Stakeholder Engagement for Family Planning Costed


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Costed Implementation Plan Resource Kit

Stakeholder Engagement for Family Planning Costed Implementation Plans
A four-step action framework to meaningfully engage stakeholders in the CIP process

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familyplanning2020.org/cip

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Disclaimer
The information provided in this document is not official U.S. Government information and does not necessarily represent the views or positions of the U.S. Agency for International Development.
This tool was created by FHI 360, as part of the Knowledge for Health (K4Health) Project. K4Health is the flagship knowledge management project of USAID’s Office of Population and Reproductive Health, Bureau for Global Health, under Cooperative Agreement #AID-OAA-A-13-00068 with the Johns Hopkins University. K4Health is implemented by the Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs (CCP), FHI 360, IntraHealth International, and Management Sciences for Health (MSH), in collaboration with a host of partners around the world. By creating and continually improving platforms, products, and services that generate, capture, synthesize, and disseminate health knowledge, K4Health works to strengthen the capacity of family planning program managers and service providers in low- and middle-income countries around the world.

Contact Us
Knowledge for Health (K4Health) Johns Hopkins Center for Communication Programs 111 Market Place, Suite 310 Baltimore, Maryland 21202 Phone: 410-659-6300 www.k4health.org

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Table of Contents

Overview of the Guide...................................................................4
About this Guide........................................................................................................................................... 4 Intended Users of the Guide......................................................................................................................... 4 How to Use the Guide.................................................................................................................................. 4
Concepts of Stakeholder Engagement.. .......................................5
What is a Stakeholder?................................................................................................................................ 5 What is Stakeholder Engagement?.............................................................................................................. 5 Why is Stakeholder Engagement Important?............................................................................................... 5 Stakeholder Engagement Framework.......................................................................................................... 6

Action Step 1: SCOPING....................................................................................................6 Action Step 2: MAPPING....................................................................................................7
Task 1: Identify potential stakeholders..................................................................................................... 7
Task 2: Analyze stakeholders.................................................................................................................. 9
Task 3: Prioritize stakeholders............................................................................................................... 11
Action Step 3: PLANNING................................................................................................13 Action Step 4: MANAGING..................................................................................................
Appendices................................................................................... 14
Appendix 1: Additional Concepts of Stakeholder Engagement...................................................................... 14 Appendix 2: Sample Scope of Engagement................................................................................................... 16 Appendix 3: Stakeholder Matrix Template...................................................................................................... 17 Appendix 4: Sample Stakeholder Engagement Plan..................................................................................... 18 Appendix 5: Stakeholder Engagement Review Checklist.............................................................................. 20
List of Figures, Boxes, and Tables
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework for CIP Execution........................................................................................ 6 Figure 2: Stakeholder Map............................................................................................................................. 10

Box 1: Levels of Participation in Stakeholer Engagement................................................................................ 7 Box 2: Selected Family Planning Stakeholders................................................................................................ 8

Table 1: Approaches amd Methods for Engaging Stakeholders..................................................................... 12

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Overview of the Guide
About this Guide This guide is part of a series of tools in the Costed Implementation Plan (CIP) Resource Kit. It aims to provide systematic, practical guidance and tools on how to meaningfully engage and manage stakeholders throughout all three phases of the CIP process: planning, development, and execution.
The guide first provides an overview of the concepts of stakeholder engagement, including how effective stakeholder engagement can contribute to successful CIPs. It then walks users through a four-step action process for engagement:

Action Step 1: Scoping: Develop a scope of engagement Action Step 2: Mapping: Choose key stakeholders Action Step 3: Planning: Create a stakeholder engagement plan Action Step 4: Managing: Manage the engagement process

More about the CIP process can be found here.
Intended Users of the Guide This guide was developed for CIP task teams and individuals who are directly involved with CIPs. The specific roles of different CIP task team members in managing stakeholder engagement is as follows:
• During the planning phase, the CIP champion is responsible for stakeholder engagement. • During the development phase (once the CIP task team is formed), the project manager
responsible for running the entire CIP development process manages stakeholder engagement. • Finally, during the execution phase, the appointed government focal point responsible for
coordinating stakeholders manages the engagement process.
Detailed information about the roles and responsibilities of the CIP team members in the development phase is described here.
How to Use the Guide Concepts and approaches in this guide are based on global best practices for good stakeholder engagement, and on experiences planning, developing, and executing CIPs in more than 12 countries. However, there is no “one size fits all” model for stakeholder engagement — the process described in this guide can and should be tailored to meet the needs of particular countries, stakeholders, and situations. Ensuring appropriate engagement requires good judgment and asking the right questions to determine the most appropriate ways to engage stakeholders.

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Concepts of Stakeholder Engagement
What is a Stakeholder? In the context of a CIP, a stakeholder is a person, group, or institution with involvement in, interest in, or in-depth knowledge of family planning. This may include those who directly influence the success of the plan and those who are affected by the plan, either positively or negatively. Stakeholders can be governments, parliamentarians, donors, implementing partners in the public and private sectors, research and training institutions, regulatory agencies, users of family planning, and community members at-large. Each population subgroup that the plan aims to serve (e.g., young people, women living with HIV/AIDS, rural women, women living with disabilities) should be represented.
What is Stakeholder Engagement? Stakeholder engagement is the systematic and strategic process of identifying and including individuals, groups, and institutions in the planning, development, and execution of the CIP. For the CIP to be successfully implemented, the interests, influence, and contributions of these stakeholders must be recognized. Without meaningful stakeholder engagement, a CIP is not likely to succeed. More information on the fundamental concepts of stakeholder engagement can be found in Appendix 1.
Why is Stakeholder Engagement Important? The main goal of stakeholder engagement is to foster a government-led, but country-owned, plan. A country-owned plan is one in which all stakeholders share responsibility and accountability for the plan, especially when a variety of financial and technical resources are needed to achieve a country’s goals. Hence, although the government may be at the steering wheel, a truly inclusive development process, informed by a range of in-country stakeholders, is important to the successful implementation of a plan. For example, a plan that involves only the government, donors, and international nongovernmental organizations — and thus does not involve stakeholders such as local nongovernmental organizations and the private sector — fails to recognize the essential role played by all actors and may result in a less-than-optimal contribution to the country’s goals.
Ideally, during the CIP process, all stakeholders work collectively to reposition family planning at policy, program, and service-delivery levels and to coordinate and implement a unified family planning strategy. When coordinated, these key players can focus their momentum, resources, and energy on the same goal. This can improve program performance, maximize the efficient use of limited resources, and facilitate the sharing of information to troubleshoot potential problems.
Tip: Because stakeholder engagement must be broad, the stakeholders may have different expectations, interests, and concerns regarding the CIP. Meaningful stakeholder engagement involves recognizing these differences and being able to manage them effectively over time. Early, targeted, and continuous stakeholder engagement will result in better-planned and more-informed policies, programs, and services because it streamlines their development, facilitates decisionmaking based on realities, and ensures cooperation and alignment of interests among vested parties.

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Stakeholder Engagement Framework Effective stakeholder engagement follows a systematic framework of four actions: scoping, mapping, planning, and managing (Figure 1). The actions start in the planning phase of the CIP but need to be continuously refined throughout the entire CIP process. Refinement is needed to meet the unique objectives and desired outcomes of stakeholder engagement during each CIP phase. Another reason refinement is needed is that the interests, concerns, expectations, and commitment levels of stakeholders can change over time.
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework for CIP Execution

Action Step 1
SCOPING
Develop a scope of engagement

Action Step 2
MAPPING
Choose key stakeholders

Action Step 3
PLANNING
Create a stakeholder engagement plan

Action Step 4
MANAGING
Manage the engagement process

Action Step 1: SCOPING
The first action of effective stakeholder engagement is to explicitly state the objectives and desired outcomes of stakeholder engagement in your specific (i.e., historical, political, geographic, cultural) context. The resulting scope of engagement will help focus the subsequent actions of stakeholder monitoring and planning. The scope of engagement can cover all three phases of the CIP, or the first two phases.
To develop the engagement objectives and desired outcomes, the project manager (or other designated team member with good understanding of the country context) consults with the country government. The consultation may involve a single event or a series of events. It may take the form of a stakeholder meeting or one-on-one interviews with key government leaders.
Example engagement objectives are shown below, and are further elaborated on in Appendix 2. The CIP pitch presentation is a useful tool to use in both examples.
Example 1: Secure government buy-in for a CIP. In some countries, stakeholder awareness and support for a CIP is lacking. Hence, the first objective will be to secure buy-in.
Example 2: Generate understanding among stakeholders about the rationale for the CIP (i.e., establish the “what” and “why” of the CIP). In some instances, the government may have endorsed the development of the CIP, but stakeholders may not yet know about the effort.

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Questions to ask during the consultation: 1. What do we hope to accomplish through stakeholder engagement?

2. At what level should we engage particular stakeholders? Level of participation can fall along a continuum (see Box 1). Typically, the level of stakeholder participation in a CIP process is collaborative to achieve a relevant and country-owned plan.

BOX 1 Levels of Participation in Stakeholder Engagement
INFORM: Communication is one-way, from the task force to stakeholders, to provide status updates on the CIP process; no input is solicited.

3. To what extent should the public at-large be engaged? For example, should there be consultations

CONSULT: Stakeholders can provide feedback and make suggestions but do not have decision-making
authority.

with the public and how?

COLLABORATE: Stakeholders are active participants, including in decision-making.

4. To what extent should stakeholders be involved in decision-making? For example, which stakeholders should be

involved in decision-making? And at what point in the CIP process?

5. What resources (financial and human) do we have for the engagement process? Depending on the level of participation, the costs and commitment of time for stakeholder engagement can be high.

6. What platforms for stakeholder engagement already exist? For example, if a country has family planning technical working groups, then the engagement can build upon what is already established and active.

Action Step 2: MAPPING
The second action of stakeholder engagement is to choose key stakeholders to engage in the CIP process. This involves identifying potential stakeholders; analyzing their degree of interest, concern, and capacity to influence the outcomes of the CIP process; and prioritizing them depending on their level of engagement. This action supports strategic engagement, ensuring that the right mix of participants is targeted and that no group is inadvertently excluded.
Task 1: Identify potential stakeholders.
The project manager works with the CIP task force to create a list of relevant people, groups, and institutions you may want to engage in the CIP process.
The project manager uses the scope of engagement developed in action step 1 to ensure that the stakeholder identification process is focused and relevant. For example, if resources for stakeholder engagement are limited, then the project manager should prioritize engagement of a few key stakeholders that represent the populations mentioned in the country commitment. If the scope describes that the public at-large will be engaged, then this will need to be reflected in the engagement plan. Also, whether the CIP is confined within the health sector or is a multi-sectoral effort will inform whether stakeholders from the non-health sector also need to be identified.

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Box 2 lists several types of stakeholders that are commonly involved in family planning. This list may serve as a good starting point for identifying your potential stakeholders (per question 6 under action step 1).

BOX 2 Selected Family Planning Stakeholders
Members of parliament

After the project manager works with the CIP task force, additional candidates can be identified through consultations, suggestions from other stakeholders, public calls for participation, and desk reviews conducted as part of the situational analysis.
Once all potential stakeholders have been identified, a stakeholder matrix should be created (Appendix 3). Contact information (i.e., name, address, e-mail, phone number) and reason for being included (i.e., has a stake in the CIP) should be recorded for each stakeholder in the matrix.
Questions to help identify appropriate stakeholders:
1. What individuals or groups have a stake or interest in the CIP? For example, what populations are mentioned in country commitments?
2. Who makes the decisions related to family planning issues in the country, and will approve the final CIP?

Central government Ministry of Health, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Education, Ministry of Planning, Ministry of Youth, Ministry of Gender
Sub-national government
Government health institutions Food and Drug Authorities, Central Medical Stores, Bureau of Statistics, Research Institutions
Development partners/donors
Not-for-profit sector Nongovernmental Organizations, Local Civil Society Groups
Private (for-profit) sector
Religious and legal councils
Professional associations Obstetrics and Gynecology Associations, Midwifery and Nurses Association, Pharmacist Associations
Pre-service/in-service training institutions
Providers, supervisors, facility managers

3. Who can influence decisions? For example, in some cases professional

Local community members/organizations (including vulnerable populations such as

associations serve as technical advisors to

young people)

the Ministry of Health and can substantially

influence technical decisions, such as those

involving task-shifting (e.g., who can provide which types of contraceptives).

4. Who (individuals and organizations) will potentially be affected by the outcomes?

5. Who contributes (or will potentially contribute) resources for CIP execution?

6. Who can slow or stop the project? For example, working with regulatory authorities to get policy approval or product registration can take a long time; however, engaging them from the outset may help them understand implications for accelerating the approval process.

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7. Who is excluded and may not have been considered? For example, have marginalized or vulnerable populations such as female sex workers or people living with HIV been considered?
8. Who is directly responsible for implementing the CIP?
9. Who has been involved in family planning issues in the past?

Task 2: Analyze stakeholders.
The purpose of a stakeholder analysis is to assess the importance of the key people, groups, and institutions that may influence the success of the CIP across all phases. The two main components of stakeholder analysis are gathering information about the stakeholders and creating a stakeholder map, which is a visual exercise to help you better understand stakeholder perspectives and their relevance to the CIP process. With this information, you will be able to prioritize (in action step 2, task 3) the stakeholders you choose to engage in the CIP process, considering available time and resources.
Gathering information about the stakeholders
The technical support team (TST) should collect information about each stakeholder’s area of affiliation, expertise, expectations, concerns, interests, and commitment level. This can be done during the kick-off meeting for CIP development or during the situational analysis, as part of initial stakeholder consultations. The TST should then work with the CIP task force to better understand the stakeholder’s perspectives and relevance to the CIP process. All of the information gathered can be added to the stakeholder matrix that you created in action step 2, task 1 (Appendix 3).
Questions the technical support team and CIP task force should discuss: 1. What is the stakeholder’s level of influence?
Level of influence refers to the stakeholder’s breadth of authority and influence (direct or indirect) to the success of the CIP, including positional authority, financial power, or persuasive power over decision-makers.
2. What is the extent of the stakeholder’s potential contributions? For example, does the stakeholder have information, expertise, or resources (current or potential) that will facilitate the development and execution of the CIP? What perspectives or experiences does the stakeholder bring to the conversation that are unique to his or her community?
3. What is the stakeholder’s commitment level? What is the organization’s role in executing the CIP? How committed is the organization’s leadership to executing the CIP? How will the change associated with the CIP affect the organization (i.e., increase transparency of budgets and expenditures, affect performance results, enhance coordination)?
Creating a stakeholder map
After detailed information is gathered about the stakeholders, the next task is to create a stakeholder map (Figure 2). This is a visual exercise and analysis tool to help determine the extent to which different stakeholders could be engaged in the CIP process, based on their level of influence and potential contributions.

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To create the stakeholder map, the TST should first classify each stakeholder as either high influence or low influence, and as either high contribution or low contribution. The stakeholders can then be placed into the appropriate quadrant (group) on the stakeholder map: A, B, C, or D. Those that fall into groups B, C, and D should be considered key stakeholders, as they have substantial influence, could make substantial contributions to the CIP process, or both.
Figure 2: Stakeholder Map
HIGH

D
High Influence/ Low Contribution

C
High Influence/ High Contribution

Level of influence

A
Low Influence/ Low Contribution

B
Low Influence/ High Contribution

LOW

Contribution

HIGH

Stakeholder groups
Group A (low influence, low contribution) The stakeholders in this group, with low influence and low importance to the CIP objectives, may require limited engagement and are of low priority. Examples might be the suppliers of commodities (pharmaceutical companies), mobile technology companies, and drug regulatory agencies.

Group B (low influence, high contribution) These stakeholders are of high importance to the success of the CIP, but have low influence. This implies that they will require special initiatives if their interests are to be protected. Because of their substantial contributions, they can help shape the implementation of the CIP and may therefore, in some circumstances, be valued more highly than stakeholders in Group C. Depending on the engagement objectives, examples from this group might be the private sector..

Group C (high influence, low contribution) These are stakeholders with high influence, who can therefore affect the outcomes of the CIP, but whose interests are not necessarily aligned with the overall goals of the plan. Depending on the engagement objectives, they might be professional associations, research institutions, and members of parliament.

Group D (high influence, high contribution) These stakeholders appear to have a high degree of influence on the CIP and are of high importance to its success. Therefore, the technical support team will need to create good working relationships with these stakeholders, to ensure an effective coalition of support for the CIP. Depending on the engagement objectives, examples from this group of stakeholders might be senior ministry officials, development or implementing partners, including civil society organizations, and some donors.

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Stakeholder Engagement for Family Planning Costed