Cash Book, Pass Book, Bank Reconciliation Statement


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LESSON 14:
CASH BOOK, PASS BOOK, BANK RECONCILIATION STATEMENT
Dr. Jyotsna Sethi, Rekha Rani
STRUCTURE
14.1 Introduction 14.2 Objectives 14.3 Cash Book 14.4 Types of Cash Book
14.4.1 Simple Cash Book 14.4.2 Two Column Cash Book 14.4.3 Three Column Cash Book 14.5 Petty Cash Book. 14.5.1. Imprest System of Petty Cash Book. 14.5.2 Advantages of Petty Cash Book 14.6 Pass Book 14.7. Bank Reconciliation Statement 14.7.1 Meaning 14.7.2. Causes for difference between Cash Book Balance and Pass
Book Balance. 14.7.3. Need and importance of Bank Reconciliation Statement 14.7.4 Procedure for preparation of Bank Reconciliation Statement. 14.8. Summary 14.9. Glossary 14.10. Self Assessment Questions 14.11. Answer to check your progress 14.12. Further Readings
14.1. INTRODUCTION
Every entrepreneur should have knowledge of cash book and pass book as from these books, he may check how much balance is available to him for meeting his expenses and liabilities and what are the details of receipts and payments of a particular period. With the details of payments it can be checked that whether the payments are of reasonable amount or not. If the expanses are unreasonably high he may take steps to control them. An
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entrepreneur who regularly checks his cash and bank balances would never face problems like dishonor of cheques or cash crisis etc. Entrepreneur, who doesn’t distinguish between his revenue and profits, may spend all his receipts for his personal purposes subsequently resulting in deficiency of cash for business purposes and lead to cash crisis.
14.2. OBJECTIVES
After going through this lesson you should be able to Explain the meaning of Cash Book, Pass Book, and Petty Cash Book. Discuss the types of cash book. Enter the transactions in Cash Book. Explain the meaning, need and importance of bank reconciliation statement. Discuss the causes for difference between the balances of Pass Book and Cash Book. Prepare bank reconciliation statement.
14.3 CASH BOOK
In business most of the transactions relate to receipt of cash, payments of cash, sale of goods and purchase of goods. So it is convenient to have separate books for each such class of transaction, one for receipts and payments of cash, one for purchase of goods and one for sale of goods. These books are called subsidiary books. Cash book is a subsidiary book which records the receipts and payment of cash. With the help of cash book cash and bank balance can be checked at my point of time.
(Ref.: T.S. Grewal, “Double Entry Book Keeping”)
14.4. TYPES OF CASH BOOK
Cash book can be of four types: 1. Simple Cash Book. 2. Two column cash book. 3. Three column cash book. 4. Petty cash book
14.4.1 SIMPLE CASH BOOK
A simple cash book is prepared like any ordinary account. The receipts are recorded in the Dr Side and the payments are recorded in the Cr side of the cash book. The specimen Performa of a simple cash book is given as follows:
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Simple Cash Book

Dr.

Receipts

Date Particulars Amt.

Rs.

Payments

Cr.

Date Particulars Amt

Rs.

Balancing the Cash Book
The Cash book is balanced like any other account. The receipts column total will be more than the payments column total. The difference will be written on the Cr. Side as “By Bal c/d”.

Example 1

Enter the following transactions in a simple cash Book.

2006

Rs.

Jan 1

Cash in hand

12,000

Jan 5

Received from Ram

3,000

Jan 7

Paid Rent t

300

Jan 8

Sold goods

7000

Jan 10

Paid Shyam

2000

Dr. Date 2006 Jan 1 Jan 5 Jan 8

Receipts Particulars
To Bal b/d To Ram To Sales

Simple Cash Book

Amt. Rs. 12,000 3,000 7,000 22,000

Date 2006 Jan 7 Jan 10 Jan 31

Payments Particulars
By Rent By Shyam By Bal C/d

Cr. Amt Rs. 300 2,000 17,000 22,000

Check your progress Activity I Find out the monthly expenses and incomes of your family and prepare a cash book for a particular month. ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………
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………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

Q 1. Enter the following transactions in the simple cash book.

2005

Dec 1.

Cash in Hand

Dec 2

Received from Ramesh

Dec 3

Purchased Furniture

Dec 4

Machinery Sold

Dec 5

Goods sold

Dec 6

Salaries paid

Rs. 10,000 13,000 15,000 10,000 20,000 1,000

………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

14.4.2. TWO COLUMN CASH BOOK
A two – column cash back records discount allowed and discount received along with the cash payments and cash receipts.
Discount allowed is the concession given by the businessman to its customers or debtors e.g. if a debtor has to pay Rs. 10,000 and he is allowed 10% discount, now he will pay only Rs. 9000 to the firm. This is called discount allowed, it is a type of loss for the business so it is to be debited and recorded in Dr. Side of the cash book. Discount received is the concession received by the business man from the creditors. e.g. if a firm has to pay Rs. 50,000 to its creditors and discount received is 20% then the firm has to pay only Rs. 40,000 to the creditor. This is called discount received, it is a gain or profit for the firm so it is to be credited and recorded in the Cr. side of the cash book the specimen Performa of a two column cash Book is given as under –

Two column Cash Book

Dr

Receipts

Payments

Cr

Date Particulars Amount Amount Date Particular Amt. Amt.

Dis.

Cash

Dis. Cash

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Note: Discount columns are not balanced they are merely totaled.

Example 2: Enter the following transactions in a two column ash Book.

2005 Jan 1 Jan 5 Jan 5 Jan 6 Jan 10 Jan 10 Jan 11 Jan 12
Jan 13 Jan 14

Cash in hand Paid to Ram Discount allowed by him Purchased goods Received from R. Gupta Discount allowed Sold goods Paid to S. Sharma Discount received Rs. 50 Paid wages Paid to Naresh in full settlement of his Account which shows a Cr. Balance of Rs. 4000

Rs. 15,000
3,000 100
4,000 9,800
200 4,000 2,950
50 500
3900

Dr
Date 2005
Jan 1 Jan 10 Jan 11

Two Column Cash Book

Receipts

Payments

Particulars Amt Amt

Dis. Cash

Rs

Rs

Date 2005

Particulars Amt Dis.

To Bal b/d

-

15,000 Jan 5 By Ram

100

To R. Gupta 200

9,800 Jan 6 Purchases

-

To sales

-

4,000 Jan 12 By S. Sharma 50

Jan 13 By Wages

Jan 14 By Naresh

100

Jan 31 By Bal c/d

200

28,800

250

Cr
Amt Cash
3,000 4,000 2,950
500 3,900 14,450 28,800

Check your progress
Q 2. X started business on 1.4.2005 with Rs. 20,000 as Capital. He had following cash transactions in the month of April 2005.

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2005
April 1 April 2 April 3 April 4 April 5
April 6

Purchased Furniture Purchased Goods Sold Goods for Cash Purchased Goods Paid Cash to Ram Discount allowed by him Received Cash from Krishna andCo. Allowed Discount

Rs.
2,500 3,000 1,500 2,000 5,600
100
6,000 200

2005
April 7 April 8 April 9 April 10 April 11 April 12 April 13

Paid for petty exp. Cash Purchases Cash Sales Recd from Mohan Bros. Paid for Typewriter Paid for Telephone Paid Ali and Sons They allowed dis.

Rs.
150 1,500 2,000 6,000 8,000 2,000 4,000
80

Make out two column cash Book
………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………...

14.4. 3 THREE COLUMN CASH BOOK

A three column cash Book is a cash book which contains bank column along with cash and discount columns.

A firm normally keeps the bulk of its funds at a Bank; money can be deposited and withdrawn at will if it is a current account. Probably payments into and out of the bank will be more numerous than strict cash transactions. They’re in only a little difference between cash in hand and cash at bank. Therefore it is very convenient if in the cash book on each side another column is added – to record moneys deposited at bank and payments out of the bank. The specimen Performa of a three column cash book is given as under: -

Three Column Cash Book

Dr

Receipts

Payments

Cr

Date Particular Dis. Cash Bank Date Particulars Dis. Cash Bank

Rs. Rs. Rs.

Rs. Rs. Rs.

Balancing: The discount columns are totaled but not balanced. The cash columns are balanced exactly in the same manner as indicated for the simple
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cash book. The process is similar for balancing the bank columns also. It is possible, however, that the bank may allow the firm to withdraw more than the amount deposited, i.e. to have an overdraft. In such a case the total of the bank column on the credit side will be bigger than the one on the debit side. The difference is written on the debit side as “To Bal c/d”. Then the totals are written on the two sides opposite one another; the balance is then entered on the credit side as “By Bal b/d”.

However the usual case is that payments into the bank will exceed the withdrawals or payments out of the bank. Then the bank columns are balanced just like the cash columns.
(Ref.: T.S. Grewal, “Double Entry Book Keeping”)

Example 3:

Enter the following transactions in a Three-column cash book. Cheques are first treated as cash receipts

2005

Rs.

Jan 1

Cash in hand

20,000

Jan 2

Paid into Bank

19,000

Jan 3

Receives cheques from Kirti and Co.

600

Jan 4

Pays into bank Kirti and Co’s Cheque

600

Jan 5

He pays Ratan and Co. by Cheque and is

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allowed discount of Rs. 20

Solution

Dr
Date 2005

Particular

Jan 1 To Bal b/d

Jan 2

To Cash A/C (C)

Jan 3

To Kirti and Co

Three Column Cash Book

Receipts

Payments

Dis. Cash Bank Rs. Date

-

Rs.

Rs.

2005

Particulars Dis. Cash

-

Rs.

Rs.

-

20,000 -

Jan 2 By Bank -

19,000

A/C (c)

-

- 19,000

Jan 4 By Bank -

600

A/C (c)

-

600 -

Jan 5 By Ratan 20 -

and Co (c)

Cr
Bank Rs.
-
330

Jan 4

To Cash A/C (c)

20,600

600 19,600

Jan 31 By Bal C.d 20

1000 18670 20,600 19,600

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Note

1) When cash is paid into bank the entry passed is

Bank A/C Dr.

(Bank balance increased)

To Cash A/C

(Cash balance decreased)

This type of transaction affects both cash and bank, these are called contra transactions

2) When cheque is received two entries are passed

Cash A/C Dr.

(When cheque is received)

To Debtors

Bank A/C Dr. To Cash

(When cheque is deposited into Bank)

Check your progress

Q 3. Enter the following transactions into a three column cash book.

2005

Rs.

Feb 1

Cash in hand

10,000

Feb 2

Receives cheques from Warsi and

allows him discount Rs. 300

4,700

Feb 3

Pays by cheque for cash purchases

2,000

Feb 4

Sundry exp. paid in cash

500

………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

14.5 PETTY CASH BOOK
A business house makes a number of small payments like telegram, textiles, cartage etc. If all these transactions are recorded in cash book the cash bank may become bulky and the main cashier’s work will also increase therefore usually firms appoint a petty cashier who makes these small payments and keep record of these payments in a separate cash book which is called Petty Cash book.

14.5.1. IMPREST SYSTEM OF PETTY CASH BOOK.
The petty cashier is given a sum of money in the beginning of the period. During the period he makes payment out of this money. At end the firm reimburses him the amount paid by him so that the balance of cash with him
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remains same in the beginning of the period as well as at the end of the period. This is called the Imprest system of petty cash Book. The specimen Performa of a petty cash book is given as under.

Petty Cash Book

Receipts Date

Voucher No.

Particular

Total

Conveyance Cartage

Stationery

Postage and Tele Gram

Sundries

Example 4 Prepare a petty cash book on the Imprest system from the following:

2005

Rs.

March 1

Received Rs. 1000 for petty cash

March 2

Paid bus fare

10

March 3

Paid Cartage

25

March 4

Paid for postage and telegram

50

March 5

Paid for stationery

40

March 6

Paid for postage and telegram

50

March 7

Paid for sundry exp.

40

Solution
Recei Date pts
2005 1000 March-1
March-2 March-3 March-4 March-5 March-6 March-7

Petty Cash Book

V Particulars . N o.

Total Rs.

Con Cart Station Postage Sundries

veya age ary

Telegra

nce

m

-

1 To Cash A/C

-

2 By conveyance

10

10 -

-

-

-

3 By cartage

25

-

25 -

-

4 By postage and 50

-

-

-

50

-

telegram 5

40

-

-

40

-

-

By stationary 6

50

-

-

-

50

-

By postage and

7 telegram

40

-

-

-

-

40

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1000 March 31 ====

785

April 1

215

By sundry exp. By Bal c/d
To Bal b/d To Cash

215 785 ====

10 25 40 === === ====

100 ====

40 ====

14.5.2. ADVANTAGES OF PETTY CASH BOOK

There are mainly four advantages:

(i) Saving of time – Saving of time of the chief cashier.

(ii) Saving of labour – saving in labour in writing up the cash book.

(iii) Control – It provides control over small payments.

(iv) Convenience in preparing ledger amounts.

(Ref.: T.S. Grewal, “Double Entry Book Keeping”)

Check your progress

Q 4. Prepare a Petty cash book on the Imprest System. From the following:

2005

Jan 1

Received Rs500 for Petty Cash

Jan 2

Paid bus fare

20

Jan 3

Paid for stationery

130

Jan 4

Paid for postage and telegrams

170

Jan 5

Paid for Cartage

100

………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… ………………………………………………………………………………… …………………………………………………………………………………

14.6 PASS BOOK
Pass Book is a book issued by Bank to an accountholder. It is almost a copy of the account of the customer in the books of bank. The bank keeps the customer informed of the entries made in his account through Pass Book. It is the customer’s duty to check the entries and immediately inform the bank of any error that he may have noticed. The form of the Pass Book is given as below

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Cash Book, Pass Book, Bank Reconciliation Statement