Getting to know plants


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Vision Empower & XRCVC Teacher Instruction KIT
Getting to know plants
Syllabus: NCERT Subject: Science Grade: 6 Textbook Name: NCERT- Science Textbook for class VI Chapter Number & Name: 7.Getting to know plants
1. OVERVIEW
1.1 OBJECTIVES AND PREREQUISITES
Objective ● To know different parts of a plant and their functions. ● To understand differences between plants of different kinds
Prerequisite Concept ● Roots, Grade 4, Chapter 4: Roots- Support of the Plant ● Monocot and Dicot plants, Grade 5, Chapter 1: Living World
Content Index Kindly Note: Activities marked with * are mandatory 1. OVERVIEW 1.1 OBJECTIVES AND PREREQUISITES 2. LEARN 2.1 KEY POINTS 2.2 LEARN MORE 3. ENGAGE 3.1 INTEREST GENERATION ACTIVITY Visit to a Garden
Activity 1: Visit to a garden
3.2 CONCEPT INTRODUCTION ACTIVITIES Herbs, Shrubs and Trees
Activity 2: Herbs, shrubs and trees
Stem and its functions Activity 3: Different kinds of stem
Activity 4: Functions of a stem
Different Leaves and their functions Activity 5: Structure of different leaves
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Activity 6: Different parts of the leaves
Activity 7: Functions of leaves
Roots and its types Activity 8: Roots
Activity 9: Types of roots
Parts of a Flower Activity 10: Parts of a flower
3.3 LET’S DISCUSS: RELATE TO DAILY LIFE* 4. EXERCISES & REINFORCEMENT 4.1 EXERCISE & REINFORCEMENT Leaf venation
Activity 11: Leaf venation
4.2 IMPORTANT GUIDELINES* Exercise Reading
Perform Textbook Activity
Provide Homework
2. LEARN
2.1 KEY POINTS Herbs: plants with green and tender stems are called herbs. They are usually short and may not have many branches. For example: wheat, paddy, radish, tomato, etc. Shrubs: some plants develop branches near the base of the stem. The stem is hard but not very thick. Such plants are called shrubs. For example: Trees: some plants are very tall and have hard and thick stems. The stems have branches in the upper part, much above the ground. Such plants are called trees. For example: Mango, coconut, oak, etc. Creepers: Plants with weak stems that cannot stand upright but spread on the ground are called creepers. For example: sweet potato, strawberry, pumpkin, etc. Climbers: plants that take support and climb up are called climbers. For example: Money plant, bottle gourd, bitter gourd, etc. Parallel venation: Veins run parallel to one another from the base to the tip of the leaf. For example: Banana, grasses, bamboo, wheat, etc. Reticulate venation: Veins are arranged in a net-like pattern on both sides of the midrib. For example: Mango, ficus, etc. A taproot is when there is one main root that grows straight down deep into the soil. It only has very few lateral roots that develop and grow off this main root. The taproot is a feature of plants that are known as dicotyledons.
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A fibrous root is a root that consists of groups of roots of similar size and length. They do not penetrate as deeply into the soil as does a taproot. The fibrous root is a feature of plants that are monocotyledons. Monocots: seeds of these plants have only one cotyledon and their leaves have parallel venation. The root system consists of similar fibrous roots. Examples - Maize, wheat, rice, onion. Dicots : The seeds produced by these plants have two cotyledons and their leaves have reticulate venation, with a network of veins. The root system has a prominent tap root. Examples - Pea, potato, sunflower, rose, banyan.
2.2 LEARN MORE None
3. ENGAGE
3.1 INTEREST GENERATION ACTIVITY
Visit to a Garden Activity 1: Visit to a garden Materials Required: None Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow ● Take the student for a walk in the garden and have them feel the plants and trees. Let them observe different parts, different types of plants and trees. ● Ask them, what makes the trees or plants stand upright when the wind blows or when there’s a storm.
3.2 CONCEPT INTRODUCTION ACTIVITIES
Herbs, Shrubs and Trees Activity 2: Herbs, shrubs and trees Materials Required: model of a tree, potted rose, hibiscus or tulsi plant, coriander plant, money plant or a plastic model of a grape vine grasses, model of a pumpkin or bottle gourd (loki) Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow ● Come back to the class and ask the student if all the plants in the garden looked the same.
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● Direct your questions to lead to the answer that some had thick stems, some stems were thin and soft, some were tall some were short, grasses looked completely different, the bark/trunk of the tree looked very different etc.
● Tell the student that there are different types of plants.
● When discussing Trees: Guide the student to touch and explore plastic models of a mango, banyan or neem tree. (This could also be followed by/ linked to a visit to the real tree.) Guide the student to touch and explore the model from top to bottom. Inform the student that this is just a miniature model of a tree. Discuss the size of trees in comparison to familiar quantities. For example; a coconut tree could be so tall that it would reach the 1st or 2nd floor of the school building. Through questions, guide the student to conclude that trees are big and tall. They have strong woody stems called trunks.
● When discussing Shrubs: Guide the student to touch and explore a (real) potted rose, hibiscus or tulsi plant. Allow the student to touch its stems, branches, leaves etc. Observe the different textures, smell/fragrances etc. (For example the differentiating smell of the tulsi leaf) Tell the student that these are shrubs. Through questions guide the student to conclude that shrubs are small plants with woody stems.
● When discussing Herbs: Guide the student to touch and explore a coriander potted plant and some grass. Direct him/her to notice that these are also small plants like shrubs but have soft stems. Note: Pick a strand of grass where it is easy to observe it split into more grass leaves when showing the student. Tell him/her that such plants are called herbs. Discuss that a lot of these are used in our food by adding examples.
● When discussing Climbers: Guide the student to touch and explore a potted money plant and/or a plastic model of a grape vine. Guide the student to notice that these kinds of plants have weak stems and need the support of other plants, walls or sticks to grow. Tell them that such plants are called Climbers.
● When discussing Creepers: Guide the student to touch and explore a model of a pumpkin or bottle gourd (loki) creeper. Discuss with the student that these grow along the ground because they also have weak stems. Have the student touch and identify the weak stems.
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Stem and its functions Activity 3: Different kinds of stem Materials Required: real plant or models of mango tree, a tulsi plant and a money plant Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow Discuss that the stem is the main support for the plant above the ground.
● Let the children touch and explore a (real or models) – mango tree, a tulsi plant and a money plant. Ask the child to point out and show you the stem in each of these plants.
● Ask the children if all the plants they have seen have the same kind of stem? ● Ask them to describe what the stems of each of the plants look like. ● Lead the discussion to point out that not all stems are alike. ● Some trees have stems that are thick, strong and wood, like that of the peepal,
banyan and mango tree. These thick stems are called trunks. ● Some plants have rough stems while some have smooth stems. For example, the
stem of a young plant or sapling are smooth and green, and as it grows into a tree it turns brown and hard. ● While some plants like the stem of creepers and climbers (like the money plant, grape vine etc.) have thin, soft, weak stems. ● The stem of the banana tree is still different; it has a thick but soft stem. ● Also discuss how stems vary in size, ranging from a small vine to the 30 foot diameter of a tree! ● Bring a sweet potato to the class. Let them touch it and feel its earthy texture and dusty skin. Tell them that this is a stem that grows below the ground.
Activity 4: Functions of a stem Materials Required: stem of sugarcane, potato and ginger. Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow ● Begin a discussion with the children saying that just as each part of our body is needed for a different purpose/function (eyes to see, ears to hear, nose to smell, legs to walk etc.), similarly each part of the plant has a different job to do to help the plant grow and survive. ● Stems have several jobs, including transporting water and minerals (food) from the soil to the rest of the plant etc. ● At the same time they also carry the food that is made by the leaves to the other parts of the plant. ● They support the upper part of the plant. ● Also, discuss how some stems like sugarcane, potato and ginger store food and we eat these stems. Bring some of these and allow the children to touch them and taste them.
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Different Leaves and their functions Activity 5: Structure of different leaves Materials Required: Different leaves Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow Begin the lesson by telling the children that while animals and fish cannot make their own food. Plants make their own food with the help of its leaves! Hence the leaves are an important part of the plant. ● Let the children touch and observe the leaves growing on different branches outdoors.
Next, bring a tray with different leaves such as the leaves of a – neem, eucalyptus, coconut palm, banana, pine, papaya, peepal, or mango tree. ● Bring it to the notice of the children that leaves have different size, shape and texture by having him/her touch and explore them. ● Tell the child that most leaves are green in colour. That the green color in leaves is due to a chemical called Chlorophyll that helps it prepare food for the plants. ● Guide their hand along the edge/margins of the leaf to check its edge and if it is straight or spiky or a curved edge. ● Let them feel and notice that some leaves are smooth and some rough. ● Guide their hand to feel the stalk that attaches the leaf to the plant and to feel the veins of the leaf.
Activity 6: Different parts of the leaves Materials Required: Different leaves, tactile diagram of a leaf with parts labeled, potted plant, leaves with parallel venation (grass) and reticulate venation (coriander) Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow ● Present and describe the tactile diagram of a leaf to the student. ● Let them start exploring each part of the leaf - lamina, veins, midrib, and read the labeling on the tactile diagram. ● Next present the tray with the different real leaves to the student and let them identify and point out these parts of the leaves like the veins, midrib, etc. on the different leaves. ● In each of the leaves ask the student if the net design made by the veins on either side of the mid rib is different or the same. Tell the student that this design made by the veins is called venation. ● Have the student point out and observe that the grass leaf has a different venation from most other common leaves. Introduce the student to what is reticulate venation and parallel venation in leaves by observing the real leaf (grass, coriander, etc).
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● Present a potted plant to the student. Ask the student to point out and show you the part where the leaf is attached to the plant. Tell the student that this part is called the Petiole.
Activity 7: Functions of leaves Materials Required: potted plant, transparent polythene bags, and rubber band/thread, Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow Transpiration in leaves: Activity:
● Present the student with a healthy potted plant, two transparent polythene bags and some string in a tray. Have the student touch and note the materials to be used for this activity.
● Using the hand over hand technique, guide the student to tie one of the polythene bags around a leafy branch of the plant and then place the potted plant back in the sun.
● After a few hours, ask the student to remove the polythene bag from the plant and to touch the inside of the bag and feel the water droplets there.
● In this manner discuss that water comes out of leaves in the form of vapour in a process called transpiration which is one of the functions of leaves. Also discuss with the student that we used the bags in this experiment because otherwise the water transpired is not visible.
Plants prepare their own food: ● Discuss with the student how in the presence of sunlight, a green colored substance
in leaves known as chlorophyll, water and carbon dioxide from the air, leaves prepare food for the plant.
Roots and its types Activity 8: Roots Materials Required: potted plant, roots of different plants Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow ● Take the children outdoors and have them touch a potted plant and explore all its
different parts that are above the soil. Tell the children that these parts of the plant that grow upward from the ground are called the shoot. ● Let the children dig the soil a bit carefully using a spade/shovel and touch and observe that part of the plant that grows underground known as the roots. ● Guide their hand to observe the thick and thin roots of the plant along their length.
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● Later (with the help of a Gardener if needed) have the children re-pot the plant. ● Tell the children that the roots of bigger trees grow deep into the soil and spread wide. ● Talk about the color of the soil, the roots, and the stem of that particular plant when
doing so. ● Some plants have big roots and some have small roots. ● Have them touch the roots of a big tree (mango, banyan etc.) to observe that some roots
grow above the surface of the ground. Some roots also grow in water.
Activity 9: Types of roots Materials Required: roots of a mustard, bean or pea plant, tactile diagram of the tap root, model of a tree with thread attached to it to show roots of a Banyan tree, carrot or radish Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow Tap roots:
● Present the roots of a mustard, bean or pea plant to the children. ● Let them touch and feel the main thick root (long and sturdy) growing at the end of
the stem, and the number of tiny roots growing out of it. ● Hand over the tactile diagram of the tap root. Guide the child’s hand over the main
root and tiny roots growing from the main root. ● Give the student a carrot or radish and explain that these are also tap roots. Ask the
student what they think the purpose of the modification of roots is. ● Explain that some roots are modified to store water or food. Some thick roots that
store food for the plant are – carrot, radish, beetroot, etc. We eat these roots.
Fibrous roots: ● Present the roots of a grass or rice or wheat or onion to the child. Have the child touch and feel the number of roots that grow at the end of the stem and the number of equally sized roots growing on them.
Hanging roots of a Banyan tree... ● Present a plastic model of a tree to the student with thread attached to it that is made to look like the hanging roots of a Banyan tree. Tell the student that is what a Banyan tree looks like. ● Discuss with the student why older banyan trees have such aerial roots.
Parts of a Flower Activity 10: Parts of a flower
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Materials Required: real flower (china rose/petunia/ datura/mustard/brinjal), tactile diagram showing parts of a flower Prerequisites: None
Activity Flow ● Show them some real flowers and tell them that flowers have many different shapes and sizes, and there are many variations in colour. ● A typical flower can be grouped into four sets based on appearance and function: sepals, petals, stamens, and pistils. ● Let the students touch the petals and sepals in the flower, ask them if they can distinguish both by different textures or not. ● Sepals are the outermost part of a flower and are generally small leaf-like structures seen at the base of the flowers and hold the petals together. ● Petals: above the sepals are the petals. Although flattened like the sepal, each petal is usually soft and coloured. ● After that remove petals and sepals of that plant and let the children touch what is inside. And explain to them about stamens and pistils. ● Stamens are located inside the petals, are composed of a small anther and a thread like filament connecting the anther to the rest of the flower. ● Pistils form the final set of the parts. Each pistil is often shaped like a vase, although the shape varies. The ovary which is the base of the pistil, is swollen and hollow. The inner parts of the ovary have small beads like structures called ovules. ● Show them the tactile diagram having parts of a flower.
3.3 LET’S DISCUSS: RELATE TO DAILY LIFE* ● Here are some more examples of each type of plant that can be easily demonstrated to the student: o Shrubs: Rose, tulsi, jasmine, hibiscus, etc., o Herbs: Grass, mint, wheat, sunflower, lady’s finger, podina, dhania, Basil, Thyme, Parsley. o Climbers: Grapevine, pea, money plant, o Creepers: Pumpkin, water-melon, bottle gourd, bahugun belia, madhu-lata o Trees: Peepal, Banyan, Coconut
● In a plastic bowl, have the student grow mustard seeds or wheat grains on dampened cotton wool. In a few days, the student will be able to lift up the cotton wool and feel the roots growing. Ask the student to identify what type of roots these are.
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4. EXERCISES & REINFORCEMENT
4.1 EXERCISE & REINFORCEMENT
Leaf venation Activity 11: Leaf venation Materials Required: different leaves, parchment sheet, rubber mat, pins, stylus. Prerequisites: reticulate and parallel venation
Activity Flow ● Have the student observe the venation of the leaves for different plants in the garden without plucking them off. ● Have the student come back and draw these patterns on a parchment sheet with a rubber mat.
4.2 IMPORTANT GUIDELINES*
Exercise Reading It is very important that the children practice their learnings as well as their reading. Hence have the children read out the newly learned concepts from their textbooks or other available resources.
Perform Textbook Activity It is good practice to have the children perform the textbook activities. Your textbook activities might not be accessible hence go through this resource to learn how to make textbook content accessible
Provide Homework To evaluate their understanding and to help the student revise and implement the new learnt concept ensure to provide them with homework. Students should perform one or two of the questions mentioned above or from the textbook exercises with the teacher in Class and the remaining may be given for homework. Also, ensure that the student knows their special skills linked to independently using their accessible books as it will be critical to doing homework independently
End of Document
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Getting to know plants