# AUTOMOTIVE CHASSIS & SUSPENSION SEMESTER – VI

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AUTOMOTIVE CHASSIS & SUSPENSION

[As per Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) scheme]

SEMESTER – VI

Subject Code

15AU61

IA Marks

20

Number of Lecture Hours/Week

04

Exam Marks

80

Total Number of Lecture Hours

50

Exam Hours

03

Credits

04

Course objectives:The objectives of this course is to

1. Explain different chassis layouts and frames solve for stability and weight distribution and suitability

of frames.

2. Describe, about various Front Axles, factors of wheel alignment Steering Systems and Calculate

dimensions of Front Axle.

3. Discuss about various types Propeller Shaft, Differential And Rear Axles and tosolve numericals.

4. Compare various types of Brakes and solve numerical.

5. Describe Various Types of Suspensions, Wheels and Tyres.

6. Calculate dimensions of different suspensions.

Module-I

Introduction:

General consideration relating to chassis layout, power location, types

of automobiles, layout of an automobile with reference to power plant,

weight distribution, stability, Numerical problems.

Frames:

Types of frames ,general form & dimensions, materials, frame stresses, frame 10 Hours

sections, cross members, proportions of channel sections, constructional

frame, Box section type frame, testing of frames, bending and torsion test,

effect of brake application of frame stresses, truck frames, defects, Numerical

problems.

Module-II

Front axle and Steering systems:

Axle parts and materials, loads and stresses, centre sections, section near

alignment, wheel balancing, centre point steering, correct steering angle, 10 Hours

steering mechanisms, cornering force, self righting torque, under steer and

over steer, Steering linkages, steering gears, special steering columns, power

steering, trouble shooting, Numerical problems.

Module-III

Propeller shaft

Construction & types of propeller shafts, whirling of propeller shaft, universal

joints, analysis of Hooke’s joint- ratio of shafts velocities, maximum &

minimum speeds of driven shaft, condition for equal speeds of thee driving &

driven shafts, angular acceleration of the driven shaft, maximum fluctuation

of speed, double Hooke’s joint, Numerical problems.

Final drive

10 Hours

Construction details, types.

Differential

Principle, types of differential gears, conventional and non-slip differentials,

backlash, differential lock, inter-axle differential, transaxle types. Rear axle
Torque reaction, driving thrust, Hotchkiss drive, torque tube drive, construction of rear axle shaft supporting- fully floating and semi floating arrangements axle housings, trouble shooting, numericalproblems. Module-IV Brakes Necessity, stopping distance and time, brake efficiency, weight transfer, brake shoe theory, determination of braking torque, classification of brakes, types, construction, function, operation, braking systems - mechanical, hydraulic, disc, drum, details of hydraulic system, mechanical system and components, types of master & wheel cylinders, bleeding of brakes, brake drums, brake linings, brake fluid, factors influencing operation of brakes such as operating temperature, lining, brake clearance, pedal pressure, linkages etc, Brake compensation, Parking and emergency brakes, hill holder, automatic adjustment, servo brakes, Power brakes-Air brakes, vacuum brakes and electric brakes and components brake valve, unloaded valve, diaphragm, airhydraulic brakes, vacuum boosted hydraulic brakes, trouble shooting, Numerical problems. Module-V Suspension: Objects, basic considerations, Types of suspension springs, construction , operation & materials, leaf springs, coil springs, torsion bar, rubber springs, plastic springs, air bellows or pneumatic suspension, hydraulic suspension, constructional details of telescopic shock absorbers, independent suspension, front wheel independent suspension, rear wheel independent suspension, types, stabilizer, trouble shooting, Numerical problems. Wheels and Tyres: Types of wheels, construction, structure and function, wheel dimensions, structure and function of tyres, static and dynamic properties of pneumatic tyres, types of tyres, materials, tyre section & designation, factors affecting tyre life, quick change wheels, special wheels, trouble shooting.

10 Hours 10 Hours

Course outcomes: After completion of above course, students will be able to
1. Explain different chassis layouts and frames and solve for stability and weight distribution and suitability cross sectionsfor frames. 2. Describe various Front Axles, factors of wheel alignment Steering Systems and Calculate dimensions of Front Axle. 3. Describe various types Propeller Shaft, Differential and Rear axles and can find dimensions of these components. 4. Select type of brake required to given application and will be able to calculate basic dimension of brakes. 5. Describe, About Various Types of Suspensions, Wheels and Tyres. 6. Calculate dimensions of different suspensions.

Question paper pattern: 1. The question paper will have ten questions. 2. Each full question consists of 16 marks. 3. There will be 2full questions (with a maximum of four sub questions) from each module. 4. Each full question will have sub questions covering all the topics under a module. 5. The students will have to answer 5 full questions, selecting one full question from each module.
Text Books: 1. Automotive Chassis- Heldt .P. M, Chilton Co., (Nyack, N.Y., P.M. Heldt, 1945) Literary Licensing, LLC, 2012. 2. Automotive Mechanics- N.K. Giri, 8th Edition , Khanna Publications, New Delhi,2008.
Reference Books: 1. Automobile Engineering Vol. I- Kirpal Singh, 12th edition, Standard publications, New Delhi, 2009. 2. Automobile Engineering - K. K. Ramalingam, Scitech Publication, Chennai – 2011. 3. Automotive chassis and body- P. L. Kohli, TMH. 4. Steering, Suspension and Tyres- Giles. J. G,Iiiffe Book Co., London- 1988. 5. Automotive Chassis and Body- Crouse W. H., McGraw-Hill, New York- 1971. 6. Automobile Engineering -T.R. Banga&Nathu Singh, Khanna Publications, 1993. 7. Introduction to Automobile Engineering - N.R. Khatawate, Khanna pub. New Delhi.

HEAT AND MASS TRANSFER

[As per Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) scheme]

SEMESTER – VI

Subject Code

15AU62

IA Marks

20

Number of Lecture Hours/Week

04+1T

Exam Marks

80

Total Number of Lecture Hours

50

Exam Hours

03

Credits

04

Course objectives:The objectives of this course is to

1. Explain fundamental principles and laws of conduction, convection and radiation modes of

heat transfer.

2. Analyze one dimensional steady state heat transfer.

3. Analyze one dimensional one dimensional unsteady state heat transfer.

4. Analyze one dimensional forced convection heat transfer problems.

5. Analyze one dimensional free convection heat transfer problems.

6. Analyze one dimensional application like flow over flat plate etc.

7. Introduce basic principle of heat exchanger analysis and thermal design.

8. Apply laws of radiation heat transfer to solve engineering problems.

Module-I

Introductory concepts:

Modes of heat transfer: Basic laws governing conduction, convection, and

radiation heat transfer; Thermal conductivity; convective heat transfer

coefficient; radiation heat transfer; combined heat transfer mechanism. Boundary conditions of 1st, 2nd and 3rd Kind, Conduction: Derivation of general

three dimensional conduction equation in Cartesian coordinate, special cases, 10 Hours

discussion on 3-D conduction in cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems.

(No derivation). One dimensional conduction equations in rectangular,

cylindrical and spherical coordinates for plane and composite walls. Overall

heat transfer coefficient. Thermal contact resistance, Numerical problems and

Mathematical formulation.

Module-II

Variable thermal conductivity

Derivation for heat flow and temperature distribution in plane wall. Critical

thickness of insulation without heat generation, Heat transfer in extended

surfaces of uniform cross-section without heat generation, Long fin, and short

fin with insulated tip and without insulated tip and fin connected between two

heat sources. Fin efficiency and effectiveness. Numerical problems. One-dimensional transient conduction

10 Hours

Conduction in solids with negligible internal temperature gradient (Lumped

system analysis), Use of Transient temperature charts (Heisler’s charts) for

transient conduction in slab, long cylinder and sphere; use of transient

temperature charts for transient conduction in semi-infinite solids. Numerical

Problems

Module-III

Concepts and basic relations in boundary layers:

Flow over a body velocity boundary layer; critical Reynolds number; general

expressions for drag coefficient and drag force; thermal boundary layer;

general expression for local heat transfer coefficient; Average heat transfer 10 Hours

coefficient; Nusselt number. Flow inside a duct- velocity boundary layer,

hydrodynamic entrance length and hydro dynamically developed flow; flow

through tubes (internal flow)(discussion only). Numericals based on empirical

relation given in data handbook

Free or Natural Convection:

of Grashoff number; use of correlations free convection from or to vertical,

horizontal and inclined flat plates, vertical and horizontalcylinders and

spheres, Numerical problems.

Forced Convections:

Applications of dimensional analysis for forced convection. Physical

significance of Reynolds, Prandtl, Nusselt and Stanton numbers. Use of

various correlations for hydro dynamically and thermally developed flows

inside a duct use of correlations for flow over a flat plate, over a cylinder and

sphere. Numerical

Module-IV

Heat Exchangers:

Classification of heat exchangers; overall heat transfer coefficient, fouling and

fouling factor; LMTD, Effectiveness-NTU methods of analysis of heat

exchangers. Numerical problems.

Condensation and Boiling: Types of condensation (discussion only) Nusselt’s theory for laminar

10 Hours

condensation on a vertical flat surface; use of correlations for condensation on

vertical flat surfaces, horizontal tube and horizontal tube banks; Reynolds

number for condensate flow; regimes of pool boiling pool boiling

correlations. Numericals.

Module-V

Definitions of various terms used in radiation heat transfer; Stefan-Boltzman

law, Kirchoff’s law, Planck’s law and Wein’s displacement t law. Radiation

heat exchange between two parallel infinite black surfaces, between two 10 Hours

and solid angle; Lambert’s law; radiation heat exchange between two finite

surfaces-configuration factor or view factor. Numerical problems.

Course outcomes: After completion of above course, students will be able to

1. Demonstrate fundamental principles and laws of conduction, convection and radiation

modes of heat transfer.

2. Analyze one dimensional steady state heat transfer.

3. Analyze one dimensional one dimensional unsteady state heat transfer.

4. Analyze one dimensional forced convection heat transfer problems.

5. Analyze one dimensional free convection heat transfer problems.

6. Analyze one dimensional application like flow over flat plate etc.

7. Introduce basic principle of heat exchanger analysis and thermal design.

8. Apply laws of radiation heat transfer to solve engineering problems.

Question paper pattern: 1. The question paper will have ten questions. 2. Each full question consists of 16 marks. 3. There will be 2full questions (with a maximum of four sub questions) from each module. 4. Each full question will have sub questions covering all the topics under a module. 5. The students will have to answer 5 full questions, selecting one full question from each module.
Text Books: 1. Heat transfer, by P.K. Nag, Tata McGraw Hill 2002. 2. Heat transfer-A basic approach, by Ozisik, Tata McGraw Hill 2002.
Reference Books: 1. Heat transfer, a practical approach-Yunus A- Cengel Tata McGraw Hill. 2. Principles of heat transfer by Kreith Thomas Learning 2001. 3. Fundamentals of heat and mass transfer by Frenk P. Incropera and David P. Dewitt, John Wileyand son’s. 4. 4.Heat& Mass transfer-Tirumaleshwar,Pearson education 2006.

DESIGN OF MACHINE ELEMENTS -II

[As per Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) scheme]

SEMESTER – VI

Subject Code

15AU63

IA Marks

20

Number of Lecture Hours/Week

04 +1T

Exam Marks

80

Total Number of Lecture Hours

50

Exam Hours

03

Credits

04

Course objectives: The objectives of this course is to

1. Describe the basic types of curved beams and springs.

2. Analyze the stresses in the critical section of a curved beam.

3. Illustrate the design procedure to arrive at the proper specifications of

springs/gears/clutches.

4. Select suitable size, module & type of gears for a required velocity ratio.

5. Calculate the dimensions and suggest suitable materialsfor Gears.

6. Define the terminology of gears and springs.

7. Demonstrate the suitability of a type and class of lubricant for a specific application.

Module-I Bending stresses in curved beams:
Introduction, Analysis of stresses in curved beams, stresses in beams of standard cross sections. Springs Introduction, types of springs, terminology, stresses and deflection in helical coil springs of circular and non-circular cross sections, springs under fluctuating loads, concentric springs. Leaf Springs: stresses in leaf springs, equalized stresses, length of spring leaves.

10 Hours

Module-II Spur & helical gears:
Introduction, spur gears, standard proportions of gear systems, stresses in gear tooth, Lewis equation and form factor, design for strength, dynamic load and wear load. Helical Gears: definitions, formative number of teeth, design based on strength, dynamic and wear loads.

10 Hours

Module-III

Bevel and Worm Gear: Terminology, formative number of teeth, design based on strength, dynamic and wear loads. Worm Gears: terminology, design based on strength, dynamic, wear loads and efficiency of worm gear drives.

10 Hours

Module-IV Clutches &Brakes:
Introduction, types of clutches, design of Clutches (single plate, multi plate clutches). Brakes, energy absorbed by a brake, heat dissipated during braking, single block brakes and simple band brakes.

10 Hours

Module-V Sliding bearings:

10 Hours

Introduction, principle of hydro dynamic lubrication, assumptions in hydrodynamic lubrication, bearing characteristic number and modulus, Sommerfeld number, coefficient of friction, power loss, heat Generated and heat dissipated, selection of lubricant, grease, bearing failure- causes and remedies, design of journal bearings. Rolling contact bearings: Types of bearings, Principleof self-aligning, static equivalent load, dynamic load rating,bearing life, selection of ball and roller bearings, advantages and disadvantages of ball, roller and needle bearings, lubrication of bearing. Course Outcomes: After completion of above course, students will be able to 1. Design the curved beams using the equations of stress. 2. Design helical spring and leaf spring using the equations of stress and deflection. 3. Design the spur gears and helical gears using different parameters and check the gears for
dynamic and wear load. 4. Design the various types of bevel gears and worm gears for dynamic and wear load using
various parameters. 5. Design sliding contact and rolling contact bearings to find coefficient of friction, heat
generated, heat dissipated and average life of bearings. 6. Analyze and design given machine components and present their designs in the form of a
Report. Question paper pattern:
1. The question paper will have ten questions. 2. Each full question consists of 16 marks. 3. There will be 2full questions (with a maximum of four sub questions) from each module. 4. Each full question will have sub questions covering all the topics under a module. 5. The students will have to answer 5 full questions, selecting one full question from each
module. Design Data Hand Books:
1. Design Data Hand Book by K. Mahadevan and K.Balaveera Reddy, CBS, Publication. 2. Design Data Hand Book – K. Lingaiah, McGraw Hill, 2nd Ed. 2003. Text Books: 1. Mechanical Engineering Design- Joseph E Shigley and Charles R. Mischke McGraw Hill
International edition, 2003. 2.Design of Machine Elements-V.B. Bhandari, Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd.,
NewDelhi, 2nd Edition 2007. Reference Books:
1. Machine Design- Robert L. Norton, Pearson Education Asia, 2001. 2. Mechanical Engineering Design-Joseph E Shigley and Charles R. Mischke, McGraw Hill
Internationaledition, 6th Edition 2003. 3. Machine Design-Hall, Holowenko, and Laughlin (Schaum’s Outlines series) Adapted by S.
K. Somani,Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Company Ltd. 4. Machine Design-II-J.B.K. Das, SapnaBook House, Bangalore.

AUTOMOTIVE TRANSMISSION

[As per Choice Based Credit System (CBCS) scheme]

SEMESTER – VI

Subject Code

15AU64

IA Marks

20

Number of Lecture Hours/Week

04

Exam Marks

80

Total Number of Lecture Hours

50

Exam Hours

03

Credits

04

Course objectives:The objectives of this course is to

1. Explain the Constructional, design and working principles of different types of clutches.

2. Explain the constructional and working principle of different types of fluid flywheel, torque

converter and one way clutches.

3. Explain the constructional and working principle of different types of gear box.

4. Determine the gear ratio, speed of vehicle and number of teeth on driving and driven gears.

5. Explain the constructional and principle of operation of different types epicyclic gear box,

Calculationof gear ratio for epicyclic gear box.

6. Explain the necessity, advantages, constructional and principle of operation of different types

of automatic transmissions and hydraulic control.

Module-I

Clutch:

Necessity of clutch in an automobile, requirements of a clutch, Clutch

materials, clutch lining,different types of clutches, friction clutches-Single plate clutch, multi plate clutch, cone clutch, centrifugal clutch,

10 Hours

electromagnetic clutch, hydraulic clutches,Vacuum operated clutch, Clutch

adjustment, Clutch troubles and their causes, Numerical problems.

Module-II

Fluid Coupling & One way clutches:

Constructional details of various types, percentage slip, one way clutches

(Over running clutch) like sprag clutch, ball and roller one way clutches,

necessity and field of application, working fluid requirements, fluid

requirements, fluid requirements and fluid coupling characteristics.

10 Hours

Hydrodynamic Torque converters:

Introduction to torque converters, comparisons characteristics, slip, principles

of torque multiplication, 3 and 4 phase torque converters, typical

hydrodynamic transmission.

Module-III

Power Required for Propulsion:

Various Resistances to Motion of the Automobile, Traction, tractive effort

Performance curves, acceleration gradeability, drawbar pull, Numerical

Problems.

Transmission:

The need for transmissions, Necessity of gear box, Calculation of gear ratios

for vehicles, Performance characteristics in different gears , Desirable ratios of 10 Hours

3speed & 4speed gear boxes, Constructional details of - Sliding-mesh gear box,

Constant-mesh gear box, Synchromesh gear box, auxiliary transmissions,

compound transmissions, numerical problems.

Module-IV

Epicyclic Transmission:

Principle of operation, types of planetary transmission, Calculation of gear

ratio in different speeds, Wilson planetary transmission, Ford-T model gear 10 Hours

box , Pre selective mechanism, Vacuum control, pneumatic control, hydraulic

control in the planetary gear system , Over drives , Numerical problems.

Module-V

Hydrostatic Drives:

Principles of hydrostatic drives, different systems of hydrostatic drives,

constant displacement pump and constant displacement motor, variable

displacement pump and constant displacement motor and variable

displacement motor, variable displacement pump and variable displacement

motor, applications, plunger type pump and plunger type motor, advantages

and limitations, typical hydrostatic drives, hydrostatic shunt drives.

10 Hours

Automatic transmission:

Principle, general description and Working of representative types like

Borge-warner, 4-speed and 6-speed automatic transmission longitudinally

mounted four speed automatic transmission, hydramatic transmission, the

fundamentals of a hydraulic control system, basic four speed hydraulic control

system.

Course outcomes:

After completion of above course, students will be able to

1. Explain the Constructional, design and working principles of different types of clutches.

2. Explain the constructional and working principle of different types of fluid flywheel, torque

converter and one way clutches.

3. Explain the constructional and working principle of different types of gear box.

4. Determine the gear ratio, speed of vehicle and number of teeth on driving and driven gears.

5. Explain the constructional and principle of operation of different types epicyclic gear box,

Calculate gear ratio for epicyclic gear box .

6. Explain the necessity and advantages of automatic transmission.

7. Explain the constructional and principle of operation of different types of automatic

transmissions and hydraulic control.

Question paper pattern:

1. The question paper will have ten questions.

2. Each full question consists of 16 marks.

3. There will be 2full questions (with a maximum of four sub questions) from each module.

4. Each full question will have sub questions covering all the topics under a module.

5. The students will have to answer 5 full questions, selecting one full question from each

module.

Text books:

1. Automotive Mechanics-N.K. Giri,Khanna Publication, New Delhi, 2014.

2. Advanced Vehicle Technology, Heinz Heisler, 2002.

Reference books: 1. Automotive Transmissions and Power trains- Crouse W.H., McGraw Hill Co. 5thedn, 1976.

2. Motor Vehicle- Newton K and Steeds. W., Butter Worth’s & Co. Publishers Ltd, 1997.

3. Automobile Engineering –. Vol.1- Kirpal Singh, Standard Pub. 2011.

4. Automobile Engineering- G. B. S. Narang, Khanna publication, New Delhi.