State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process

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State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Development in Thermal Manufacturing

State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Advanced technologies have the potential to improve the efficiency, productivity, and global competitiveness of a wide range of thermal manufacturing processes (e.g., drying, curing and forming, and heat treating) and various end-use industries (e.g., automotive and computer and electronic products). However, previous efforts to identify and pursue these technology advances have been done in isolation, rather than through collaboration across key stakeholders. Roadmaps were developed independently from one another by the different industries that rely on or supply thermal equipment and processes.

While much work to date has been conducted in isolation, a number of key technologies and process improvement areas cross-cut the different industries and processes that comprise the broad thermal manufacturing community. This state-of-the-art review aims to develop a foundation of the needs and opportunities for advanced thermal manufacturing technologies across relevant industries and involving all key stakeholders. To develop this overview, we reviewed previous industry roadmaps and pulled key needs and opportunities in thermal manufacturing, interviewed 20 experts in the thermal manufacturing community, and searched the websites of relevant organizations to provide an overview of recent or current work related to thermal manufacturing (see Bibliography for list of interviewees, roadmaps and documents, and organization websites).

The current needs and opportunities as well as the recent and current work being conducted in this

area are categorized by the following high-level technology and process areas:

• Modeling and Simulation

• Energy and Emissions Reduction

• Sensors

• Automation and Robotics

• Heat Generation Methods

• Advanced Materials

• Process Intensification

While each of these areas provides value alone, advancing and implementing multiple technologies in parallel will have the maximum impact. Needs and opportunities as well as current and recent work have been categorized based on the technology and process area of most relevance; in most cases, one technology and process area enables or is dependent on another area of work (e.g., improved sensors could enable more advanced automation and facilitate improved data collection for modeling and simulation).


State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Modeling and Simulation
The increased use of modeling and simulation can help optimize manufacturing processes and products and save money by reducing trial and error approaches in materials and process development.
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
• Improved decision-making tools • More accurate models validated with real
operating data • Improved user friendliness of models that are Figure 1: Simulation of a thermal distribution
adaptable for different processes • More comprehensive and accurate materials
properties and process databases • Increased accessibility and affordability of data • Improved computational speed that is consistent with data processing speed needs • Advanced models that integrate all relevant characteristics that impact process optimization and
product quality
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for modeling and simulation in thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a selective literature review.
Table 1: Current State of Modeling and Simulation in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
General Modeling Needs • Educate industry to better understand the economic value of modeling software and increase their willingness to buy software licenses • Demonstrations of user-friendly modeling software packages (e.g., with auto-meshing capabilities) for non-experts • Increased communication between modelers and producers/processers • Through-process modeling that relates all processes in the manufacture of a product • Modeling software that includes thermal efficiencies • Simulation software coupled with macroscale modeling software (finite element/difference) for property and microstructure prediction • Life-cycle analysis models that relate structural properties to manufacturing processes to determine effectiveness of varying thermal manufacturing processes • Process models that help generate material/microstructure specifications based on userentered application-specific criteria (e.g., wear, forces, corrosion)
Data Needs • Universal interface for exporting data • Mechanical, thermal, and metallurgical data (e.g., thermal strains and transformation kinetics) as a function of time and temperature • Consistent data for mold filling

State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
• Steel transformation data and thermal strain information (e.g., heat treat with quench simulations)
• Diffusion data for specific alloys • Stress-strain database as a function of phase, temperature, and strain rate • Understanding of aluminum rheology, including liquid and plastic deformation characteristics • Data to better understand intergranular oxidation concerns of carburization in protective
Cast/Solidification Models • Integration of CALPHAD in solidification codes • Adequate models of turbulence in the casting process • Ability to predict micro-structure as a function of composition and processing • North American solidification models that account for centerline segregation and microsegregation • Comprehensive heat transfer, fluid flow, and solidification models to define the thermal conditions in the growing shell and rotating roll and to enable in situ compensation or correction for roll distortions • Advanced heat transfer and fluid flow models that include the free surface of liquid/liquid boundaries; slag emulsification; cast surface shape and position; inclusions or bubble distribution; and segregation patterns
Heat Treatment Modeling • Full-load heat treat simulations to design the furnace process for optimal load density • Computational fluid dynamics analysis for high-pressure gas quenching systems that includes phase changes • Thermochemical models of atmosphere-material interactions during carburizing and nitriding, • Model for volumetric strains resulting from transformations during heating and cooling • Heat-transfer coefficient database based on time-temperature data and scaling rules • Computational fluid dynamics modeling of quench baths to predict flow patterns and cooling rates in loaded baths
Electromagnetic Modeling • Methods to analyze 3-D problems in time frames that can be useful for individual runs • Temperature-dependent electromagnetic material properties database
Phase/Precipitation Modeling • Martensitic transformation modeling • Temper kinetics of martensite modeling • Modeling athermal transformation of retained austenite fraction in steel alloys • Precipitation kinetics in micro-alloyed steel
Process Efficiency/Energy Modeling • Modeling of thermal gradients in furnaces to optimize furnace design • Modeling to design process flow path to meet final customer product requirements • Predictive software that process implementers can use to compare and select thermal manufacturing equipment from different suppliers • Coupled heat and mass transfer models to allow prediction of the effect of ladle metallurgy on chemistry and inclusion control • A ladle model that would include heat transfer with the container and the slag, reaction between the steel and the slag, reheating, degassing, and refining

State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
• Model that combines flow modeling and finite element thermal analysis to predict the location and rate of accretion in refractory materials
• Modeling of the electric arc furnace process with variable air infiltration, flexible charges, and variable degrees of post-combustion to benchmark the optimum process and improve design
• Plant layouts modeled with infrared imaging to develop more efficient plant process flow and better energy management
Recent or Current Work
General Modeling Needs • CALPHAD thermal expansion database (National Institute of Standards and Technology) • Integrated manufacturing process simulation framework that enhances understanding of what occurs as AA6111-T4 aluminum alloy sheets undergo shearing or trimming in preparation for the subsequent forming process (Ford Motor Company and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) • Method for predicting the stability and elasticity of certain alloys for millions of atomic configurations of the materials to help identify materials with optimized properties for an application (Hamburg University of Technology) • Models for density and viscosity of crude oil and natural gas at high temperatures and high pressures (National Energy Technology Laboratory) • Analytical and numerical models of specific top down and bottom up nanofabrication techniques and processes, as well as models and simulations of their associated metrology challenges (National Institute of Standards and Technology) • Reference Architecture (RA) and Solution Stack (SS) for smart manufacturing systems to enable easy composition of solutions for the large, evolving, and heterogeneous systems in factories and production networks (National Institute of Standards and Technology) • Measurement data and techniques to allow for accurate assessment of the thermal properties of insulating materials, including insulation meant for applications up to 250°C, microporous insulation, and phase-change materials (National Institute of Standards and Technology) • Model to improve control of sheet reheating that considers temperature-dependent properties, sheet color, and operating conditions (McGill University)
Data Needs • Energy landscape of glass that maps all possible energy positions of glass molecules to improve manipulation of properties and better control of glass aging (Duke University)
Cast/Solidification Models • Composite element test modeling for the repair of commercial single crystal nickel-based superalloys to define processing parameters and the correlation between solidification conditions and microstructure (University of Birmingham) • Electronic database for rapid selection of aluminum die casting alloys (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) • Telluride Code Project: models and optimizes the gravity-pour casting processes which are currently ongoing at LANL foundries (Los Alamos National Laboratory) • Use of high-energy protons to nondestructively image a large metal sample during melting and solidification (Los Alamos National Laboratory) • Experimental methodology/apparatus to quantitatively measure and characterize hot tearing in aluminum cast alloys (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) • Castability control in metal casting via fluidity measures (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Heat Treatment Modeling • Predicting the response of aluminum casting alloys to heat treatment (Worcester Polytechnic Institute) • Tools for prediction/control of distortion and residual stresses in heat treated components (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)
Electromagnetic Modeling • Electromagnetic and thermal-stress modeling of induction scan hardening (DANTE)
Phase/Precipitation Modeling • Using CALPHAD to increase understanding of multicomponent systems (e.g., phase changes, heating rates) (National Institute of Standards and Technology) • Phase-field modeling of microstructure evolution during processing of cold-rolled dual-phase steels (RWTH Aachen) • Alpha phase precipitation from phase-separated beta phase in a model Ti-Mo-Al alloy studied by direct coupling of transmission (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) • Data repositories for use with CALPHAD so relevant low-order (unary, binary, and ternary) systems can be re-assessed efficiently to develop new multicomponent descriptions (National Institute of Standards and Technology)
Process Efficiency/Energy Modeling • Integration of Advanced Combustion GmbH’s Representative Interactive Flamelet mode with CONVERGE computational fluid dynamics software to model ignition, combustion, and emissions within a diffusion flame (Convergent Science) • Publicly available combustion chemistry models for alternative fuels that are more sophisticated and detailed than commercially available computational fluid dynamics models (Argonne National Laboratory) • Computer models based on Front-Tracking and Lattice-Boltzmann (LBM) techniques for direct numerical simulation of an internal combustion engine spray in the near-injector region (Argonne National Laboratory) • Simulations and validation of two-phase flow experiments and the largest unstructured Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of combustors (CERFACS) • Diagnostic capability that provides three-dimensional measurements of turbulent flame dynamics using high-repetition rate tomographic particle image velocimetry (Sandia National Laboratory)

State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing

Improved sensor technologies can enable more accurate measuring, monitoring, and control of the high-temperature and corrosive operating environments of thermal manufacturing and can improve the quality and reliability of products.

Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing

• Low-cost, real-time, non-intrusive sensors

capable of measuring, controlling, and

monitoring multi-element emissions from the

combustion system, process operation (e.g.,

temperature and atmospheric composition

and pressure), and the physical properties of

equipment and the product being heated

• Smart systems that can detect and diagnose product quality problems, predict process

Figure 2: Optical sensor

requirements and changes, signal

maintenance activities based on operating

conditions, and automatically adjust process variables for optimization

The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for sensors in thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a selective literature review.

Table 2: Current State of Sensors in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities

General Process Control Sensors • Advanced microelectromechanical systems for embedded microsensors • Improved understanding of the maintenance needs of sensors to ensure more accurate data • Smart sensors that indicate in real time when they are not performing as designed and have the ability to self-calibrate • Reliable basic oxygen furnace sensors to detect lance-to-steel bath distance and provide realtime feedback to improve the consistency of the process reaction path
Physical Property Sensors • Real-time case-carbon quenching sensors to quantify heat transfer process variability • Ultrasonic inclusion sensors or continuous-monitoring sensors to assist molten metal and glass analysis • Increased use of non-contact laser ultrasonics to monitor the recrystallization of continuously cast strip prior to coiling • Sensor to determine whether a part’s surface is clean enough to be correctly carburized • In-line, real-time, operator-friendly, continuous non-contact sensor and method to identify and separate scrap • A more sophisticated probe that addresses surface finish and geometry issues for quenching


State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Gas/Electrochemical/Galvanic sensors • Sensors to measure amount of carbon in the process atmosphere for carburizing and nitriding • Laser-based immersion probe system that provides elemental analysis within a minute • Oxygen sensors with improved resistance to carbon deposits
Temperature/Infrared Sensors • Better low-cost methods for measuring internal moisture and temperature in parts • Measurement devices that can provide a 3-D thermal profile of the combustion space as well as the thermal velocity • Sensors that can detect flame instability • Hardware capable of making in-process temperature measurements to enable real-time fabrication of glass containers and tableware • Improved understanding of glass composition effects on physical properties (e.g., as the Fe2O3 content in the glass changes, so does the emissivity) to improve the capacity for infrared sensors to detect temperature
Force/Stress/Strain Measurement Sensors • Incipient crack sensors • Nondestructive method to detect residual stress • Crack detection in unfinished parts
Recent or Current Work
General Process Control Sensors • Wireless sensors that form a network with one or more sensor interrogators, data concentrators, or processing nodes, and communicate the information generated by the sensors with a central operator or automated monitor (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) • Calibration methodology to address error readings due to sensor degradations (Argonne National Laboratory, Case Western University) • Microelectromechanical systems fabricated from silicon and other materials to sense and react to environmental changes (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) • In-line fluid analysis technology that provides real-time analysis data that indicates the condition of oils or other lubricants and detects contamination and metal wear content (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) • Semiconductor fabrication lines coupled with radio frequency interrogators and product identification tags to record processing steps for each wafer in a central database (Texas Instruments) • Integrated methodology and protocols to enable, assess, and assure the real-time performance of secure wireless platforms in smart manufacturing systems (National Institute of Standards and Technology) • Three-dimensional silicon sensors in which the n- and p-type electrodes penetrate through the entire substrate (SINTEF and Stanford Nanofabrication Facility) • Technique to produce machines made of elastic materials and liquid metals by embedding a liquid-alloy pattern inside a rubber-like polymer to form a network of sensors to mimic the functionality of human skin (Purdue University)
Physical Property Sensors • Method to monitor curing or cross-linking of adhesives and polymers to ensure proper processing (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
• Integrated Micron-sized subwavelength structured photonic sensors that monitor critical thermomechanical phenomena (University of Illinois)
• Ultrasonic sensor that characterizes a fiber suspension to determine the degree of refining, making the refining process more efficient (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
• Rapid, non-destructive method to measure hardening depth and gradient of treated steel parts (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)
• Microsensors designed and fabricated in the type of surface mount components (e.g., resistors and capacitors) and soldered directly onto networks for corrosion assessment of copper, aluminum, and wire-bonded chips (Sandia National Laboratories)
Gas/Electrochemical/Galvanic sensors • Stand-alone, self-calibrating, high-temperature flue gas sensor capable of detecting nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, hydrogen sulfide, methane, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, hydrogen chloride, ammonia, phosphine, toluene, and mercaptons (Georgia Institute of Technology) • Process monitor featuring Raman and Coriolis/conductivity instrumentation configured for remote monitoring, MATLAB-based chemometric data processing, and comprehensive software for data acquisition/storage/archiving/display (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) • Method for amplifying signals in graphene oxide-based electrochemical sensors through a process called “magneto-electrochemical immunoassay” (Northwestern University) • “Batteryless” nanosensor that can identify different chemical species in less than a second (Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory) • Improved accuracy and durability of co-fired ceramic sensor elements and other ceramic components, for use in nitrogen oxides and particulate matter sensors (EmiSense Technologies LLC) • Multifunctional chemical vapor sensors of aligned carbon nanotube and polymer composites (University of Dayton and Air Force Research Laboratory) • Porous silicon-based conductometric gas sensor with a resistance of around 40 ohms that detects gaseous hydrogen chloride, ammonia, nitrogen oxide, and organic materials at concentrations of 10–100 parts per million (ppm) (Georgia Institute of Technology) • Multifunctional metal oxide/perovskite-based in situ composite nanosensors for industrial and combustion gas detection at high temperature (700°C –1,300°C) (National Energy Technology Laboratory) • Sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline silicon filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases (Sandia National Laboratory, University of Utah, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and University of New Mexico) • Low-cost, high-sensitivity, wide-range oxygen sensor with a diffusion barrier, electrolyte material, and counter-electrode (Georgia Tech) • BTU4400-NOx: portable flue-gas analyzer designed for emissions monitoring and maintenance as well as tuning of combustion processes (E Instruments International)
Temperature/Infrared Sensors • Improved accuracy of infrared devices in measuring skin temperatures on furnace coils by studying emissivity of typical furnace coils (BASF) • Active Millimeter Wave Pyrometer to determine the spatial distribution of the surface temperature of an object using non-contact methods (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing • Temperature sensor with an outer wall of a conventional oxidization-resistant nickel alloy and an inner wall of a different nickel alloy that prevents contamination and can reduce drift by 80%–90% at 1,200°C –1,300°C (University of Cambridge)
Force/Stress/Strain Measurement Sensors • Non-destructive ultrasonic method to detect stresses and damage not visually identifiable (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) • Miniaturized fiber-optical sensor system that can be fully embedded in a composite material and automatically monitor its structural health (Ghent University, imec, and SMARTFIBER) • Micro-bead melt sensor that indicates the imposed strains of temperature and radial force strain as melt density “K” electro-motive force (emf) readout (Society of Plastics Engineers) • System to monitor the effects of use-loading on structural members and detect failure precursors (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process Developments in Thermal Manufacturing
Heat Generation Methods
Due to the inherent energy-intensiveness of thermal manufacturing, there is a continuous need for more cost-effective, energy-efficient, and cleaner combustion methods with improved heat transfer.
Key Opportunities in Thermal Manufacturing
• Improved indirect heating methods (i.e., heat must be transferred from the heat source to the product via conduction, convection, or radiation)
• Hybrid combustion methods that combine existing methods or couple a new method with an existing method to increase efficiency Figure 3: Open gas burner
• Alternative fuels with increased energy flexibility
• Advanced combustion methods with increased stabilization • Reduced cost and improved purity of on-site oxygen production for oxy-fuel firing, including
The following table outlines some of the current needs and opportunities for combustion methods in thermal manufacturing and the recent and current work being conducted in this area based on a selective literature review.
Table 3: Current State of Combustion Methods in Thermal Manufacturing
Needs and Opportunities
General • Increased use of oxygen/natural gas combustion process in glass furnaces • Lower-cost technologies that can simultaneously reduce nitrogen oxides to low levels and achieve high thermal efficiency • State-of-the-art combustion laboratories to validate computational fluid dynamics models • Computational tools that contain validated, high-fidelity combustion models • Method of direct heating that eliminates scale on metals • Advanced boiler and combustion cycles (e.g., pressurized combustion systems, turbocharged combinations) with minimum operating conditions of 1,500 psi, 1,500°F, and 3:1 pressure ratio • Combustion equipment for low heat-value fuels (e.g., waste fuels) • Increased use of waste heat boilers that transfer heat from the byproducts of production to high-pressure steam for plant use or conversion into electricity • Rapid-cycle regenerative systems • Materials and designs that can withstand dirty, contaminated, unpredictable combustion flue gases • Use of exhaust heat for absorption cooling

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State of Advanced Manufacturing Technology and Process