Global Dbq Rg Bk2 Aug09:global Rg Aug05


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FOR TEACHERS ONLY
The University of the State of New York
REGENTS HIGH SCHOOL EXAMINATION
GLOBAL HISTORY AND GEOGRAPHY
Wednesday, August 12, 2009 — 12:30 to 3:30 p.m., only
RATING GUIDE FOR PART III A AND PART III B
(DOCUMENT-BASED QUESTION)

VOLUME
2 2 OF DBQ

Updated information regarding the rating of this examination may be posted on the New York State Education Department’s web site during the rating period. Visit the site http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/osa/ and select the link “Examination Scoring Information” for any recently posted information regarding this examination. This site should be checked before the rating process for this examination begins and at least one more time before the final scores for the examination are recorded.

Contents of the Rating Guide
For Part III A Scaffold (open-ended) questions: • A question-specific rubric
For Part III B (DBQ) essay: • A content-specific rubric • Prescored answer papers. Score levels 5 and 1 have two papers each,
and score levels 4, 3, and 2 have three papers each. They are ordered by score level from high to low. • Commentary explaining the specific score awarded to each paper • Five prescored practice papers
General: • Test Specifications • Web addresses for the test-specific conversion chart and teacher
evaluation forms
Copyright 2009 The University of the State of New York THE STATE EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
Albany, New York 12234

GLOBAL HISTORY and GEOGRAPHY
Mechanics of Rating
The following procedures are to be used in rating papers for this examination. More detailed directions for the organization of the rating process and procedures for rating the examination are included in the Information Booklet for Scoring the Regents Examination in Global History and Geography and United States History and Government.
Rating the Essay Question
(1) Follow your school’s procedures for training raters. This process should include:
Introduction to the task— • Raters read the task • Raters identify the answers to the task • Raters discuss possible answers and summarize expectations for student responses
Introduction to the rubric and anchor papers— • Trainer leads review of specific rubric with reference to the task • Trainer reviews procedures for assigning holistic scores, i.e., by matching evidence from the response
to the rubric • Trainer leads review of each anchor paper and commentary
Practice scoring individually— • Raters score a set of five papers independently without looking at the scores and commentaries pro-
vided • Trainer records scores and leads discussion until the raters feel confident enough to move on to
actual rating
(2) When actual rating begins, each rater should record his or her individual rating for a student’s essay on the rating sheet provided, not directly on the student’s essay or answer sheet. The rater should not correct the student’s work by making insertions or changes of any kind.
(3) Each essay must be rated by at least two raters; a third rater will be necessary to resolve scores that differ by more than one point.
Rating the Scaffold (open-ended) Questions
(1) Follow a similar procedure for training raters. (2) The scaffold questions need only be scored by one rater. (3) The scores for each scaffold question may be recorded in the student’s examination booklet.
The scoring coordinator will be responsible for organizing the movement of papers, calculating a final score for each student’s essay, recording that score on the student’s Part I answer sheet, and determining the student’s final examination score. The conversion chart for this examination is located at http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/osa/ and must be used for determining the final examination score.
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Global History and Geography Part A Specific Rubric
Document-Based Question—August 2009

Document 1

Hymn to the Nile ca. 2100 B.C.
Adoration to the Nile! Hail to thee, O Nile! Who manifesteth thyself over this land And comest to give life to Egypt! Mysterious is thy issuing forth from the darkness, On this day whereon it is celebrated! Watering the orchards created by Ra To cause all the cattle to live, Thou givest the earth to drink, inexhaustible one! Path that descendest from the sky, Loving the bread of Seb and the first-fruits of Nepera, Thou causest the workshops of Ptah to prosper! Lord of the fish, during the inundation, No bird alights on the crops. Thou createst the corn [grain], thou bringest forth the barley, Assuring perpetuity to the temples. If thou ceasest thy toil and thy work, Then all that exists is in anguish. If the gods suffer in heaven Then the faces of men waste away. . . .
Source: Oliver J. Thatcher, ed., The Library of Original Sources, University Research Extension Co. (adapted)

1 Based on this poem, identify two ways the Nile River influenced the economic development of Egypt.

Score of 2 or 1: • Award 1 credit (up to a maximum of 2 credits) for each different way the Nile River influenced the
economic development of Egypt as stated in this poem Examples: watered the orchards/gave Earth water to drink; caused the cattle to live; created the corn/grain; brought forth barley; caused the workshops of Ptah to prosper; provided fish; the Nile brings prosperity

Note: To receive maximum credit, two different ways the Nile River influenced the economic development of Egypt must be stated. For example, watered the orchards and provided water for farming/agriculture are the same way expressed in different words. In this and similar cases, award only one credit for this question.

Score of 0: • Incorrect response
Examples: the gods suffered in heaven; it hurt the economy; all that existed was in anguish; it ceasest thy toil; they worked
• Vague response Examples: Hail to thee, O Nile!; give the Earth; it helped; it was adored
• No response
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Document 2
Tigris and Euphrates • Mesopotamia — site of one of
the world’s first civilizations • 30 dams along the rivers
provide fresh water and hydroelectric power • Flows through Turkey, Syria, and Iraq

Indus
• Site of one of the earliest civilizations
• Led to tension over the territory of Kashmir
• Part of one of the largest irrigation networks in the world used for agriculture
• Flows through northern India and Pakistan

Asia’s River Systems

Yangxi (Yangtze)
• Most fertile region of China • Navigable • Three Gorges Dam displaced
millions while under construction; provides hydroelectric power

Mekong
• Provides irrigation for crops • Flood waters enrich soil
deposits on banks • Dry season causes lower water
level • Forms border between Laos
and Thailand

2 Based on this graphic organizer, identify two river systems in Asia, and for each, state one effect of that river system on society.
Score of 2 or 1: • Award 1 credit (up to a maximum of 2 credits) for two different river systems in Asia and the effect of
each river system on society based on the graphic organizer Examples: Tigris and Euphrates: provides freshwater; provides hydroelectric power; became the site of one of the earliest civilizations Indus: became the site of one of the earliest civilizations; provides irrigation for agriculture; led to tensions over Kashmir Yangxi (Yangtze): hydroelectric power is provided; provides fertile land; is navigable and can be used as a highway Mekong: provides irrigation for crops; soil is enriched by floods; has a dry season that may affect farming/has a dry season that can lower water levels; forms border between Laos and Thailand
Notes: (1) To receive credit, the effect on society must match the river system that is chosen. For example, if in box 1, Yangtze and forms border between Laos and Thailand are the responses, award no credit.
(2) Award no credit for simply identifying the river system.
Score of 0: • Incorrect response
Examples: Tigris and Euphrates: led to construction of the Three Gorges Dam Indus: flows through northern India/Pakistan
• Vague response Examples: Indus: largest; Mekong: good and bad
• No response
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Document 3
. . . Most dramatically, hydropolitics, or the interplay of water resource issues and politics, has raised tensions between countries that share drainage basins. For example, Sudan’s plans to expand its irrigation networks along the upper Nile and Ethiopia’s Blue Nile Dam project are both causes of concern in Egypt. To the north, Turkey’s growing development of the upper Tigris and Euphrates rivers (the Southeast Anatolian Project) has raised issues with Iraq and Syria, who argue that capturing “their” water might be considered a provocative [challenging] political act. Hydropolitics has also played into negotiations between Israel, the Palestinians, and other neighboring states, particularly in the valuable Jordan River drainage, which runs through the center of the area’s most hotly disputed lands. Israelis fear Palestinian and Syrian pollution; nearby Jordanians argue for more water from Syria; and all regional residents must deal with the uncomfortable reality that, regardless of their political differences, they must drink from the same limited supplies of freshwater. . . .
Source: Les Rowntree et al., Diversity Amid Globalization, Prentice Hall, 2003 (adapted)
3 According to the authors of Diversity Amid Globalization, what is one way that water resource issues have increased tension between countries?
Score of 1: • States a way that water resource issues have increased tension between countries according to the
authors of Diversity Amid Globalization Examples: countries have to share drainage basins; Turkey’s capturing of water at the upper Tigris and Euphrates for development has raised issues with Iraq and Syria; Ethiopia’s construction of the Blue Nile Dam has been a cause of concern for Egypt; countries in the Middle East have been in conflict over control of water because it affects their supply of available drinking water; possible pollution of the Jordan by Palestinians and Syrians is a concern to Israelis; Sudan’s planned expansion of irrigation networks along the upper Nile could reduce Egypt’s water supply; two countries can claim the same water supply; countries are afraid that other countries located upriver may pollute the river
Score of 0: • Incorrect response
Examples: Turkey’s capturing of water at the upper Tigris and Euphrates for development has raised issues with Egypt; Jordan’s construction of the Blue Nile Dam had angered Israel; negotiations have been easier
• Vague response Examples: there have been political differences; it is hydropolitics; it has made them angry; tensions increased
• No response
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Document 4
. . . The Aral Sea, covering an area the size of Lithuania, started receding in the 1960s after Soviet state planners diverted its water sources, the Amu Dar’ya and the Syr Dar’ya rivers, to irrigate cotton and other crops.
From 1960 to 1990, the area of irrigated land in Central Asia increased from 3.5 million hectares to 7.5 million. Cotton production soared, making the region the world’s fourth largest producer. But by the 1980s the annual flow of fresh water into the Aral was barely one-tenth of the 1950 supply. The salinity [salt] level increased, destroying the sea’s flora and fauna. The fishing industry suffered; all but two of the 30 species once found in the sea died out.
With no other means of water supply, the sea started to recede, eventually losing half of its former area and a third of its volume. In 1989, it divided into a smaller northern sea and a larger southern one. The two main fishing ports, Moynaq in Uzbekistan and Aralsk in Kazakhstan were left high and dry, and fishing communities found themselves 100 kilometres or more away from the shore. . . .
Source: Lloyd-Roberts and Anbarasan, “The Aral Sea: Back From The Brink?,” UNESCO Courier
4 According to the UNESCO Courier, what is one impact the Soviet policies had on the Aral Sea region?
Score of 1: • States an impact Soviet policies had on the Aral Sea region according to the UNESCO Courier
Examples: the Aral Sea started receding in the 1960s after water sources were diverted; the Aral Sea lost half of its former area/a third of its volume; the salt level increased destroying flora/fauna; the salinity level increased; all but two of the 30 species of fish in the sea died out; irrigation policies increased cotton production; the two main fishing ports of Moynaq and Aralsk were left high and dry; they caused cotton production to soar; the area of irrigated land in Central Asia increased; the fishing industry suffered after 1980
Score of 0: • Incorrect response
Examples: the freshwater that supplied the Aral Sea increased; new fishing ports were created; became the fourth largest producer
• Vague response Examples: there was production; the area was the size of Lithuania; it got worse
• No response
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Document 5
Trade Routes
The Panama Canal, with its unique location at the narrowest point between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, has had a far-reaching effect on world economic and commercial developments throughout most of this [20th] century. By providing a short, relatively inexpensive passageway between these two great bodies of water, the Canal has influenced world trade patterns, spurred growth in developed countries, and has been a primary impetus [force] for economic expansion in many remote areas of the world. For example, a vessel laden with coal sailing from the east coast of the United States to Japan via the Panama Canal saves about 4,800 kilometers (3,000 miles) versus the shortest alternative all-water route, and for a vessel laden with bananas sailing from Ecuador to Europe the distance saved is about 8,000 kilometers (5,000 miles).
By far, most of the traffic through the Canal moves between the east coast of the United States and the Far East, while movements between Europe and the west coast of the United States and Canada comprise the second major trade route at the waterway. Other regions and countries, however, such as the neighboring countries of Central and South America, are proportionately more dependent on this vital artery to promote their economic development and expand trade. . . .
Source: Maritime Industry, Panama Canal Authority
5 According to the Panama Canal Authority, what are two reasons the Panama Canal is important to world trade?
Score of 2 or 1: • Award 1 credit (up to a maximum of 2 credits) for each different reason the Panama Canal is
important to world trade according to the Panama Canal Authority Examples: it provides a short passageway between two great bodies of water; it is a relatively inexpensive route; it has spurred growth in developed countries; it has been a primary force for economic expansion in many remote areas of the world; a vessel sailing from the east coast of the United States to Japan saves 3,000 miles by using the Panama Canal; neighboring countries of Central/South America are more dependent on the canal to promote their economic development/expand trade; coal and bananas are shipped to various countries using the canal
Note: To receive maximum credit, two different reasons the Panama Canal is important to world trade must be stated. For example, spurs growth and economic expansion are the same way expressed in different words. In this and similar cases, award only one credit for this question.
Score of 0: • Incorrect response
Examples: it takes a vessel longer to get from the United States to Japan via the Panama Canal; there is a shorter all-water route between Ecuador and Europe than the Panama Canal; most of the ships on the canal are traveling between Europe and the west coast of the United States
• Vague response Examples: it has had a far-reaching effect; it is a vital artery; it is sea trade
• No response
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Document 6

Chokepoints
There are approximately 200 straits (narrow bodies of water connecting two larger bodies of water) or canals around the world but only a handful are known as chokepoints. A chokepoint is a strategic strait or canal which could be closed or blocked to stop sea traffic (especially oil). This type of aggression could surely cause an international incident. . . .
Source: “Chokepoints,” http://geography.about.com (adapted)

Bosporus and Dardanelles
• Connects the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
• Affects the flow of goods and people
• Russia attempted to expand into this region between 1700 and 1914

Suez Canal
• Connects the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea
• Affects trade and the movement of people
• Egypt nationalized the canal in 1956

Strait of Hormuz
• Connects the Persian Gulf and the Indian Ocean
• Affects the shipment of oil
• The United States deployed troops and ships to this region during the Persian Gulf War in 1991
Map Source: Mountain High Maps (adapted)

6a Based on this document, state the definition of a chokepoint.
Score of 1: • Defines a chokepoint as stated in this document
Examples: a strategic strait/canal that could be closed/blocked to stop sea traffic; a narrow body of water that serves as key trade routes between larger bodies of water, making them vulnerable to interference/aggression
Score of 0: • Incorrect response
Examples: narrow bodies of water connecting two larger bodies of water; straits that connect larger bodies of water; the connection between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean Sea
• Vague response Examples: bodies of water; an international incident; straits/canals
• No response

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6b Based on this document, state two reasons chokepoints are strategically important. Score of 2 or 1: • Award 1 credit (up to a maximum of 2 credits) for each different reason chokepoints are strategically
important as stated in this document Examples: they affect the flow of goods/people; they can be used during war to stop troops/goods from leaving/entering an area; they affect the shipments of oil; international incidents could occur if a nation takes control of a chokepoint; oil is shipped from the Persian Gulf to the Indian Ocean through the Strait of Hormuz; troops were sent through the Strait of Hormuz during the Persian Gulf War; the Suez Canal gave Britain access to its colonies/possessions in Asia/Australia
Note: To receive maximum credit, two different reasons chokepoints are strategically important must be stated. For example, they affect the flow of goods and they affect the shipments of oil are the same reason since they affect the shipments of oil is a subset of they affect the flow of goods. In this and similar cases, award only one credit for this question.
Score of 0: • Incorrect response
Examples: Russia controlled the Bosporus and Dardanelle Straits between 1700 and 1914; all nations have equal access to chokepoints; the United States nationalized the Suez Canal; there are approximately 200 chokepoints throughout the world; access to the Strait of Hormuz was a reason for the defeat of United States troops during the Persian Gulf War; canals serve as chokepoints
• Vague response Examples: Strait of Hormuz; they are strategic; important throughout history; connects water
• No response
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Document 7
. . . The Strait of Malacca is one of the most important strategic passages of the World because it supports the bulk of the maritime trade between Europe and Pacific Asia, which accounts for 50,000 ships per year. About 30% of the world’s trade and 80% of Japan’s, South Korea’s and Taiwan’s imports of petroleum transits through the strait, which involved approximately 11.7 Mb/d [millions of barrels per day] in 2004. It is the main passage between the Pacific and the Indian oceans with the strait of Sunda (Indonesia) being the closest alternative. It measures about 800 km in length, has a width between 50 and 320 km (2.5 km at its narrowest point) and a minimal channel depth of 23 meters (about 70 feet). It represents the longest strait in the world used for international navigation and can be transited in about 20 hours.
Traditionally, the Strait was an important passage point between the Chinese and the Indian worlds and was controlled at different points in time by Javanese and Malaysian kingdoms. From the 14th century, the region came under the control of Arab merchants who established several fortified trading towns, Malacca being the most important commercial center in Southeast Asia. Again, the control of the trade route shifted as the era of European expansion began in the 16th century. In 1511, Malacca fell to the Portuguese and this event marked the beginning of European control over the Strait. . . .
Source: Jean-Paul Rodrigue et al., The Geography of Transport Systems, Routledge
7 According to Jean-Paul Rodrigue, state one way the Strait of Malacca has been important to the economic development of Asia.
Score of 1: • States a way the Strait of Malacca has been important to the economic development of Asia according
to Jean-Paul Rodrigue Examples: it supports the bulk of the maritime trade between Europe and Pacific Asia; most of Japan’s/South Korea’s/Taiwan’s imports of petroleum are shipped through the strait; it is the main passage between the Pacific and Indian oceans; Arab merchants made Malacca the most important commercial center in Southeast Asia
Score of 0: • Incorrect response
Examples: 80% of the world’s trade passes through the Strait of Malacca; it measures about 800 km in length; it is the longest strait in the world
• Vague response Examples: it is important; Strait of Sunda is the closest alternative; this event marked the beginning of European control over the Strait; in 1511, Malacca fell to the Portuguese
• No response
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Global Dbq Rg Bk2 Aug09:global Rg Aug05