The Conclusive Argument From God


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THE CONCLUSIVE ARGUMENT FROM GOD
Shah Wali Allah of Delhi's Hujjat Allah al-Baligha
TRANSLATED BY
MARCIA Κ. HERMANSEN
New Delhi-1 10002

CONTENTS

Acknowledgments

xiii

Translator's Introduction

xv

The Conclusive Argument from God. Hujjat Allah al-Bàligha VOLUME I
The General Principles from Which Are Derived the Beneficial Purposes Considered in the Rulings of the Divine Law

Shah Wali Allah's Preface

3

Shah Wali Allah's Introduction

11

BOOK I The First Investigation: The Causes of

Religious Obligations and Requital

31

1. Absolute Origination, Creation of the Material World

and Divine Management

33

2. The World of Images (Warn al-Mithal)

37

3. The Highest Council

43

4. God's Customary Way of Acting

(Sunna)

49

5. The True Nature of the Spirit (Ruh)

53

6. The Inner Dimension of the Imposition of Religious

Obligations

57

7. How Religious Obligation is Derived from What

is Divinely Decreed

60

8. Why Religious Obligation Necessitates Requital

69

9. The Variations in the Natural Dispositions of People.. 73

10. The Causes of the Thoughts Which Motivate

Actions

78

11. The Adhering of Acts to the Soul and Its Being Held

Accountable for Them

80

12. The Connection of Actions to Psychological

Attitudes

84

13. The Causes for Requital

87

viii

CONTENTS

BOOK II The Second Investigation: The Manner of

Requital during Life and after Death

91

14. Punishment for Acts in This Life

93

15. The True Nature of Death

97

16. The Variation of the States of People in the

Intermediary World

101

17. Concerning Some of the Secrets of the Events

of the Day of Assembly

106

BOOK III The Third Investigation: The Supports of

Civilization (The lrtifaqat)

113

18. The Manner of Discovering the

Irtifaqat

115

19. The First Irtifaq

119

20. The Art of the Proper Manner of Livelihood

(The Second Irtifaq)

121

21. The Management of the Household

123

22. The Art of Economic Transactions (Mu'amalat)

127

23. The Governing of the City-State (the Third Irtifaq)..,.. 129

24. The Conduct of Kings

132

25. The Policy towards Assistants

.

134

26. The Fourth Irtifaq (the Caliphate)

137

27. The Agreement of People on the Principles of

the

Irtifaqat

140

28. The Conventions Current Among People

142

BOOK IV The Fourth Investigation:

Human Felicity

145

29. Concerning the True Nature of Felicity

147

30. The Differences among People in Felicity

151

31. The Divisions among People in their Manner of

Obtaining This Felicity

153

32. The Principles to Which the Attainment of the

Second Way Goes Back

156

33. The Way of Acquiring These, Qualities

161

34. The Veils Preventing the Manifestation of the Sound

Original Nature (Fitra)

165

35. The Way of Removing These Veils

168

CONTENTS

ix

BOOK V The Fifth Investigation:

Piety and Sin

171

36. Preface: Concerning the True Nature of Piety

and Sin

173

37. The Unity of God (Tauhid)

175

38. Concerning the True Nature of Associationism (Shirk) 179

39. The Categories of Associationism (Shirk)

184

40. Belief in the Divine Attributes

190

41. Belief in Predestination

197

42. Belief that Worship is the Right of God, May

He be Exalted

203

43. Honoring the Emblems of Allah, May

He be Exalted

210

44. The Inner Meanings of the Ablution and Full Bath

214

45. The Inner Dimensions of Prayer

218

46. The Inner Meanings of the Zakat

221

47. The Inner Dimensions of the Fast

224

48. The Inner Dimensions of the Pilgrimage

227

49. The Inner Meanings of Various Types of

Pious Actions

229

50. The Ranks of Sin

232

51. The Harmful Influences of Sins

236

52. The Acts of Disobedience of a Person which

Have an Impact on Himself

238

53. The Sins which are Between a Person and

Other People

241

BOOK VI The Sixth Investigation:

The Regulation of Religion

245

54. The Need for the Guides to the Paths and the

Founders of Religions

247

55. The True Nature of Prophecy and Its

Characteristics

250

56. The Explanation of the Fact that the Basis of

Religion (Din) is One and the Religious Laws

(Shara'i') and Codes (Manahij) Vary

257

57. The Causes of the Revelation of the Divine Laws

Relating to One Age Rather than Another, and to

One People Rather than Another

262

CONTENTS

xi

76. The Difference Between the Beneficial Purposes

(Masalih) and the Religious Laws

376

77. The Way the Community Received the Divine

Law from the Prophet

383

78. The Ranks of the Books on Hadith

387

79. The Manner of Understanding What is Meant by the

Utterance (Kalam)

396

80. The Manner of Understanding the Legal (Shar'ï)

Meanings From the Qur'an and the Sunna

400

81. Judging Among Divergent Hadiths

405

82. The Causes of the Disagreement of the Companions

and the Successors Concerning Applied

Jurisprudence

414

83. The Causes for Disagreement Among the Schools

of the Jurists

427

84. The Difference Between the People of the Hadith

and Those Who Exercise Personal Opinion

437

85. An Account of the Condition of People Before the

Fourth Century and After

451

Bibliography

479

Indices

483

Qur'anic Citations

483

Hadith Citations-English

488

Subjects and Terms

496

Proper Names

503

χ

CONTENTS

58. The Causes for Being Held Accountable for the

Codes (Manahij)

- 271

59. The Secrets of the Ruling (Hukm) and the Reason

for Legislation ('Illα)

275

60. The Beneficial Interests (Masalih) which Require

the Obligatory Religious Acts, the Pillars, the Proper

Behaviors, and Their Like....

280

61. The Inner Meanings of the (Appointed) Times

287

62. The Inner Meanings of the Numbers and the Fixed

Quantities

292

63. The Inner Meanings of Making Up (Qada)

(for Missed Religious Obligations) or Receiving

Dispensations (Rukhsa) (to Diminish Them)

299

64. The Establishment of the Supports of Civilization

(Irtifaqat) and the Reformation of Conventions

303

65. Rules which Bring into Effect Other Rules

310

66. Rendering the Ambiguous Precise, Solving the

Problematic, and Deriving Rulings from All-Embracing

Principles and So On

316

67. The Facilitation (of Religious Duties - Taisir)

322

68. The Inner Meanings of Encouragement

(to Righteousness) and Deterrence (from Sin)

327

69. The Ranks of the Community with Regard to

Arriving at the Desired Perfection or Its Opposite

334

70. The Need for a Religion which Abrogates the

Other Religions

340

71. Fortifying the Religion Against Distortion

346

72. The Causes for the Differing of the Religion of

Our Prophet, from the Religion of the Jews

and Christians

353

73. The Causes of Abrogation

357

74. The Explanation of What Had Been the Condition

of the People of the Jahiliyya which the Prophet

Reformed

361

BOOK VII The Seventh Investigation:

The Derivation of the Shari'a Laws from the

Reports of the Prophet

371

75. The Explanation of the Categories of the Prophet's

Knowledge

373

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The Conclusive Argument From God