Pashu Sakhi Module


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PASHU SAKHI MODULE

CONTENTS
1. Why do we keep animals?................................................................................................................ 3 2. What animals are kept in your community?...................................................................................... 3 3. What are the animals used for? ........................................................................................................ 3 4. How good are your animals? ............................................................................................................ 3 5. Animals and the environment........................................................................................................... 5 6. Organs and systems of the body ....................................................................................................... 8 7. Body temperature .......................................................................................................................... 13 8. Appearance of the healthy animal .................................................................................................. 16 9. Spread of disease ........................................................................................................................... 20 10. Breeds in India........................................................................................................................... 22 11. What is Animal Breeding? ......................................................................................................... 36 12. Ruminants ................................................................................................................................. 38 13. How to age sheep, goats, cattle and buffalo ................................................................................ 40 14. Restraining cattle and buffalo..................................................................................................... 44 15. Foot (hoof) care ......................................................................................................................... 46 16. Sheep and goat housing.............................................................................................................. 48 17. NUTRITION AND MANAGEMENT OF SHEEP AND GOATS .............................................. 50 18. Shearing and dagging (crutching) ............................................................................................... 63 19. Dehorning calves, lambs and kids .............................................................................................. 66 20. Castration of ruminants .............................................................................................................. 68 21. Internal parasites of ruminants ................................................................................................... 72 22. External parasites of ruminants .................................................................................................. 75 23. Signs of heat (oestrus) in ruminants............................................................................................ 78 24. Pregnancy in ruminants.............................................................................................................. 82 25. Calving (parturition) .................................................................................................................. 84 26. Lambing and kidding (parturition).............................................................................................. 88 27. Care of the newborn................................................................................................................... 90 28. Milk production and the udder ................................................................................................... 93 29. ECONOMIC CHARACTER IN DAIRY CATTLE .................................................................... 95 30. HOUSING FOR DAIRY CATTLE............................................................................................ 98 31. ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION .............................................................................................. 109 32. Infection of the udder (mastitis) ............................................................................................... 119 33. Feed and water for ruminants ................................................................................................... 122
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34. Grazing management ............................................................................................................... 127 35. Common Animal Diseases and their Prevention and Treatments............................................... 138 36. Community Question & Answer: ............................................................................................. 186 37. Handling and restraining pigs................................................................................................... 193 38. Keeping chickens and ducks .................................................................................................... 211 39. First Aid in animals.................................................................................................................. 240 40. Health of the community.......................................................................................................... 270 41. Selection of animals for breeding ............................................................................................. 286 42. Record keeping ........................................................................................................................ 289 43. What the trainer must do .......................................................................................................... 292 44. The conditions of learning........................................................................................................ 293 45. Evaluating the trainee's progress .............................................................................................. 295
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1. WHY DO WE KEEP ANIMALS?
we keep animals to provide us with: meat, milk, eggs, wool and hair for clothing, ropes and tents hides and skin for leather bones, hooves and horn for a variety of uses. Some animals are used for transport, ploughing and work. We always benefit from the animals we keep.
Learning objectives After studying this unit, you should:
1. Know what animals are kept in your community. 2. Know what the animals are used for. 3. Find out if the animals in your community or village are good and healthy.
2. WHAT ANIMALS ARE KEPT IN YOUR COMMUNITY?
If you want to be a good Pashu Sakhi it is very important for you to know what animals are kept by the people in your community. You must know your community very well and discover who keeps animals and what type of animals they keep. You must work with all of the community's livestock.
3. WHAT ARE THE ANIMALS USED FOR?
What does your community keep its animals for? Are the animals kept for meat or for work? Do they provide you with milk? What other things do you get from the livestock you keep? If you keep animals for meat do you kill the young or the old animal for meat? Does your community keep some animals only for work or for meat, to give milk, or for other reasons? Try to find out as much as you can about the use of animals in your community.
4. HOW GOOD ARE YOUR ANIMALS?
Are your animals providing you with enough milk or meat? Are your livestock better than those of neighboring communities or regions? How do your animals differ from those in neighboring communities? Communities in neighboring regions can keep different types of animals. For example, cows in one region can produce more milk or give better meat than those in another region. You should consider your livestock and compare them to those of your neighboring communities. Talk to people from other communities or to other Primary Animal Health Care Workers.
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You may already know of some health problems in your community's livestock. If you talk to others in the community, you may find out about other animal health problems. There may be particular problems related to certain breeds or types and not others. Some of the health problems you may discover are:
 Animals die suddenly.  Young animals are born sick or dead.  Leg and foot problems.  Skin troubles.  Animals do not increase in weight.  Livestock suffer from worms, ticks or lice.  The udders of milk animals become swollen and blood is found in the milk.  Chickens stop laying eggs or die suddenly. There can be very many health problems. You should talk to the people in your community to discover the various problems they have with the health of their animals, but also try to discover the problems in neighboring communities. You may find that you have the same problems or you will gain knowledge which will help you prevent a health problem reaching your community's livestock. You must keep good contacts with your nearest veterinarian and livestock specialist. Remember that these people are there to help you. Keep an animal health record for your community It will help you to succeed as a Pashu Sakhi if you keep a record of the health and other problems of your community's livestock. Make a record of who keeps the various animals. Discover and make note of the problems that they have. Talk to the owner of the animals and discover if the problems are related to a particular time of the year or season, changes in food or water supply, movement of livestock or the introduction of new animals to the herd (see Annex 5). Keep an animal health record for your community
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5. ANIMALS AND THE ENVIRONMENT
The environment is what you find around you. The plants, water, soil and climate are all part of your environment. Man, keeps animals which are suited to his needs and his environment. There is a limit to the number of animals which we can keep in any area. If we ignore these facts, we can have management and health problems in our livestock and damage to the local environment. Learning objectives After studying this unit you should know:
1. The problems which can result from keeping too many animals. 2. If the animals, you keep are suited to your environment and your needs. 3. The different breeds (types) of animals kept in your community. 4. Any areas of the community's land which have been damaged by animals. DIFFERENT BREEDS (TYPES) OF ANIMAL
Throughout the world man keeps animals which are suited to the local environment. Feed, water and climate are the main factors which determine what animals are in any one region. As a result of this we find a large variety of animal breeds throughout the world.  In England sheep have thick woolly fleeces to protect them against cold winters. In Somalia, where the climate is very hot, the sheep have light, hairy coats Sheep (English - Somali)  Friesian cows produce a lot of milk on the good grasslands in countries with cool weather conditions. In India, the Sahiwal cattle are good milk producers in the hot tropics.
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Cows (Friesan - Sahiwal)

 In China pigs are fed on food which is mainly roughage and so developed a pot-belly to use this type of food. In Europe pigs are fed a lot of grain and have leaner bodies.

Chinese pot belly pig - European pig
Remember that the livestock in your community developed over a long time. They are accustomed to your environment. Sometimes people want to introduce new breeds to an area. This must be carefully considered and advice taken from knowledgeable persons as the new breeds may not be suited to the new environment.
The number of animals kept in the community We should not keep animals which are old or barren as they will eat the feed that could be better used for young animals. You should consider the number of animals kept in your community. Is enough feed and water available for them all year? Discuss with your community elders and leaders any problems you may discover in the numbers of animals and the available feed and water. Controlling and planning livestock numbers and the availability of good feed and water is basic to primary animal health care.
Problems of overstocking (too many animals)
If we do not keep the numbers of livestock in relation to available feed and water, then:
1. Animals lose weight, become sick and disease spreads. 2. Animals do not breed well and death of young occurs. 3. Overgrazing and loss of pasture, bushes and trees occur. 4. Loss of vegetation will result in erosion of soil and loss of good land.
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Talk to the elders in your community and discover what changes there have been in the environment and what may have caused them. Can the situation be improved?
The body is made up of many, many millions of cells which you cannot see unless you use a microscope. Special cells come together to make an organ. An organ is a complex structure within the body. It has a special job or jobs to do. A body system consists of a number of organs which work together to carry out a special job. The animal body is made of 9 systems:
1. Musculo-skeletal system. 2. Digestive system 3. Circulatory system 4. Respiratory system 5. Urinary system 6. Nervous system 7. Sensory system 8. Reproductive system 9. Lympho-reticular system
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6. ORGANS AND SYSTEMS OF THE BODY
Learning objectives
After studying this unit you should know:
1. The various organs of the body. 2. The position of the main organs within the body. 3. The structure of the body systems. 4. How the systems work.

THE ORGANS OF THE BODY
An organ is a complex structure with a special job or a number of jobs to do. For example:
1. The eye is the organ of sight. 2. The kidneys are organs which get rid of water and poisonous materials from the body as
urine. 3. The liver has many jobs and is involved in more than one system.

Various organs are grouped together to form a body system which carries out a special job.

System of the Body
Musculo-skeletal

Organs in the Body muscle (meat) bones

Job or function Support and move the body

Digestive
Circulatory Respiratory Urinary Nervous
Sensory
Reproductive Lymphoreticular

stomach, liver, intestine, pancreas

Digest and absorb feed

heart, blood vessels muzzle, windpipe, lungs kidneys, bladder brain, nerves spinal cord
eyes, ears, nose skin testes, penis ovaries, uterus, vagina, vulva, udder lymph nodes, spleen

The brood carries substances around the body Breathing Get rid of poisons and waste (urine) Pass messages around the body, control the body Sense and detect things outside the body
To produce and feed young
Protect against infectious diseases, produce blood

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THE MUSCULO-SKELETAL SYSTEM This system consists of the bones and the muscles (meat). The bones form the skeleton which is the framework within the body. It carries weight and supports the body.
Bones are connected together so they can move. The places where this happens are called joints. The bones are held together at the joints by elastic strands called ligaments. Between the bones is a softer material called cartilage (gristle) which cushions the bones at the joints when the body moves. Bones are very hard and contain minerals. Each bone has a name such as the scapula (shoulder blade) and skull (head). There are about 200 bones in the body.
Muscles are joined at both ends to the bones. The muscles are the meat of the body and when they contract (shorten) or relax (lengthen) they make the bones move.
If you bend your arm you can see and feel the muscles in your arm working.
THE DIGESTIVE SYSTEM The digestive system consists of the teeth, mouth, gullet (esophagus), stomach, liver, intestine, pancreas, and rectum. Digestion begins in the mouth where feed is broken down into small pieces by the teeth and mixed with saliva before being swallowed. In the stomach feed is mixed with the juices to form a soft paste. This then passes into the intestine where bile from the liver and juices from the pancreas are added. The action of these juices is to break down the feed and allow the nourishment it contains to be absorbed by the blood in the walls of the intestine. Waste matter collects in the rectum and passes out of the body through the anus (or cloaca in birds).
THE CIRCULATORY SYSTEM AND BLOOD The organs of the circulatory system are the heart and the blood vessels (tubes). The heart is found in the chest cavity. It is a muscular pump which sends blood around the body. The blood vessels which carry blood away from the heart are called arteries. Blood returns to the heart in veins. Joining the arteries and veins is a fine network of small tubes called capillaries. The capillaries pass through every part of the body. When the heart beats its muscles contract and sends blood out through the arteries. When the heart relaxes blood flows into it from the veins. Every time the heart beats it sends a pulse along the arteries. You can feel it at certain points on the body. By feeling the pulse we can count the rate at which the heart beats (see Unit 5). You can feel your pulse on your wrist.
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Pashu Sakhi Module