 1/2 x 31 5/8”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
3.11. Egon Schiele: Vision and Destiny, 1911, oil on canvas, (59 1/4 x 59”). Untraced.
3.12. Detail from Jane Kallir, Egon Schiele: The Complete Works, p. 429.
3.13. Egon Schiele, Double Self-Portrait, 1915, gouache, watercolor, and pencil on paper, (12 3/4 x 19 1/2”). Private collection.
3.14. Johannes Fischer, Trick Photograph of Egon Schiele, 1915, photograph. Vienna: Albertina Museum.
4.1. Egon Schiele, Seated Male Nude (Self-Portrait), 1910, oil on canvas, (60 x 59”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
4.2. Egon Schiele, The Self-Seers I (Double Self-Portrait), 1910, oil on canvas, (31 1/2 x 31 3/8”). Presumed lost.
4.3. Egon Schiele, The Self-Seers II (Death and Man), 1911, oil on canvas (31 5/8 x 31 1/2”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
4.4. Egon Schiele, Cardinal and Nun, 1912, oil on canvas, (70 x 80.5 cm). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
4.5. Egon Schiele, Self Portrait as St. Sebastian, 1914, pencil on paper, (12 3/4 x 19”). Private collection.
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4.6. Egon Schiele, Nude Study Standing over a Mirror, 1908, oil on canvas, (9 5/8 x 7 1/8”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
4.7. Egon Schiele, The Artist and His Model, 1910, pencil on paper, (21 3/4 x 13 7/8”). Vienna: Albertina Museum.
4.8. Johannes Fischer, Egon Schiele Standing before his Mirror, ca. 1916, photograph. Vienna: Wien Museum.
4.9. Egon Schiele, Death and the Maiden, 1915, oil on canvas, (59 x 70 7/8”). Vienna: Belvedere Museum.
4.10. Egon Schiele, Double Self-Portrait, 1915, gouache, watercolor, and pencil on paper, (12 3/4 x 19 1/2”). Private collection.
4.11. Egon Schiele, Seers (Double Self-Portrait with Wally), 1913, gouache, watercolor and pencil on paper, (18 7/8 x 12 1/2”). Private collection.
4.12. Egon Schiele: Couple, 1909, watercolor and pencil, (17 1/2 x 12 1/4”). Pittsburgh: Carnegie Institute.
4.13. Egon Schiele, Hindering the Artist is a Crime, It is Murdering Life in the Bud!, 1912, watercolor and pencil, (19 1/8 x 12 1/2”). Vienna: Albertina Museum.
4.14. Egon Schiele, For My Art and for My Loved Ones I Will Gladly Endure, 1912, watercolor and pencil, (19 x 12 1/2). Vienna: Albertina Museum.
4.15. Egon Schiele, Prisoner!, 1912, watercolor and pencil, (19 x 12 1/2”). Vienna: Albertina Museum.
4.16. Egon Schiele: Self-Portrait in Jerkin with Right Elbow Raised, 1914, gouache, pencil and chalk on paper, (18 3/4 x 12 1/4”). Private collection.
4.17. Egon Schiele, The Single Orange was the only Light, 1912, gouache, watercolor and pencil, (12 1/2 x 18 7/8”). Vienna: Albertina Collection.
4.18. Egon Schiele, Transfiguration (The Blind II), 1915, oil on canvas, (78 3/4 x 67 3/4”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
4.19. Egon Schiele: Devotion, 1913, gouache, watercolor and pencil on paper, (320 x 483 cm.). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
4.20. Egon Schiele: The Truth Unveiled, 1913, gouache, watercolor and pencil on paper, (19 x 12 5/8”). Private Collection.
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4.21. Page from Adolf Schiele’s copy of Naturgeschichte des Minerales. Photo courtesy of Thomas Ambrózy, 2012.
4.22. Gustav Klimt, Death and Life, as it appeared in 1911, oil on canvas, (5’10 x 6’6). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
4.23. Gustav Klimt, Death and Life, final rendition, 1916, oil on canvas, (5’10 x 6’6). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
4.24. Egon Schiele, Recollection, 1913, watercolor and pencil on paper, (18 5/8 x 12 3/8”). Dallas: Dallas Museum of Art.
4.25. Anton Josef Trčka, Photograph of Egon Schiele before Heiligen, 1914, photograph. Vienna: Vienna City Museum.
4.26. Johannes Fischer, Trick Photograph of Egon Schiele Shown Twice, ca. 1916, photograph. Český Krumlov: Egon Schiele Art Centrum.
4.27. Egon Schiele, Portrait of Friederike Beer, 1914, oil on canvas, (74 3/4 x 47 1/2”). London: Marlborough Fine Art Gallery.
5.1. Egon Schiele, Two Squatting Men, 1918, oil on canvas, (39 3/8 x 67 3/8”). Private collection.
5.2. Egon Schiele, Two Squatting Women, 1918, oil and gouache on canvas, (43 1/4 x 55 1/8”). Vienna: Belvedere Museum.
5.3. Egon Schiele, The Family, 1918, oil on canvas, (60 x 64”). Vienna: Belvedere Museum.
5.4. Egon Schiele, The Self-Seers II (Death and Man), 1911, oil on canvas, (31 5/8 x 31 1/2”). Vienna: Leopold Museum.
5.5. Egon Schiele, Cain Slaying Abel, 1907, pencil, (10 x 15 3/8”). Private collection.
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Egon Schieleâ•Žs Double Self Portraiture