Study of Total Productive Maintenance & Its Implementing


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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

Study of Total Productive Maintenance & Its Implementing Approach in Spinning Industries
Sarang G. Katkamwar1, Sadashiv K. Wadatkar2, Ravikant V. Paropate3
1 & 2 Final Year, B. E., Dept. of Mechanical Engg., Jawaharlal Darda Institute of Engineering and Technology, Yavatmal (M.S.), India
3 Asst. Prof., Dept. of Mechanical Engg., Jawaharlal Darda Institute of Engineering and Technology, Yavatmal (M.S.), India

Abstract:-This paper presents the study and overview for the implementing approach of Total Productive Maintenance in Indian spinning industries. The study is carried out in medium scale cotton spinning industry using the observations coupled with documents collection. The TPM implementation methodology is suggested for improvement in the availability, performance efficiency and the quality rate, results in improvement of the overall equipment effectiveness of the equipment. The aim of this paper is to suggest and study the implementation of the TPM program in the spinning industry. Using a See through, JH-Check sheet, PM-Check sheet, One Point Lessons, empirical and comprehensive approach toward the methodology results proper implementation of TPM. After implementation of TPM on model machine, both direct and indirect benefits are shown to be obtained for equipment and employees respectively.
I. INTRODUCTION

Under TPM, machine operators carry out routine maintenance such as checking water, oil, coolant, and air levels. This may involve some training of machine operators. Through operator training to do simple maintenance on machines will promote ownership and more attention to detail. The actual maintenance teams should as a result of spending less time doing routine maintenance is in a position to concentrate on more urgent machine breakdowns.
II. THEORETICAL OVERVIEW
In this topic, the overall structure of TPM is discussed with its practical approach. All the techniques which are responsible for the efficient and effective operation of machines are discussed below.

The concept of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) has been introduced and developed by Japanese in 1971. This came in response to the maintenance and support problems in commercial factory. It is team-based preventive and productive maintenance and involves every level, from top executive to the floor operator. TPM has been proven to be successful for helping to increase the productivity and overall equipment effectiveness. TPM can be defined as a program for fundamental improvement of the maintenance functions in an organization, which involves its entire human resources. TPM philosophy requires the development of a preventative maintenance program for the life-cycle of the equipment and the involvement of operators in maintaining the equipment in order to maximize its overall efficiency and effectiveness.
TPM is all about Total Plant Maintenance. The underlying concept is, if you properly maintain plant machinery there will see a sharp decline in machine breakdowns, safety and quality problems. There is emerging need for TPM implementation in the Indian Industry and need to develop TPM implementation practice and procedures.

A. Steps of TPM implementation
STAGE 1 - PREPARATORY STAGE STEP 1 - Announcement by Management to all about TPM introduction in the organization.
STEP 2 - Initial education and propaganda for TPM.
STEP 3 - Setting up TPM and departmental committees.
STEP 4 - Establishing the TPM working system and target
STEP 5 - A master plan for institutionalizing
STAGE 2 - INTRODUCTION STAGE This is a ceremony and we should invite all.
Suppliers as they should know that we want quality supply from them. Related companies and affiliated companies who

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

can be our customers, sisters concerns etc. Some may learn from us and some can help us and customers will get the communication from us that we care for quality output.

STAGE 3 – IMPLEMENTATION In this stage eight activities are carried which are
called eight pillars in the development of TPM activity. Of these four activities are for establishing the system for production efficiency, one for initial control system of new products and equipment, one for improving the efficiency of administration and are for control of safety, sanitation as working environment.

STAGE 4 - INSTITUTIONALISING STAGE By all their activities one would has reached maturity
stage. Now is the time for applying for PM award. Also think of challenging level to which you can take this movement.

B. PILLARS OF TPM

1.

PILLAR 1- 5S

TPM starts with 5S. Problems cannot be clearly seen

when the work place is unorganized. Cleaning and

organizing the workplace helps the team to uncover

problems. Making problems visible is the first step of

improvement.

Japanese Term

TABLE I 5S

English Translation

Equivalent 'S' term

Seiri Seiton Seiso Seiketsu

Organization Tidiness Cleaning Standardization

Sort Systematize Sweep Standardize

Shitsuke

Discipline

Self – Discipline

2.

PILLAR 2 - JISHU HOZEN (Autonomous

maintenance)

This pillar is geared towards developing operators to

be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing

up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more

value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are

responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from

deteriorating.

Policy:

1. Uninterrupted operation of equipments.

2. Flexible operators to operate and maintain other

equipments.

3. Eliminating the defects at source through active

employee participation.

4. Stepwise implementation of JH activities.

3.

PILLAR 3 - KAIZEN

"Kai" means change, and "Zen" means good (for the

better). Basically kaizen is for small improvements, but

carried out on a continual basis and involve all people in the

organization. The principle behind is that "a very large

number of small improvements are more effective in an

organizational environment than a few improvements of large

value. This pillar is aimed at reducing losses in the workplace

that affect our efficiencies. By using a detailed and thorough

procedure we eliminate losses in a systematic method using

various Kaizen tools.

Its target is to achieve and sustain zero loses with

respect to minor stops, measurement and adjustments, defects

and unavoidable downtimes. It also aims to achieve 30%

manufacturing cost reduction.

4.

PILLAR 4 - Planned Maintenance

It is aimed to have trouble free machines and

equipments producing defect free products for total customer

satisfaction. This breaks maintenance down into 4 "families"

or groups which were defined earlier.

1.

Preventive Maintenance

2.

Breakdown Maintenance

3.

Corrective Maintenance

4.

Maintenance Prevention

With Planned Maintenance we evolve our efforts

from a reactive to a proactive method and use trained

maintenance staff to help train the operators to better maintain

their equipment.

5.

PILLAR 5 - Quality Maintenance

It is aimed towards customer delight through highest

quality through defect free manufacturing. Focus is on

eliminating non-conformances in a systematic manner, much

like Focused Improvement. We gain understanding of what

parts of the equipment affect product quality and begin to

eliminate current quality concerns, and then move to potential

quality concerns. Transition is from reactive to proactive

(Quality Control to Quality Assurance).

6.

PILLAR 6 - Training

It is aimed to have multi-skilled revitalized

employees whose morale is high and who has eager to come

to work and perform all required functions effectively and

independently. Education is given to operators to upgrade

their skill. It is not sufficient know only "Know-How" by they

should also learn "Know-why". By experience they gain,

"Know-How" to overcome a problem what to be done. This

they do without knowing the root cause of the problem and

why they are doing so. Hence it become necessary to train

them on knowing "Know-why". The employees should be

trained to achieve the four phases of skill. The goal is to create

a factory full of experts. The different phases of skills are

Phase 1: Do not know.

Phase 2: Know the theory but cannot do.

Phase 3: Can do but cannot teach

Phase 4: Can do and also teach.

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

7.

PILLAR 7- Office TPM

A. Pillar 2- . JISHU HOZEN (Autonomous maintenance):-
What is JH? JH is the Japanese word for autonomous maintenance. It means that we have to do our machine maintenance; no PM man will come on the machine to do the maintenance. This pillar is geared towards developing operators to be able to take care of small maintenance tasks, thus freeing up the skilled maintenance people to spend time on more value added activity and technical repairs. The operators are responsible for upkeep of their equipment to prevent it from deteriorating. Its basic is that "I operate I maintain".

1.

Abnormality sheet

Figure1: - Office TPM Structure

Office TPM should be started after activating four other pillars of TPM (JH, KK, QM, and PM). Office TPM must be followed to improve productivity, efficiency in the administrative functions and identify and eliminate losses. This includes analyzing processes and procedures towards increased office automation. Office TPM addresses twelve major losses.

8.

PILLAR 8 - Safety, Health and Environment

Target

1.

Zero accident,

2.

Zero health damage

3.

Zero fires.

In this area focus is on to create a safe workplace and

a surrounding area that is not damaged by our process or

procedures. This pillar will play an active role in each of the

other pillars on a regular basis.

A committee is constituted for this pillar which

comprises representative of officers as well as workers. The

committee is headed by senior vice President (Technical).

Utmost importance to Safety is given in the plant. Manager

(Safety) is looking after functions related to safety. To create

awareness among employees various competitions like safety

slogans, Quiz, Drama, Posters, etc. related to safety can be

organized at regular intervals.

For the selected Machine which are the various abnormalities to cause machine failure are observed and enlisted so that the solution and reasons for the failure is search out to run machine efficiently. While making the sheet which are the frequently observed problems likewise type of nature is also noted, which will help the problem solving.

2.

CLITA

It means the symbolic representation for the

operation cleaning, inspection, retightening & lubrication, if it

is done regularly with proper time interval then breakdown

will minimized. Initial stage to implement CLITA technique is

to all the components must be label with serial number. It

helps the operator to do the proper operation at the right time

without missing, as the visualization is the one of the easiest

way to convey massage, CLITA uses the pictorial

representation of the operation with the component number.

Time interval is also represented over operation symbol. All

symbols are stick on the blank place over a machine, also care

should be taken that operator must easily visualize the symbol.

Following are some CLITA symbols given used in the general

practice.

III. REAL LIFE IMPLEMENTATION OF TPM

The actual implementation of TPM in spinning

industry is discussed in this topic. Where the various

difficulties are solved by using different techniques like

see through, one point lessons, CLITA, KK, PM, Poke

yoke etc. In this paper only first thee pillar i.e. JISHU HOZEN (Autonomous maintenance), KAIZEN, and

Figure2: Examples of CLITA

Planned Maintenance are highlighted for the 3.

One Point Lesson (OPL)

implementation practice. A Carding Machine Study is

Sometimes we are so busy that we think we don't

considered for the describing all the aspect and changes

make time to develop the people around us. Instead we

are observed after implementation.

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

fight fires or give direct instructions. This might be effective in the short-term but inevitably small problems are missed. The greatest cost is being unable to teach others how to solve and prevent the problems that we are encountering. A simple countermeasure to this is the focused education and development method known as the one-point lesson (OPL). Originating as part of TPM, the one-point lesson is intended to develop the knowledge and skills of the machine operators in Autonomous Maintenance. The basics of Autonomous Maintenance are daily checking and lubricating of machines. With increased knowledge and familiarity of their equipment the machine operators can detect abnormalities and early signs of failure. This leads naturally to problem solving skill development in collaboration with maintenance and engineering staff. Following is the OPL sheet in which the safety at time of cleaning can changer is shown.

Kaizen observation and measurement of the work process and of the results the Kaizen activity produces.
Following is the Kaizen for the better performance and More availability of Carding machine.

IV. IMPACT FACTOR FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF TPM
1. Leadership qualities, management improvement participation. 2. Organizational infrastructure. 3. Culture of collaboration and co-operation. 4. Linking TPM to business strategy & Linking TPM to Quality. 5. Project prioritization and selection Employee Training& Understanding of TPM methodology. 6. Linking TPM to Customers & employees & to create empowerment and authority at all levels. .

B. KOBETSU KAIZEN Kobetsu Kaizen aims to specifically eliminate breakdown and defect losses through thorough analysis of operating conditions. Ideal conditions for equipment are researched and maintenance and inspection standards are set. These ideal conditions are maintained with great commitment in order to reduce and eliminate losses. Kaizen is the Japanese word for continuous improvement or striving for pefection. Kaizen strives toward perfection by eliminating waste. It defines a project that works through a problem-solving process. Methods of Kaizen- Kaizen eliminates waste by allowing workers to uncover improvement opportunities and either suggest or make changes. In common usage, the term Kaizen may refer to different kinds of improvement activities. In some cases term use to refer to a process that gathers suggestions for improvements from employees. Others use the term to refer to periodic meetings of employees who brainstorm improvement ideas and immediately select and make an improvement. Still others add to the activities of

V. DIRECT BENEFITS OF TPM 1. Overall Equipment Efficiency is improved. 2. Customer complaints reduced. 3. Reduction in the manufacturing cost by 30%. 4. Satisfying the customer’s needs by 100 % & reduced accidents.

VI. INDIRECT BENEFITS OF TPM 1. Employees confidence level increases. 2. A clean, neat and attractive work place. 3. Favorable change in the attitude of the operators.

VII. CONCLUSION

Total

productive

maintenance successfully gives the improvement in the

availability, performance efficiency and the quality rate,

results in improvement of the overall equipment effectiveness

of the equipment. TPM is the effective tool to increase the

productivity of Indian industries. We can compete with the

other countries in this increased globalization. Spinning

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International Journal of Engineering Trends and Technology (IJETT) - Volume4Issue5- May 2013

industries can also have the benefit of TPM for the improvement in all aspects. While implementing TPM we found some barriers for effective implementation of TPM, such as Lack of Management Exposure, difficulty in understanding TPM methodology and philosophy by middle management, long time taken for implementation so people shows strong resistant to it. But it is the only thing between the success and failure for many companies as far as the maintenance is concern. TPM works on major 8 pillars which are (JH, KK, PM, QM, E&T, OT, 5s and SHE). It works on methodologies like CLITA, OPL, P-M Analysis for achieving its goal of success.

[9] Quality Planning & Analysis for Enterprise Quality- Juran( Tata Mcgraw-Hill Ltd.). [10] Industrial Engineering-R. K. Jain.

The aim of this paper is to spread awareness about TPM methodology in modern technocrats and industries in India. We are trying to understand the TPM concepts for the Indian scenario. Objective of this paper is to clear the concept of adoption of TPM in spinning industries.

References:

[1] Hongyi Sun Richard Yam Ng Wai-Keung ,’The implementation and evaluation of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)—an action case study in Hong Kong manufacturing company’. International Journal Advance in manufacturing Technology 22: 224-228 (2003).

[2] I.P.S. Ahuja and J.S. Khamba ‘An evaluation of TPM implementation initiatives in an Indian manufacturing enterprise.’ Journal of Quality in Maintenance Engineering 13.4 338-352 (2007).

[3] Jorge L.Perez-Lafont, B.S.I.E., ‘Installation of T.P.M. program in a Caribbean plant. International conference on Computers and Industrial Engineering’ 33.1.2 315-318. (1997) .

[4] F.T.S. Chan, H.C.W. LAU, R.W.L. lp, H.K. Chan, S. Kong ‘Implementation of Total Productive maintenance : A case study’ International journal of Production Economics 95 .71-94. (2005)

[5] F.-K. Wang, W. Lee ‘Learning curve analysis in total productive maintenance’ International Journal of Management Science 29 ,491–499, (2001)

[6] Kathleen E. McKone a, Roger G. Schroeder b, Kristy O. Cuab ‘The impact of total productive maintenance practices on manufacturing performance’ Journal of Operations Management ,19, 39–58, (2001).

[7] M.C. Eti a, S.O.T. Ogaji b, S.D. Probert b.,‘Implementing total productive maintenance in Nigerian manufacturing industries’ Applied Energy ,79, 385–401,( 2004).

[8] Industrial Maintenance Management-Sushil Kumar, Shrivastava, (S Chand & Company Ltd.).

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Study of Total Productive Maintenance & Its Implementing