Curriculum Development In Pakistan: Problems And Prospects


Download Curriculum Development In Pakistan: Problems And Prospects


Preview text

Unit–6
CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN:
PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS
Written by: Khalid Mahmood Reviewed by: Dr. Munazza Ambreen
149

CONTENTS

S.No Description

Page No

Introduction .....................................................................................................

Objectives .........................................................................................................

1. Planning the Curriculum................................................................................ 1.1 Fundamental Questions in Curriculum Planning .................................... 1.2 The Components of Curriculum Plan......................................................

2. Forces Influencing Curriculum Planning ..................................................... 2.1 Historical Precedent and Tradition.......................................................... 2.2 Cultural Patterns and Social Aims........................................................... 2.3 Educational Philosophy, Research and Experimentation ........................ 2.4 Textbooks as Curriculum Determinants.................................................. 2.5 Administrative Structure and Organization.............................................

3. Characteristics of a Good Curriculum.......................................................... 3.1 Development of Social Understanding.................................................... 3.2 Promotion of Maximum Personal Development ..................................... 3.3 Promotion of Continuity of Experience .................................................. 3.4 Provision for Educational Goals.............................................................. 3.5 Maintenance of Balance among all Goals ............................................... 3.6 Utilization of Effective Learning Experiences and Needed Resources...

4. Curriculum Development in Pakistan........................................................... 4.1 Composition of Curriculum Committees ................................................ 4.2 Relationship with Provincial Curriculum Centres and Other Agencies ..

5. Implementation of Curriculum in Pakistan.................................................. 5.1 Textbooks Development.......................................................................... 5.2 Teacher Training ..................................................................................... 5.3 Evaluation................................................................................................ 5.4 Research .................................................................................................. 5.5 Mechanism for Curriculum Development in Pakistan ............................ 5.6 Curriculum at Elementary and Secondary Level in Pakistan ..................

6. Problems and Prospects of Curriculum in Pakistan.................................... 6.1 Teachers Reluctance to Accept Change .................................................. 6.2 Lack of In-service training ......................................................................

150

6.3 Political Interference .............................................................................. 6.4 Economic Problems................................................................................. 6.5 Inadequate Evaluation ............................................................................. 6.6 Lack of Commitment to National Philosophy......................................... 6.7 Disapproval of the Society ...................................................................... 6.8 Lack of Sequence .................................................................................... 6.9 Urbanized Curriculum............................................................................. 6.10 Lack of Teaching Materials..................................................................... 7. Self Assessment Questions ............................................................................... 8. Bibliography......................................................................................................
151

INTRODUCTION
Since education is an orderly and deliberate effort, some plan is needed to guide this effort. The term curriculum generally refers to this plan. The way in which curriculum is defined reflects value judgments regarding the nature of education. This definition also influences how curriculum will be planned and utilized.
The authors of many books and other publications on curriculum have appeared since early 1918. Bobbitt’s “The Curriculum”, has usually presented a particular conception of the curriculum. Lewis and Miel (1972) identified definitions of curriculum in the following categories: course of study, intended learning outcomes, intended opportunities for engagement, learning opportunities provided learner’s actual engagements, and learner’s actual experiences. They defined curriculum as “a set of intentions about opportunities for engagement of persons-to-be-educated with other persons and with things (all bearers of information, processes, techniques, and values) in certain arrangements of time and space. Tanner and Tanner (1980) traced the history of curriculum definitions showing that curriculum has been variously defined as: a) The cumulative tradition of organized knowledge; b) Modes of thought; c) Race experience; d) Guided experience; e) A planned learning environment; f) Cognitive/affective content and process; g) An instructional plan; h) Instructional ends or outcomes; and i) A technological system of production;
What is Curriculum Development? Teachers need to establish very clearly what they are trying to achieve with their pupils, then to decide how they hope to do this and finally to consider to what extent they have been successful in their attempts. In other words, the planning of learning opportunities Intended to bring about certain changes have taken place is what is meant by curriculum development.
OBJECTIVES
After completing this unit, you should be able to: 1. Discuss the different treads at national level, in curriculum development. 2. Differentiate between the bases of curriculum at elementary and secondary level. 3. Analyze the planning and implementation of curriculum in Pakistan. 4. Understand the mechanism of curriculum development in Pakistan. 5. Enlist the disparities in curriculum development. 6. Criticize the pros and cons of multiple textbook systems. 7. Enlist the forces influencing curriculum planning.
152

1. PLANNING THE CURRICULUM
For all rational actions, we must carefully determine the ends/goals first and then decide about the means to achieve them. The more intelligent and sensible the planning, the more rational an action is likely to be. Actions which deviate from this procedure are correspondingly less rational. Curriculum development is a rational and responsible process; it must be planned carefully and cautiously.
1.1 Fundamental Questions in Curriculum Planning The rationale for analyzing, developing, organizing and planning curriculum begins with seeking answers to the following fundamental questions:(a) What educational purposes should the school seek to attain through the curriculum? (b) What educational experiences can be provided which are likely to attain these
purposes? (c) How can these educational experiences be effectively organized? (d) How can we determine whether these purposes are being attained or not? According to Tanner and Tanner (1980), these four functions in curriculum planning identifying the objectives, establishing the means, organizing these means and evaluating the outcomes are interdependent in nature. D.K. Wheeler (1967) has identified the same steps, as illustrated in the following figure.
1.2 The Components of aCurriculum Plan The components of a curriculum plan or design are generally as below: (a) Diagnosis (h) Formulation of spec ilk objectives (c) Contents and its organization (d) Teacher and teaching methods (c) The learner (f) Evaluation Let us now look at each of these components in more detail. (a) Diagnose
It is necessary to make a general analysis of problems, conditions and difficulties present in the group for which curriculum is being planned. These data must be
153

scrutinized for an indication of a general picture of the prevailing circumstances and resources available. This picture may well indicate the need for a new approach to the curriculum, changed attitudes, or a new orientation to teaching learning situations. Though this preliminary analysis of needs, characteristics and resources is the initial step, it is not to be thought that the necessity for analysis comes to an end when the next stage is entered. Diagnosis is a type of evaluation and must be maintained throughout the planning process.
(b) Formulation of specific objectives In this step, the goals already sketched, out must be translated into specific objectives. Irrespective of the particular nature of the contents of each subject, attention must be paid to all the categories of behavioural outcomes. It will also help in the selection of activities and contents. In formulating specific objectives, it is necessary to select the particular behaviour desired to state the form in which it is to be exhibited. If the objective is in the cognitive field, then the sub-class of the taxonomy or some similar model will be useful in dictating precisely what is required, and up to what level. As far as possible, the objectives must be expressed as behavioural outcomes so that it is clear what skills are to be developed and what sensitivities, feelings or attitudes are the focuses of attention. Tylar (1949) has mentioned some sources of objectives, which are illustrated below.
 The learner  Contemporary life  Subject specialists  Philosophy  Psychology
 Selection of Objectives
 Contents Organization
However, there is a difficulty in selecting the objectives through this model, viz, which of the objectives should be given priority as compared to the other? Are all the objectives equally important? The curriculum planner should make decisions according to the situation.
(c) Content and its Organization The content of education is an inclusive term concerning what is considered necessary to be organized to achieve the desired goals. First, there is the subject matter or the instructional material which has to be remembered, recalled, comprehended, analyzed, applied and evaluated. Second, there should be suitable activities or learning experiences. Moreover there are the integrating procedures which determine the rate of progression from one step to another. It is necessary to arrange content according to some plan. Some are in favour of psychological approach to content organization, which goes after the mental maturity level of the learner. The other approach known as logical approach takes
154

care of the sequential order of concepts in the subject/discipline. However, there is no unique pattern of organization of content. The most suitable organization is the one which most effectively promotes the achievement of intended outcomes.
(d) Teachers and Teaching Methods Teachers are the operative agents in education. They are the people responsible for translating the curriculum into action. For effective implementation, it is necessary to inform teachers. (a) Explanatory statements about the aims of each subject. (b) The general and specific objectives of each course. (c) Background information on any changes made in subjects. (d) Details of sources, guide books and teacher materials. (e) Details of new methods of teacher aids to be adopted while teaching various subjects.
(e) The learner It is for the society to answer questions like “Who is to be educated?” and “Should equality of opportunity be provided in primary and secondary education for all children”? In some societies, the curriculum is totally different for the children of the elites and those of the lower order. In Pakistan there are three types of educational institutions, each with their peculiar kind of curriculum meeting different needs; general public and private schools; religious schools or Deeni Madaris; and European type English medium schools. In each of these categories of schools, the learners come from different systems of the education and have different attitude towards life. Though efforts are going on to bridge this gap, the objective is still far from being fully realized.
(f) Evaluation Evaluation is a process of obtaining useful information for judging and decisionmaking. Socket approaches curriculum evaluation through a conceptual analysis of the term “evaluation”. In his analysis, he identifies three central features of evaluation given as under:1. Evaluation is appraisal in which we make judgments. 2. Such judgments are made in the light of criteria. 3. Such criteria embody human purposes and evaluations made, therefore in form decisions.
Curriculum evaluation is essential for at least two reasons: One is that feedback to pupils at frequent intervals improves their performance. Another is that it is highly desirable for teachers to know how successful they are in achieving their teaching objectives, to be able to make any necessary improvements/revisions
Activity
Hold a discussion, with the teacher of a nearby high school and prepare a list of characteristics for an effective lesson.
Self-Assessment Questions 1. What do you mean by curriculum planning? 2. Enlist the components of curriculum planning. 3. Describe the importance of diagnosis in curriculum planning?
155

2. FORCES INFLUENCING CURRICULUM PLANNING
It seems necessary to discover the nature of forces, which influence curriculum planning. There are number of such forces that affect the curriculum.
2.1 Historical Precedent and Tradition Curriculum improvement is usually a change in accepted practice or it may be called developments worked out within the existing structure. The existing programmes in use may be useful until plans are made to change existing conditions.
2.2 Cultural Patterns and Social Aims There is no doubt that the cultural patterns and value system of the society are influential in shaping the curriculum. There is not much difference in the nature of learning and the psychological and mental development of boys and girls from one nation to another but the social settings, in which education takes place vary remarkably.
2.3 Educational Philosophy, Research and Experimentation Philosophical decisions affect curriculum decisions became they represent a choice of values. The purposes, goals and methods of education are based upon a philosophy of education and they play a major role in planning learning experiences and other important curriculum decisions.
In these days a research point of view is given consideration in the formulation of philosophical concepts and in making decisions for planning instructional programme of children. The extensive research done in the field of child development and learning process has provided educators a base for curriculum improvement. Similarly, further research will continue influencing curriculum planning. In the same way experimentation and trying out of promising practices, are essential aspects of curriculum development. Certainly progress comes through tryout of new ideas and new practices.
2.4 Textbooks of as Curriculum Determinants In some elementary schools the textbooks for the academic areas of instruction to a large extent, determine the scope and sequence of the curriculum and the nature of learning experiences. It is mostly true in case of Pakistan where a single textbook approach is adopted and the teachers do riot use the course of study planned for their guidance.
2.5 Administrative Structure and Organization The nature of school organization and the type of administrative structure, in which the programme is carried out, markedly influence the curriculum as a whole. The centralized administrative structure in Pakistan has its strong effects on curriculum construction and implementation. Certain other agencies and special-interest pressure groups also influence curriculum planning.
Activity Interview teachers of local institutions and discuss the forces influencing curriculum planning.
Self-Assessment Question What are the forces affecting curriculum planning?
156

3. CHARACTERISTICS OF A GOOD CURRICULUM
3.1 Development of Social Understanding The exercises, which develop in children the understanding of the society, social problems and social relationships, are of great importance for their inclusion in the curriculum. Every child is a member of a society and he should be trained in such a way that he becomes an asset to the society to contribute to its full development.
3.2 Promotion of Maximum Personal Development Every curriculum plan must resolve the issue of individual differences versus group standards. The experiences covering a wide range of interests and overall individual development are pre-requisites for a good curriculum.
3.3 Promotion of Continuity of Experience Continuity of experience and proper sequence of learning is one of the most important aims of curriculum planning. Past, present and future experiences show a consistent relationship and are based upon one another.
3.4 Provision for Educational Goals In a good curriculum all the needed experiences from different levels are given proper attention. Goal serving experiences are provided for the varying abilities and needs of all learners not mere Three R’s.
3.5 Maintenance of Balance Among all Goals Provision’s are to be made for maximum individual development and for group interaction. The curriculum plans may incorporate provisions for all educational goals and suggest requirements, time allotments, and other ways of giving balanced attention to each goal. The classroom learning experiences depict the nature of curriculum.
3.6 Utilization of Effective Learning Experiences and Needed Resources Provisions should be made for adequate equipment and material for making effective learning experiences. The teachers should explore and use a wide range of resources for fulfilling the desired goals and ends of learning experiences.
From all this discussion it can be concluded that teacher plays a major role in making a good curriculum because he fills the loop-holes .left in the course of study and other guides as they exist on paper.
Activity Hold a discussion of a-group comprising a supervisor, three working teachers, and a curriculum planner, to enlist characteristics of a good curriculum.
Self-Assessment Questions It is necessary to maintain balance among ail goals in curriculum development. Suggest possible ways for it.
157

4. CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT IN PAKISTAN
Curriculum development is ideally an ongoing, dynamic and long term process, involving needs assessment, planning and design, teacher training, materials preparation and piloting, subsequent revision and modification, full implementation, monitoring, feedback and evaluation. The curricula development is based on the following broad areas of concern:i) To incorporate changes at national and global level, to prepare our children for
further job market within existing economic climate and to provide human resources necessary to ensure sustainable national development. ii) To incorporating issues of global significance including environment change, degradation, population control, gender issues, and international understanding and cooperation. iii) To foster respect for and prevention of cultural tradition and indigenous values and ways of life. iv) To foster of moral values through Islamic principles and ethics among pupils. v) To promote democratic values and respect for and appreciation of cultural diversity that characterizes Pakistani society and the broader global society. vi) To introduce competency based curricula by defining mini Process involved in learning competencies at both primary and secondary levels. Before introducing any reform, the intentions of the Federal Government are conveyed to the Provincial Governments and their opinion, in respect of both academic and administrative aspects, is sought. In case curriculum reform is agreed to be undertaken the Minister of Education, Curriculum Wing, as a first step, review the prevalent scheme of studies to bring it at par with National Education Policy. It is followed by determining objects, level-wise and subject-wise based on both cognitive level of development of the child and requirement of the subject for its programme development. On receipt of their opinion a National Curriculum Development Committee (NCDC) comprising highly qualified, experienced, and competent professionals, drawn from the four provinces, review intentions of the Federal Government and take the following steps:(i) Design, in collaboration, with Provincial Curriculum Bureaus initial draft of curriculum in the fight of need assessment/survey and send the drafts to National Board of Curriculum and Textbooks (NBCT) for finalization. (ii) NBCT finalized a unified draft curriculum in the light of the drafts received from the NCDC. (iii) The unified draft is circulated throughout the country for comments. Comments are invited from educational institutions, and users/stake-holders parents, communities etc. (iv) The National Curriculum Development Select Committee a subset of NCDC reviews and updates the unified draft in the light of the feedback, and recommends approving the draft as National Curriculum.
So, following are the steps involved in Curriculum Development in Pakistan. a. Curriculum Wing requests the Provincial Centres to prepare draft curriculum
for each subject taught in various classes upto Class XII.
158

Preparing to load PDF file. please wait...

0 of 0
100%
Curriculum Development In Pakistan: Problems And Prospects