# Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards)

## Preview text

Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards)

Additional resources are available online at: http://blogs.spsk12.net/5245/honors-biology/internet-resources/

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

BIO.1 Scientific reasoning, logic, & nature of science

 Scientific method

o Make observations

o Form hypothesis

 Research using scientific literature, such as journals

o Experiment

 Independent variable is the experimental treatment

 Dependent variable is the result of the IV

 Control acts as a comparison; does not receive treatment

o Record/analyze data

 Quantitative data - numerical

 Qualitative data - descriptive

o Repeat trials to ensure validity of data

 Differentiate the following:

o Hypothesis – explanation for a question/problem that can be formally tested

o Theory – explanation of natural phenomenon supported by a large body of scientific evidence

obtained from many different investigations and observations

o Law – repeatedly observed phenomena in nature that appear to be true

o “DrY mIX”

 Dependent variable is on the Y axis

 Independent variable is on the X axis

 Metric system (SI)

Common SI prefixes

E.g. One meter equals:

 Kilo- (k) = 1000

 1/1000 km

 Centi- (c) = 1/100

 100 cm

 Milli- (m) = 1/1000

 1000 mm

 Micro- (µ) = 1/1,000,000

 1,000,000 µm

 Nano- (n) = 1/1,000,000,000

 1,000,000,000 nm

 Scientific notation o 0.001 = 1 X 10-3 o 1,000 = 1 X 103

 Lab safety procedures

 Microscope

o Compound light microscope

 Magnifies in steps in series of lenses up to 1500 times

 Total magnification = eyepiece strength X objective strength

 Low power objective increases field of view

 High power objective decreases field of view

o Electron microscope uses beam of electrons to magnify 20,000-100 million times

 Important Scientists

o Anton van Leeuwenhoek – father of the microscope and the first to see living cells (1660s)

o Robert Hooke – named cells after microscopically viewing plant cell walls (1665)

o Francesco Redi – disproved spontaneous generation with meat/maggots (1668)

o Carl Linnaeus – developed a taxonomic system of classification (1700s)

o Jean Baptiste Lamarck – believed organisms inherited traits acquired by parents during their lifetime

(1802)

o Robert Brown – discovered nucleus (1833)

1 By Mrs. C. Ficklen - NRHS

Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards) Additional resources are available online at: http://blogs.spsk12.net/5245/honors-biology/internet-resources/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
o Matthias Schleiden – discovered that all plants made of cells (1838) o Theodor Schwann – discovered all animals made of cells (1839) o Rudolf Virchow – formulated cell theory (1848) o Louis Pasteur – disproved spontaneous generation using boiled broth (1850s) o Charles Darwin – formulated theory of natural selection (1830-50s) o Gregor Mendel – father of genetics who used pea plants to study patterns of inheritance (1850-60s) o Miller & Urey – simulated conditions believed to be on early Earth and produced organic molecules
from inorganic (1952) o Alfred Hershey & Martha Chase – discovered that DNA is the hereditary material using bacteriophages
(1952) o James Watson & Francis Crick - discovered double-helix structure of DNA based upon Rosalind
Franklin’s x-ray diffraction photos (1953)  Watson’s book – The Double Helix
 Characteristics of living things o Have orderly structure o Reproduce o Grow and develop o Adjust to environmental changes o Adapt and evolve
BIO.2 Biochemistry  Properties of water (H2O) o Most abundant compound in living organisms o Exhibits polarity due to uneven distribution of electrons  Water attracts ions and other polar molecules (adhesion)  Water molecules stick together due to hydrogen bonding (cohesion) o Absorbs large amounts of heat, releasing it during evaporation o Expands when frozen; ice less dense than water o Is a good solvent because of its polarity; able to carry nutrients into and wastes out of cells o Pure water has pH of 7  pH is measurement of hydrogen ions in water  pH < 7 is acidic  pH > 7 is basic  Cells maintain pH 6.5-7.5 with the help of buffers.  Macromolecules o Are organic molecules (contain carbon and hydrogen) o Formed mainly from carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus, sulfur  Carbon atoms form chains or rings with other carbons o Polymers are formed from monomers by condensation (water molecules are formed) o Polymers are broken apart by hydrolysis (water molecules are broken) o Major macromolecules:  Carbohydrates provide energy; made of C, H, O  Lipids insulate, store energy, make up cell membranes  Are waxy or oily  Made of fatty acids & glycerol  Are nonpolar and are not attracted to water
2 By Mrs. C. Ficklen - NRHS

Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards) Additional resources are available online at: http://blogs.spsk12.net/5245/honors-biology/internet-resources/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Proteins make structural components in organisms  Made of amino acids held together by peptide bonds o Amino acids are made of an amino group, a carboxyl group, & a variable R group  Enzymes are proteins that attach to substrates at the active site to speed up reaction rates o Temperature & pH can affect activity
 Nucleic acids are DNA & RNA  Store genetic information in the form of a code  They direct protein synthesis  Are polymers made of nucleotides with a 5-carbon sugar, phosphate group, & nitrogenous base
 Photosynthesis / respiration o Cells with chloroplasts trap energy from sunlight  Energy, CO2, & H2O are used to produce glucose (carbohydrate) & O2  6CO2 + 6H2O  C6H12O6 + 6O2 o Mitochondria break down glucose to produce ATP for energy  C6H12O6 + 6O2  6CO2 + 6H2O o Fermentation is forms ATP during times of oxygen shortage
BIO.3 Cell structure and function  Traditional cell theory o All living things are composed of cells. o Cells are the basic units of structure and organization in living things. o All cells come from preexisting cells.  Modern cell theory includes the traditional cell theory, plus the following: o The cell contains hereditary information in the form of DNA, which is passed on from cell to cell during cell division. o All cells have the same basic chemical composition and perform the same basic metabolic activities. o All basic chemical and physiological functions are carried out inside the cells. o Cellular activity depends on the activities of sub-cellular structures within the cell (organelles, nucleus, plasma membrane).  Prokaryotes have ribosomes and DNA, but no nucleus or other membrane-bound organelles o Are unicellular o Size: 1-10 µm o Were the first cells o Include Archaebacteria & Eubacteria  Eukaryotes have membrane-bound organelles with nucleus o Include multicellular organisms and some unicellular, like amoebas o Size: 10-100 µm (up to 100X bigger than prokaryotes)  Cell structure o Cell walls are found in plants, bacteria, fungi, some protists  Provides structure & support  Composed of cellulose o Plasma membrane  Made of phospholipid bilayer imbedded with proteins (for transport), carbohydrates (for identification), and cholesterol (prevents sticking together)  Selectively permeable  Fluid mosaic model
3 By Mrs. C. Ficklen - NRHS

Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards) Additional resources are available online at: http://blogs.spsk12.net/5245/honors-biology/internet-resources/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
o Nucleus  Control center of cell  Contains DNA, makes RNA
o Ribosomes are site of protein synthesis; made of rRNA o Mitochondria are site of cellular respiration o Chloroplasts are site of photosynthesis (found in plants, some protists, some bacteria) o Endoplasmic reticulum is the site of cellular chemical reactions
 Rough ER has ribosomes  Involved in protein synthesis
 Smooth ER has no ribosomes  Involved in lipid synthesis
o Golgi apparatus sorts and packs proteins and ships them to the appropriate destination o Lysosomes contain enzymes that digest old organelles, food, or engulfed viruses/bacteria o Vacuoles store materials o Cytoskeleton provides support
 Composed of microtubules & microfilaments o Centrioles form spindles during cell division o Cilia & flagella are used for movement or feeding
 Made of microtubules  Cilia – short & numerous  Flagella – long & may be singular  Diffusion is movement of particles from area of high concentration to area of low concentration o Movement continues until particles are evenly distributed o Occurs with oxygen, CO2, salt, sugar, amino acids o Can occur across cell membrane o Passive transport uses no energy. o Facilitated diffusion occurs across transport proteins; uses no energy o Active transport moves materials against concentration gradient; uses energy o Osmosis is diffusion of water molecules across a selectively permeable membrane, depending on the concentration of solutes on either side of the membrane  Endocytosis occurs when the cell uses its membrane to surround particles and take them into the cell  Exocytosis occurs when a cell secretes or expels material from the cell  Levels of organization: cells  tissues  organs  organ systems  organisms
BIO.4 Life Functions of Archaea, Eubacteria, & Eukarya  Viruses – are nonliving & acellular o Composed of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and a protein coat; are much smaller than bacteria o Cannot reproduce on their own and must invade cells of living organisms  Lytic cycle – viruses infect a cell and make copies of itself, eventually destroying the cell (e.g. cold, flu)  Lysogenic cycle – viral DNA is inserted into cellular DNA and is replicated with each cell division; eventually enters the lytic cycle (e.g. HIV, herpes viruses, hepatitis B)  PROKARYOTES – unicellular organisms with a cell wall, DNA, and ribosomes; contain no internal membranebound organelles o Archaebacteria – chemosynthetic; live in extreme environments o Eubacteria – autotrophic (chemosynthetic or photosynthetic) or heterotropic; live almost everywhere
4 By Mrs. C. Ficklen - NRHS

Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards) Additional resources are available online at: http://blogs.spsk12.net/5245/honors-biology/internet-resources/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 EUKARYOTES o Protists – unicellular heterotrophs  Algae – plantlike protists  Slime & water molds/Downy mildews – funguslike protists o Fungi – unicellular or multicellular heterotrophs (decomposers) that absorb nutrients from organic materials in the environment by extracellular digestion  Black bread mold  Mushrooms o Plants – multicellular autotrophs  Non-vascular plants – do not contain xylem & phloem and must live in moist habitats  Vascular non-seeded plants – have xylem & phloem, but produce spores instead of seeds  Xylem – transports water and nutrients from soil through the roots  Phloem – transports sugars from leaves throughout plant  Vascular seeded plants – have xylem & phloem and produce seeds through fertilization of gametes  Gymnoperms (“naked seeds”) produce seeds on cones  Angiosperms produce seeds in flowers o Animals – multicellular heterotrophs with cell specialization; most reproduce sexually  Invertebrates - sponges, cnidarians, flatworms, roundworms, mollusks, arthropods, annelids, echinoderms, invertebrate chordates  Vertebrates - fishes, birds, amphibians, reptiles, mammals
 Human body systems - circulatory, urinary, respiratory, nervous, digestive, endocrine, skeletal, muscular, integumentary, reproductive, immune
BIO.5 Inheritance & protein synthesis  Mendel cross-pollinated pea plants to study inheritance  Genes are segments of DNA that control protein production & the cell cycle o Dominant alleles are always expressed o Recessive alleles are only expressed when dominant allele is absent. o Genotype vs. phenotype  Punnett squares show all possible outcomes of crosses (probability) o Monohybrid crosses involve one trait (4-square) o Dihybrid crosses involve two traits (16-square)  Law of independent assortment – alleles separate independently of each other during meiosis  Mitosis is cell division in diploid cells that results in two genetically identical diploid daughter cells o Prophase o Metaphase o Anaphase o Telophase  Meiosis produces four genetically different haploid daughter cells from one diploid cell o There are two steps: PMAT I & PMAT II  Cell specialization – cells are differentiated into different types to fulfill specific roles  Chromosomes contain DNA that contains genes o Normal humans have 46 (44 autosomes and 2 sex chromosomes)  Males have XY; females have XX o Mutations are insertions, deletions, or substitutions of DNA bases can alter genes; may or may not be detrimental  Cancer is associated with genetic mutations that cause uncontrolled cell division
5 By Mrs. C. Ficklen - NRHS

Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards) Additional resources are available online at: http://blogs.spsk12.net/5245/honors-biology/internet-resources/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
o Chromosomal mutations occur when parts of chromosomes break off and rejoin incorrectly o Nondisjunction occurs when chromosomes fail to separate properly during meiosis; can result in
trisomy (such as Trisomy 21) or monosomy (such as Turner Syndrome)  DNA structure – double-stranded helix with a deoxyribose sugar-phosphate backbone and nitrogenous bases
(adenine, guanine, cytosine, thymine) o A-T & C-G
 RNA structure – single-stranded with a ribose sugar-phosphate backbone and nitrogenous bases (adenine, guanine, cytosine, uracil) o A-U & C-G
 Transcription occurs when a portion of the DNA strand is copied onto mRNA , which leaves the nucleus to go to the ribosomes
 Translation occurs when the mRNA codons are translated into a sequence of amino acids to form proteins o Occurs at ribosome o tRNA has anticodons that complement the mRNA codons; they carry amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosomes
 Codominance is a heterozygous condition in which both alleles are dominant and both are expressed equally.  Incomplete dominance is a heterozygous condition in which both alleles are dominant and the phenotype is
an intermediate of the two.  Multiple alleles result when there are more than two alleles for a trait.  Sex-linked inheritance involves traits controlled by genes on sex chromosomes.  Polygenic inheritance involves traits controlled by more than one gene.  Prenatal diagnosis – amniocentesis, chorionic villus sampling  Human genome – collection of all genes on the 46 chromosomes  Genetic engineering
o Recombinant DNA - made by recombining fragments of DNA from different sources. o Polymerase chain reactions - used to multiply (or amplify) a piece of DNA o Gel electrophoresis – process by which DNA is analyzed by separating fragments by size BIO.6-7 Evolution & Classification  Darwin developed the theory of natural selection, which states that organisms with favorable variations are more likely to survive to reproduce and pass on those variations.  Species can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.  Speciation – evolution of new species; may result from: o Geographical isolation o Reproductive isolation o Changes in chromosomal number  Gradualism is speciation that occurs slowly  Punctuated equilibrium is speciation that occurs in rapid bursts, followed by long periods of equilibrium  Adaptive radiation – one species evolves into several  Divergent evolution – once similar species become distinct  Convergent evolution – distantly related species become similar  Linnaeus – father of the modern classification system using taxonomic groups  Levels of taxonomy – domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species  Binomial nomenclature – two-word naming system using genus and species  Kingdoms – o Prokaryotes: eubacteria, archaebacteria o Eukaryotes: protists, fungi, plants, animals
6 By Mrs. C. Ficklen - NRHS

Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards) Additional resources are available online at: http://blogs.spsk12.net/5245/honors-biology/internet-resources/
~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
 Evolutionary relationships based upon comparison of: o Developmental stages (embryology) o Structural characteristics o Fossil records o Amino acid sequences
 Phylogeny is evolutionary history of a species o Cladograms are the diagrammatic models of this history
 Dichotomous key is an organized set of couplets of mutually exclusive organism characteristics.  Hardy-Weinberg Principle is used to determine allele frequency within a population.
o p = frequency of dominant allele o q = frequency of recessive allele o p2 + 2pq + q2 = 1
 p2 = % homozygous dominant  2pq = % heterozygous  q2 = % homozygous recessive BIO.8 Ecology  Abiotic factors are nonliving  Biotic factors are living  Populations are groups of organisms from the same species  Communities are groups of interacting populations  Ecosystems are groups of living and nonliving things that interact with each other.  Limiting factors are biotic or abiotic factors that restrict growth of populations  Carrying capacity is the maximum number of organisms that can be supported by an ecosystem  Population growth curves o Exponential growth (J-shaped) represents unlimited growth o Stabilizing growth is represented by an S-shaped curve  Symbiotic relationships o Mutualism – both species benefit o Commensalism – one species benefits, other is neither harmed or benefited o Parasitism – one species benefits, other is harmed  Nutrients cycle through an ecosystem o Water cycle – evaporation, condensation, & precipitation o Nitrogen cycle – bacteria living in nodules on roots of legume plants convert nitrogen gas into a form that plant roots can absorb o Carbon cycle – respiration & photosynthesis  Excess carbon dioxide is produced through burning of fossil fuels or destruction of ecosystems
that take in large amounts of CO2 (like the rain forest)  Energy flows between trophic levels through food chains/food webs
o Represented by pyramids of energy, biomass, numbers o 10% of the energy in one level is transferred to the next level  Ecological succession o Primary succession – begins with barren land; pioneer species is usually lichens o Secondary succession – occurs after a disturbance in a climax community o Climax community – mature, stable community
7 By Mrs. C. Ficklen - NRHS

Biology SOL Study Guide (2010 Standards)

Additional resources are available online at: http://blogs.spsk12.net/5245/honors-biology/internet-resources/

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 Biomes

o Determined by temperature and rainfall

 Marine

 Desert

 Freshwater

 Grasslands

 Tundra

 Temperate forest

 Taiga

 Rain forest

 Human impact on ecosystems

o Habitat loss – destruction of habitat, such as clear-cutting of forests

o Habitat fragmentation – division of a habitat by construction of roads, etc.

o Habitat degradation – pollution, etc.

o Introduction of exotic (non-native) species may displace native species due to lack of predators.

 Conservation biology

o U.S. Endangered Species Act (1973) – protects endangered species & their habitats

o National parks

o Habitat corridors – constructed under roads to allows for safe passage of animals from one side to the

other

o Sustainable use philosophy – principle of using resources, but not depleting them

o Reintroduction programs

8 By Mrs. C. Ficklen - NRHS