Introduction To Lathe (safety, Parts & Operation)

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This material was produced under Susan Harwood grant number SH-31214-SH7 Occupational Safety and Health Administration, U.S. Department of Labor. The contents in this presentation do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the U.S. Department of Labor, nor does the mention of trade names, commercial products, or organizations imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.





2 WHO IS OSHA With the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, Congress created the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) to assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training,

Explain who OSHA is and its role in ensuring safe and healthful working conditions

outreach, education and assistance.

ORGANIZATION OSHA is part of the United States Department of Labor. The administrator for OSHA is the Assistant Secretary of Labor for Occupational Safety and Health. OSHA's administrator answers to the Secretary of Labor, who is a member of the cabinet of the President of the United States.

3 KNOW YOUR RIGHTS Under federal law, you are entitled to a safe workplace. Your employer must provide a workplace free of known health and safety hazards. If you have concerns, you have the right to speak up about them without fear of retaliation. You also have the right to: ● Be trained in a language you understand ● Work on machines that are safe ● Be provided required safety gear, such as gloves or a harness and lifeline for falls ● Be protected from toxic chemicals ● Request an OSHA inspection, and speak to the inspector ● Report an injury or illness, and get copies of your medical records ● See copies of the workplace injury and

Read the rights to the trainees and point them to the posters available around the workplace where they can refer to for more information. Extra resources can be found at rkers/index.html

illness log ● Review records of work-related
injuries and illnesses ● Get copies of test results done to find
hazards in the workplace 4 INTRODUCTION TO LATHE
A means of shielding employees from moving or flying parts and preventing them from accidentally coming into contact with moving pieces of equipment
6 MACHINE-RELATED INJURIES Possible machinery-related injuries include: ● Crushed fingers or hands ● Amputations ● Burns ● Blindness A good rule to remember is: Any machine part, function, or process which may cause injury must be safeguarded

Many accidents result from persons working on, or around, moving machinery. These accidents could have been prevented by the installation and proper maintenance of guarding. The goal of this training is to make the guarding of all equipment as easily understood as possible and re-inforce the safe working procedures that must always be in place around dangerous equipment.
This list of accidents is as long as it is horrifying.
Safeguards are essential for protecting workers from needless and preventable injuries. Where the operation of a machine can injure the operator or other workers, the hazard must be controlled or eliminated.

7 MACHINERY ACCIDENTS Examples of how machine accidents can occur: Hazardous conditions Missing or loose machine guards Human actions Reaching-in to “clear” equipment Unauthorized persons doing maintenance or using the machines
8 BASIC MACHINERY PARTS AND HAZARDS Three fundamental machine areas: ● Point of operation ● Power transmission device ● Other moving parts – Operating controls such as mechanical or electric power control

National Emphasis Program on Amputations*. CPL 03-00-019, (August 13, 2015). Describes policies and procedures for implementing a National Emphasis Program (NEP) to identify and to reduce workplace machinery and equipment hazards which are causing or likely to cause amputations. Resource: e/outreach/construction_g eneralindustry/gi_outreac h_tp.html
“All machines consist of three fundamental areas: the point of operation, the power transmission device, and the operating controls. Despite all machines having the same basic components, their safeguarding needs widely

9 HAZARD TYPES (4 slides) ● Point of Operation ● Nip Points and Rotating Parts ● Flying Chips

differ due to varying physical characteristics and operator involvement” (OSHA 2007).
OSHA Machine Guarding eTool C/etools/machineguarding /intro.html
These hazards exist on the Lathe and they need to be guarded.
Explain that the Point of Operation is where the work is being done on the machine. In this case it is where the cutting tool contacts the work material.
The primary hazards of lathes are contact with rotating parts and contact at the point of operation. An operator can be pulled into the lathe from working too close, or wearing gloves, loose clothing, loose hair, or jewelry. Trapping spaces are also created between the cutting tool, its mounting, and the workpiece or chuck. Projected parts or material such as chuck keys, unsecured workpieces, flying chips and coolant also strike or present hazards to the operator.
Any user needs to have taken the in person Lathe

● Do not remove any guards, or other

Introduction session to use


the machine.

● Always use the flip down clear guard

If the Emergency Stop

to protect against flying chips or work

switch is engaged, pull it


out to reset it.

● Make sure that that spindle nose

If a measurement needs to

cover is on the machine when a chuck

be made or a tool needs to

is not in use. This protects operators

be changed turn the

from point of operation contact.

spindle off.

● Make sure to always put the collet

Do not reach in while the

closer guard down before starting the

cutting tool is rotating.

lathe. This protects the users from

If the lathe is

rotational hazards.

malfunctioning or

● Do not operate the lathe unless you

something isn’t working

are trained and authorized to operate

right let one of the shop

the machine

staff know.

● Move the carriage back to a safe

distance when loading or unloading

parts and measuring the work.

● If performing service and maintenance

activities follow lock out tag out



Anyone operating the

● Be sure the work and holding

lathe must make sure that

device are firmly attached

their work piece and

● Turn spindle by hand using the

holding devices are

hand wheel, with lathe turned

securely mounted to the

OFF, to be sure there is no danger


of striking any part of the lathe

It is a good idea to

manually rotate the

Replace picture spindle of the lathe to

with one that has make sure that the work

the spindle nose piece or holding device

cover on it

does not strike anything on

the lathe, especially for

large work pieces.


Do not leave tools on the

● Keep machine clear of tools. Tools

ways of apron of the

must not be placed on the ways of

machine the can get struck

the lathe

by the work piece or

● Stop lathe before making any

holding device.

measurements, adjustments, or


Never reach in towards the

● Support all work solidly. Do not

Point of Operation while

permit small diameter work to

the spindle is turning.

project too far from chuck (not

over 3X the work's diameter) without support
14 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS III ● If work must be repositioned or removed from the lathe. Move cutting tool clear of work to prevent any accidental injuries ● You should always be aware of direction of travel and speed of carriage before you engage automatic feed

Work pieces that need to extend more than 3 X the diameter need to be supported so that the piece will not have the chance to whip around while the work is being performed. Users always need to make sure that they move cutting tools and attachments out of the way before moving their work pieces so that they remove the risk of accidental cuts or injury.
When using the power feed on the machine users must always know which way the machine will travel so that injury or machine crashes do not occur.


Lathe chips may not seem

● Chips are sharp. Do not attempt to

dangerous, but they are

remove them with your hand

sharp and can cause cuts.

when they become “stringy” and

Chips can also be hot so do

build up on tool post or work

not attempt to catch the

piece. Stop machine and remove

chips while cutting. Do not

them with pliers

allow chips to run through

hands or fingers while the

machine is running.

Replace picture with one that has the spindle nose cover on it.

Serious injury can result. Long stringy chips are also dangerous. If these occur shut off the power feed and the spindle and

remove them with pliers.


If the lathe starts making

● Stop lathe immediately if any odd

odd noises or vibrating

noise or vibration develops. If you

stop the machine and let

cannot locate source of the

one of the shop staff

trouble, get help from instructor.

members know.

Under no circumstance should the

lathe be operated until the problem has been corrected ● Remove sharp edges and burrs from work before removing it from the lathe
17 PROTECT YOURSELF WITH PPE ● Always wear safety glasses ● Always wear closed toe shoes that protect the top of your foot ● Do not wear any rings or dangling jewelry ● Long hair needs to be tied up or put into a bun
David Wilkinson was a U.S. mechanical engineer who invented a lathe for cutting screw threads, which was extremely important in the development of the machine tool industry in the early 19th century.
20 In 1794, Wilkinson designed a screwcutting lathe with a slide rest on which he obtained a patent in 1798. It is not known how many of these lathes Wilkinson produced in his own plant, but in 1848 a Senate Committee found that there were more than 200 such lathes in use in government workshops alone.
21 WHAT IT DOES The lathe is a machine tool used principally for shaping pieces of metal (and sometimes wood or other materials) by causing the workpiece to be held and rotated by the lathe while a tool bit is advanced into the work causing the cutting action.

Sharp edges and burrs can cause cuts always be sure to remove them.
Personal Protective Equipment may be a bit uncomfortable or bulky, but needs to be worn to protect the user.
The basic lathe that was designed to cut cylindrical metal stock has been developed further to produce screw threads, tapered work, drilled holes, knurled surfaces, and crankshafts.

23 IMPORTANT PARTS Digital Readout Description On/Off Speed Control Description Tool Post Description Compound Description Tail Stock Description Power Feed Control Description Collet Storage Cabinet Description Power Feed Levers Description Carriage Handwheel Description Threading Handle High Low Description Spindle Forward Reverse Description Head Stock Description Spindle Description Bed Description Threading Lever Description
24 INTRODUCTION TO LATHE (Safe Machine Operations)

Show respective parts to trainees. Refer to larger picture at the end of the training packet.

25 SAFE MACHINE OPERATIONS 1 Squaring Aloris tool post to spindle face
26 SAFE MACHINE OPERATIONS 2 Selecting and preparing to load a 5C collet

Some lathe operations require the lathe tool to be perpendicular to the centerline of the spindle. To accomplish this have the trainees Loosen the nut on top of the Aloris tool post Remove spindle nose cover. Bring the carriage forward until the Aloris tool post lightly contacts the spindle face. Make sure that the Aloris tool post completely contacts the spindle face. Tighten the nut on top of the Aloris tool post. Replace spindle nose cover. The collets for the lathe are graduated in 1/64” increments. Measure the work piece you will working on and select the collet size that will best fit the work piece. Explain that the keyway that is on the threaded end of the collet is going to have to line up with the key of the machine. The keyway that is inside the spindle nose lines up with the keyway that is on the outside of the spindle nose and can be used as reference when lining the collet keyway up with the spindle keyway.


Lift the Collet closer guard

that is at the left hand side

Inserting the 5C lathe collet into spindle

of the machine.

Show the trainees how to

turn the brake off so that

the spindle can be rotated

by hand.

Turn spindle hand wheel at

the back of the Head Stock

Take a picture of only the lathe spindle with the spindle nose cover on it.

by hand until its keyway is at the 12 o’clock position. The external keyway and internal key of the spindle are in the same orientation.

Threading the draw tube onto the collet end

Push collet closer lever yolk all the way to the right.
Insert the collet into the spindle nose with the keyway facing up.

Place right hand over collet and exert light pressure onto face of collet and turn shell guard clockwise to start threading collet into draw tube.

29 SAFE MACHINE OPERATIONS 5 Adjusting collet to workpiece size

The collet will need to be adjusted so that it has a preload and will clamp onto the work piece. To do this push the collet closer lever to the left and turn the collet shell guard until you feel slight resistance on the shell guard. This will indicate that the collet has made contact with the work piece. Stop turning the shell guard when you feel the resistance.

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Introduction To Lathe (safety, Parts & Operation)