Kenya Population Policy for National Development


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REPUBLIC OF KENYA
Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2012 on
Population Policy for National Development
NATIONAL COUNCIL FOR POPULATION AND DEVELOPMENT
MINISTRY OF STATE FOR PLANNING, NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND VISION 2030

Sessional Paper No. 3 of 2012 on
Population Policy for National Development

Table of Contents

Table of Contents

i

List of Tables

ii

Acronyms and Abbreviations

iii

Foreword

v

Executive Summary

vi

1.0 Principles

1

2.0 Socio-Economic and Demographic Setting

1

2.1 Social and Economic Situation

1

2.2 Demographic Situation

2

2.2.1 Population Size, Growth and Structure

2

2.2.2 Fertility and Mortality

3

2.2.3 Population Distribution, Internal Migration and Urbanization

3

2.2.4 International Migration

3

3.0 Performance of the Past Population Policy

4

3.1 Past Efforts

4

3.2 Past Achievements

5

3.2.1 Achievements Attributed to the 1984 Population Policy Guidelines

5

3.2.2 Achievements Attributed to the 2000 National Population Policy for

Sustainable Development

5

3.3 Major Facilitating and Constraining Factors of the Past Population Policy

6

3.3.1 Facilitating Factors

6

3.3.2 Constraining Factors

6

3.4 Continuing and Emerging Programme Challenges

7

4.0 Population Policy Framework

8

4.1 Analytical Framework

8

4.2 Critical Population Issues

8

4.2.1 Characteristics of Kenya’s Population

8

4.2.2 Population Programme Factors

12

4.2.3 Thematic Areas

13

5.0 Population Policy Goal, Objectives and Targets

20

5.1 Policy Goal

20

5.2 Policy Objectives

20

5.3 Demographic Targets

20

5.3.1 Demographic Targets for the Year 2030

21

5.3.2 Population Advocacy, Information and Public Education Targets to 2030

21

5.3.3 Family Planning Service Delivery Targets beyond 2030

22

6.0 Implementation Framework

23

6.1 The Role of NCPD

23

6.2 The Role of Other Government Ministries and Institutions

23

6.3 The Roles of Other Institutions

28

7.0 Resource Mobilization

29

8.0 Monitoring and Evaluation

30

Glossary

31

Annex A:

Schematic of the Operations of the Policy Framework

32

Population Policy for National Development I

List of Tables

Table 1: Trends of key indicators

5

Table 2: Targets for Key Demographic Indicators 2010-2050

21

Table 3: Targets for Media Channels (2009 -2030)

22

Table 4: Family planning services indicators by five-year phases

22

Table 5: Sectoral Roles

24

Table 6: Roles of other Institutions

28

II Population Policy for National Development

Acronyms and Abbreviations

ARH&D ARI ARV BCC CBO CDF CDR CEDAW CPR ERS FBO FGC FGM FP FPE FTSE GBV GDP GOK HDI HIV/AIDS ICPD ICT IDP IEC IMCI IMR KDHS KEPH KESSP KNBS LATIF MDGs MOYAS M&E NACC NASCOP NCPD NGO NIMES NRHS OVCs PLWHAs PMTCT POA PWD RH STD TB TFR UN UNICEF WHO

Adolescent Reproductive Health and Development Acute Respiratory Infection Anti-Retroviral drug Behaviour Change Communication Community Based Organization Constituency Development Fund Crude Death Rate Convention for the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination against Women Contraceptive Prevalence Rate Economic Recovery Strategy for Wealth and Employment Creation 2003–2007 Faith Based Organization Female Genital Cutting Female Genital Mutilation Family Planning Free Primary Education Free Tuition Secondary Education Gender Based Violence Gross Domestic Product Government of Kenya Human Development Index Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome International Conference on Population and Development Information and Communication Technology Internally Displaced Person Information, Education and Communication Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses Infant Mortality Rate Kenya Demographic and Health Survey Kenya Essential Package for Health Kenya Education Sector Support Programme Kenya National Bureau of Statistics Local Authority Transfer Fund Millennium Development Goals Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports Monitoring and Evaluation National AIDS Control Council National AIDS/STD Control Programme National Council for Population and Development Non-Governmental Organization National Integrated Monitoring and Evaluation System National Reproductive Health Strategy Orphans and Vulnerable Children Persons Living With HIV and AIDS Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission Plan of Action Persons with Disabilities Reproductive Health Sexually Transmitted Disease Tuberculosis Total Fertility Rate United Nations United Nations Children’s Fund World Health Organization

Population Policy for National Development III

IV Population Policy for National Development

Foreword
The Kenya government has since independence recognised that population management is key in realization of sustained socio-economic development. Over time the Government has developed a number of population policies, strategies and programmes to address population management challenges. This Population Policy for National Development succeeds Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2000 on National Population Policy for Sustainable Development which guided implementation of population programmes up to 2010. It recognises and puts into consideration international and national emerging and continuing population concerns. This Policy will contribute to the realization of Kenya Vision 2030 as it aims to attain high quality of life for the people of Kenya by managing population growth to a level that can be sustained with the available resources.
The development of this Policy underwent different stages and is based on collated views from consultations with stakeholders at the grassroot, regional and national levels. A first draft was developed and presented for discussion to a cross-section of Kenyans during a National Leaders Conference on Population and Development in November 2010. The draft Policy was then refined and presented to Members of Parliament during a Parliamentary Retreat in Mombasa in July, 2011 for further discussion. The Parliamentary Retreat Report was developed and shared with the Chairs of Parliamentary Committees in September, 2011 to ensure that the major policy issues were captured. The MPs’ inputs from these sessions further informed the finalisation of the Policy.
This lengthy process was crucial as it involved leaders and stakeholders across the divide. The consultations resulted in an all-inclusive Population Policy for National Development that will guide the implementation of population programmes in line with Vision 2030, the 2010 Kenya Constitution and other international and national aspirations.
This Sessional Paper covers the following broad areas: population structures and vulnerable groups; population and socio-economic Development, Planning and Environmental sustainability; Reproductive Health and Reproductive Rights; Education, Science and Technology; Gender equity, Equality and women empowerment, and Morbidity and Mortality. It should be noted that this Sessional Paper cuts across all the sectors and provides a framework that will guide national population programmes and activities for the next two decades. The implementation of programmes and projects as proposed in this Sessional Paper calls for a multi-sectoral approach from all the stakeholders.
Hon. Wycliffe Ambetsa Oparanya, E.G.H, MP. Minister of State for Planning, National Development and Vision 2030
Population Policy for National Development V

Executive Summary
This Sessional Paper on Population Policy for National Development presents a policy framework whose goal is to attain high quality of life for the people of Kenya by managing population growth to a level that can be sustained with the available resources. The principal objective of the Policy is to provide a framework that will guide national population programmes and activities for the next two decades. It recognises and puts into consideration international and national emerging and continuing population concerns. It also responds to Kenya’s development agenda as contained in Kenya Vision 2030 blueprint and the 2010 Kenya Constitution.
This Sessional Paper succeeds Sessional Paper No. 1 of 2000 on National Population Policy for Sustainable Development. The Policy is premised on the international and national population and development agenda. The Policy is therefore in line with the new international and regional conventions, agreements and declarations of which Kenya as a member of the international community is a signatory to.
The Policy was developed through an extensive and intensive consultative process which involved the participation of various stakeholders. The public engagement included district and regional leaders’ meetings, national leaders’ conference, and thematic group discussions and submissions. The development of the Policy was further informed by a review of a number of related documents.
This Sessional Paper provides an overall framework and proposes key policy measures to be undertaken to address the critical population management issues. The Policy identifies rapid population growth and a youthful population structure as key issues that will pose challenges in the realization of Vision 2030. High fertility coupled with high unmet need for family planning over a long period of time, has contributed largely to the observed youthful population structure.
The critical population issues proposed in the Policy to be addressed include: • Characteristics of the Kenya’s population with focus on population size and growth, and population structure • Population programme factors with emphasis on Population advocacy, information, education and communication; and family planning service delivery, and • Thematic areas for socio-economic improvement. The seven thematic areas for socio-economic improvement considered in the Policy are poverty reduction; environmental sustainability; technology, research and development; education; gender equality and equity and women empowerment; morbidity and mortality, and reproductive health and reproductive rights.
The Policy will be implemented in a multi-sectoral approach. Specific targets have been set to guide successful implementation of the policy. The various sectoral policies and strategies will complement this Policy and guide the implementation of the identified population concerns in each sector. Roles and responsibilities of key implementers have been stipulated in the Policy document.
VI Population Policy for National Development

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Kenya Population Policy for National Development