Chapter Aldehydes, Ketones And Carboxylic Acids


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CLASS XII
CHAPTER – ALDEHYDES , KETONES AND CARBOXYLIC ACIDS

ONE MARK QUESTIONS

1. Write short notes on the following:

(1 x 6 = 6)

a. Clemmensen reduction b. Aldol Condensation(2008) c. Rosenmund reduction (2011)

d. Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky e. Cannizzaro reaction

f. Cross Aldol Condensation reaction(2014)

2. Give the structure of the following: ( 1 x 5 = 5)

a. Hex-2-en-4-ynoic acid

b. 3-hydroxy butanal

c. p-Nitropropiophenone

d. 3-Bromo-4-phenylpentanoic acid

e. 3-Methylcyclohexane carbaldehyde

TWO MARK QUESTIONS
1. Explain the following mechanisms: a) Nucleophilic attack on a carbonyl group of an aldehyde or a ketone. b) Nucleophilic addition of Grignard reagent on a carbonyl group of an aldehyde or a ketone.

THREE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Distinguish the following: a) Formic acid and Acetic acid c) Benzaldehyde and ethanal
2. Give the structure of the following: a) Hex-2-en-4-ynoic acid c) p-Nitropropiophenone

b) Phenol and benzoic acid(2014) d) Benzaldehyde and acetophenone(2010)
b) 2,3- dimethylcyclopentane carbaldehyde

FIVE MARK QUESTIONS
1. Arrange the following in the increasing order of the property given as indicated: a) Acetaldehyde, acetone, Di-ter-butylketone, methyl-ter-butylketone (Reactivity towards HCl)

b) 2-Bromobutanoic acid, 3-bromobutanoic acid, 2-methypropanoic acid, butanoic acid (Acid strength)
c) CH3CHO, CH3CH2OH, CH3OCH3, CH3CH2CH3 (Boiling point) d) Ethanal, Propanal, Propanone, Butanone (Nucleophilic addition) e) Benzoic acid , 4- nitrobenzoic acid , 3,4- dinitrobenzoic acid , 4- methoxybenzoic acid
(acid strength)

2. Effect the following conversions:

a. Propanone to propene

b. Propanal to 2-butanone

c. Ethanol to 3-hydroxy butanal

d. Benzaldehyde to 2-hydroxyphenyl aceticacid.

e. Acetaldehyde to isopropyl alcohol

3. Account for the following: a) Carboxylic acids do not give reactions of carbonyl group .(2014) b) Aldehydes are more reactive to nucleophilic addition than ketones.(2008) c) Carboxylic acids have higher boiling points than aldehyde, ketones and even alcohols of comparable molecular mass.(2008) d) Chloroacetic acid is stronger than acetic acid.(2014) e) There is two –NH2 groups in semicarbazide , however only one is involved in the formation of semicarbazone.

4.

a) An organic compound A contains 69.77% carbon, 11.63% hydrogen and rest

oxygen. The molecular mass of the compound is 86. It does not reduce Tollens’

reagent but forms an addition compound with sodium hydrogen sulphite and give

positiveiodoform test. On vigorous oxidation it gives ethanoic and propanoic acid.

Write the possible structure of the compound A.

b) Write the chemical tests to distinguish between the following pairs of compounds:

i. Acetophenone and Benzophenone

ii. Ethanol and Propanal

(2008)

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Chapter Aldehydes,  Ketones And Carboxylic Acids