The National Curriculum Framework


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THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK

National Institute of Education
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION.................................................................................................................................................5 2. NCF VISION ..........................................................................................................................................................8 3. NCF PRINCIPLES ...............................................................................................................................................9 4. SHARED VALUES............................................................................................................................................11 5. FOCUS FOR LEARNING................................................................................................................................14
5.1. Values...................................................................................................................................................14 5.2. Skills......................................................................................................................................................14 5.3. Knowledge and Understanding ...............................................................................................15 6. KEY COMPETENCIES....................................................................................................................................16 7. ORGANISATION OF LEARNING...............................................................................................................22 7.1. Foundation Phase...........................................................................................................................23 7.2. Primary Phase..................................................................................................................................23 7.3. Lower Secondary Phase ..............................................................................................................24 7.4. Higher Secondary Phase ............................................................................................................. 24 8. KEY LEARNING AREAS................................................................................................................................25 8.1. Islam and Spirituality ...................................................................................................................25
8.1.1. Why Study Islam & Spirituality?..............................................................................26 8.1.2. How is Islam & Spirituality Structured? ..............................................................26 8.2. Language and Communication ................................................................................................29 8.2.1. Why Study Language and Communication? ......................................................30 8.2.2. How is Language and Communication Structured? .......................................30 8.3. Mathematics......................................................................................................................................33 8.3.1. Why Study Mathematics?............................................................................................33 8.3.2. How is Mathematics Structured? ............................................................................34 8.4. Environment, Science and Technology................................................................................37 8.4.1. Why Study Environment, Science and Technology?......................................37 8.4.2. How is Environment, Science and Technology Organised?........................37 8.5. Health and Wellbeing ...................................................................................................................40 8.5.1. Why Study Health and Wellbeing? .........................................................................40 8.5.2. How is Health and Wellbeing Structured?..........................................................41 8.6. Social Sciences .................................................................................................................................43 8.6.1. Why Study Social Sciences? .......................................................................................43

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8.6.2. How is Social Sciences Structured?........................................................................44 8.7. Creative Arts .....................................................................................................................................47
8.7.1. Why Study Creative Arts? ...........................................................................................47 8.7.2. How is Creative Arts Organized?.............................................................................48 8.8. Entrepreneurship...........................................................................................................................51 8.8.1. Why Teach Entrepreneurship? ................................................................................ 51 8.8.2. How is Entrepreneurship Organised? ..................................................................51 9. ORGANIZATION OF LEARNING...............................................................................................................54 10. CURRICULUM MANAGEMENT..............................................................................................................57 10.1. Scheduling School Hours..........................................................................................................57 10.2. Selection of Subjects...................................................................................................................57 10.3. Creating a Suitable Learning Environment.....................................................................58 10.4. Teaching and Learning Process ............................................................................................58 10.5. Learning Outside the Classroom ..........................................................................................59 10.6. Co-curricular Activities.............................................................................................................59 10.7. Resources ........................................................................................................................................59 10.8. Catering for Students With Special Educational Needs.............................................59 10.9. Continuous Professional Development.............................................................................60 10.10. Medium of Instruction............................................................................................................60 11. EFFECTIVE PEDAGOGY ............................................................................................................................ 62 11.1. Creating a Positive Learning Environment .....................................................................63 11.2. Connecting Prior Learning to New Learning..................................................................63 11.3. Fostering Reflective Practice .................................................................................................64 11.4. Making Learning Meaningful .................................................................................................64 11.5. Recognising Individual Differences .................................................................................... 65 12. ASSESSMENT AND REPORTING ..........................................................................................................66 12.1. Principles of Assessment .........................................................................................................68 12.2. Reporting.........................................................................................................................................69 13. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES ..........................................................................................................70 13.1. Principals.........................................................................................................................................70 13.2. Leading Teachers.........................................................................................................................71 13.3. Teachers...........................................................................................................................................71 13.4. Students............................................................................................................................................72 13.5. Parents .............................................................................................................................................. 72

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14. ACCOUNTABILITY MEASURES.............................................................................................................74 GLOSSARY OF TERMS.......................................................................................................................................76

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National Curriculum Framework

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THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM FRAMEWORK
1. INTRODUCTION
The National Curriculum Framework (NCF) is the most important policy outlined to support and facilitate quality education for the Maldives. It reflects the contemporary thinking skills needed for the students to succeed in life, and how schools can effectively help the students achieving this desired goal while keeping the students as the core of the NCF.
The NCF elaborates the learning experiences of students aged 4 – 18 in schools in the Maldives, and describes what they should understand and demonstrate at each stage of their development in learning. It provides the structural basis of formal school education.
It explains the vision that sets out to achieve; the principles that guides its design; the shared values that Maldivian society deems important; and the key competencies that all children and young people are expected to acquire through schooling, upon which all learning is organised. The NCF also describes how learning is structured across the each stages of schooling and categorised into different key learning areas. It further identifies effective pedagogy and the assessment to be adopted in teaching and learning while creating positive learning environment in schools. The roles and responsibilities of the stakeholders are adhered to ensure the smooth implementation of the NCF.
Taking into account the views of a large number of stakeholder groups across the nation, over a period of time, and incorporating the recommendations of international research and educational theory on curriculum design and delivery, this framework offers a broad and balanced education that provides rich experiences in learning with equal emphasis on creating knowledge, developing skills and demonstrating values and positive attitudes which will enable to develop the students holistically. The key competencies outlined in the NCF will provide the students with the tools to deal

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National Institute of Education
effectively with the opportunities and challenges which they will encounter now, as young people, and in future, as adults.
There are three main distinct features of this framework that make it different from previous overarching statements of the curriculum and syllabus documents rectified in the Maldives.
The NCF carries a broad view of curriculum as the entire planned learning experiences offered in schools. As such, the framework details what we are trying to achieve, how learning would be organised and how its impact would be measured. It crafts confident, competent and responsible young people the country needs in her society, and the values that uphold and instil in them in the generations to come. It further specifies how learning would be structured and what measures schools and other stakeholders within the system would need to take in order to implement the NCF effectively.
The focus on eight key competencies that all children must achieve is a major shift in the design of the framework. These key competencies form the common core of achievement which emphasizes achieving the knowledge, skills, values and attitudes identified within each key competency whereas the previously curriculum strongly focussed on subjects and time allocation has been diminished learning. The NCF shows the links between the key competencies and the key learning areas, encouraging learning at lower levels of schooling to be integrated and for strong links between disciplines to be developed at higher levels.
The third distinct feature of this framework is that it maps out the learning that students will experience across the stages of schooling. This would ensure that there are smooth transitions between stages, and encourage a developmental and integrated approach to curriculum planning, teaching and learning. By providing a map of the total span of a student’s schooling, it provides continuity and consistency in a student’s education. Although schooling is divided into six main stages in the NCF, this approach ensures that the focus remains the same at each stage: a vision to develop young people who are motivated to learn and explore; individuals who are confident and competent, while being productive and responsible contributors in the society.

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National Institute of Education Using the NCF as a basis, the syllabus statements will be developed for each key learning area incorporating the cross cutting key competencies. In addition to this, curriculum support materials for students and teachers will be developed and professional development programmes must be continued for teachers and principals to execute the successful implementation of the curriculum.
The following figure (Figure 1) maps out the key elements of the National Curriculum.

Figure 1: Map of the National Curriculum

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2. NCF VISION

NC Vision

Every child is prepared for life.

The National Curriculum envisions the development of:

 Successful individuals who are motivated to explore and create knowledge.  Confident and competent individuals who have a firm belief in Islam, a strong
sense of self and national identity.  Responsible and productive contributors to their own family, local community
and the global society.

Figure 2 shows the different characteristics of young people who have achieved each of the three dimensions of this vision.

Motivated to learn and explore:

Confident and competent:

 identify own learning styles

 adhere to the teachings of Qur’an and Sunnah

 employ a variety of learning strategies

 take Islam as a complete way of life

 expand own circle of knowledge and repertoire of skills
 are critical and creative thinkers
 are able to think, reason, question and evaluate
 are literate and numerate
 take pleasure in learning

 have a strong identity of self
 uphold national values and culture
 communicate successfully
 recognise own strengths
 are resilient
 take initiative

 distinguish right and wrong

 are equipped for life and work

Figure 2: Vision of the National Curriculum

Responsible and productive:
 contribute to the wellbeing of own family, local community and global society
 are resourceful and reliable
 make informed decisions
 respect others
 follow sustainable practices
 are enterprising and entrepreneurial
 contest violence and injustice
 are keen to make a difference

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3. NCF PRINCIPLES
The NCF is embedded with educational principles which are considered to be the basis for decision making on the curriculum development and its delivery. Among the eight principles set out in the NCF, the first principle addresses the key concerns that are unique to the Maldivian context. The followings are the principles.
a. Islam b. Identity and Culture c. Human Rights, Democracy and Justice d. Holistic Development e. Personal Excellence f. Inclusivity g. Preparation for Life h. Relevance

a. Islam

The NCF is underpinned by Islamic values, principles and practices. It recognises the place of Islam in the Maldivian community and supports the development of individuals who understand and practise the Muslim faith.

b. Identity and Culture

The NCF encourages providing an in-depth understanding of the unique Maldivian culture, and the appreciation of its heritage. It promotes the national identity with the tradition accustomed among the Maldivians along with its history, present and its future.

c. Human Rights, Democracy and Justice

The NCF upholds human rights, democracy and justice. It strives to provide opportunities for students to explore related values, understand their essence, and experience these concepts through their learning experiences.

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d. Holistic Development

The NCF promotes the holistic development of the child. It focuses on enhancing students’ spiritual, moral, social, cultural, physical and mental development, and thereby the overall wellbeing of the individual.

e. Personal Excellence

The NCF empowers all students to reach their maximum potential and attain personal excellence. It ensures that students are provided with challenging learning experiences appropriate to them with active participation sustain their motivation in learning.

f. Inclusivity

The NCF is non-discriminatory and it ensures that all students can learn and achieve. It ensures that the learning needs of all students are met and the individual needs related to aptitudes and talents are addressed.

g. Preparation for Life

The NCF fosters the development of skills in preparation for life. It encourages students to be self-reliant, responsible and independent who value work and persevere in their efforts to succeed.

h. Relevance

The NCF offers learning that is purposeful, and it encourages students to see the value of what they are learning. It ensures that learning is relevant to their present and future lives, by exploring significant contemporary and emerging issues such as technology, sustainability, enterprise and citizenship.

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The National Curriculum Framework