Study the Importance of Leadership in Construction Projects


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International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)
Study the Importance of Leadership in Construction Projects
Prof.P.P.Bhangale Department of civil Engineering ssgbcoet, bhusawal, maharashtra, india
Rajanikant Devalkar Department of civil Engineering Ndmvp’s kbt coe ,nashik, maharashtra, india
Abstract- The purpose of this study was to identify the most important leadership skill required for successful completion of construction projects. Projects are conceived and completed by people, who are involved in the whole process of project execution and completion. Thus, project management not only requires an efficient project manager, but also a qualified leader who can lead the team effectively. A leader is someone who sets direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction. It is important to have skills in forming, leading and facilitating a project team.Therefore it is essential to study and analyse the skills of leadership. This research paper present list of leadership skills retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently a questionnaire survey was prepared .The questionnaire survey was distributed to Project Manager, project Head, Sr. engineer. Frequency Analysis, Average Index & Relative importance index are calculated and according to highest value of them, the top Fifteen Skills of Leadership for residential construction projects are find out. The number of recommendations ends the paper. The findings of this paper can be used as a reference by project owners, managers, and agencies in developing the leadership skills.
Keywords – Project manager; leadership; skills; leader; construction management
I. INTRODUCTION
In recent day, remarkable transformations in technology have drastically changed the way project managers manage things. The more attributes the project manager has, the more likelihood there is of successful project completion. Although some of these attributes may not be required at times, it is important to use them in specific conditions and situations. The success in construction project is a result of the effective use and implementation of the important attributes that project managers have. However, project managers have a wide- ranging variety of personal characteristics, from their belief, personal values, professional ethics, technical knowledge, superior social skills to their management abilities. However, the success of a project is impossible to continue from a single attribute of project manager. Thus, the study will mainly focus on the assessing the most important attributes as Leadership skills that project manager should have in order to have a smooth and successful development of construction project. A leader is someone who sets direction in an effort and influences people to follow that direction. It is important to have skills in forming, leading and facilitating a project team. However, a coherent theoretical foundation that explains how leadership engages people fully and effectively is lacking.
II. OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
Following are the objectives of study: Study the importance of leadership skills in construction projects and analysis of collected data by using frequency analysis. The Leadership skills are collected from the previous studies.
III. LEADERSHIP The national society of professional engineers (NSPE), in its book, engineer your way to success, defines leadership as. The ability to motivate others to move with enthusiasm toward a goal that is seen with passion. “It has been said, too, that “leadership is more art, a belief. A condition of the heart, than a set of things to do”.[1]

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ISSN: 2278-621X

International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)
Wateridge noted that there has been no assessment of the relative importance of each of the skills proposed by different authors. In his literature review, he observed that leadership skill appears as the most important skill a project manager needs to possess, probably based on the frequency of mention. This is followed by people management, which involves observation, listening, motivation, conflict management, delegation, understanding, empathy, patience, and many other skills and qualities. [10] Leadership is one of the most important skills an engineer can possess in the twenty-first century. Many leaders of business, government, and education have indicated that the Boy Scout program was one of the most important experiences in their lives, one that impacted their thinking and actions throughout their careers. The aim of the Boy Scout program is still character training and helping boys become independent persons who are helpful to other people. The Scout method by which this aim is achieved involves giving challenges, which a Scout learns to solve by himself. The emphasis on “learning by doing” provides hands-on experiences to enhance learning and confidence building. Small group activities build unity and develop responsibility, character, self-reliance, self-confidence, reliability, and readiness. a Scout is trained to be independent and show leadership using the Scout Oath and Scout Law to promote positive goals, all under the example of dedicated adult leaders. [6] Amarjitsingh and Gempo jampel making a model which is proposed for evaluating leadership capability, which is observed on a grid called the leadership flexibility space. The model evaluates two basic parameters: 1.decision making capability and 2. Information input by group during decision making. Five types of leaders are evaluated: consultative autocrats, complete autocrats, consensus managers, impoverished managers, and active managers. Granting greater authority, support, and trust to all engineers, being selective in recruiting new engineers, and taking steps to re-educate the existing ones are among the most important. It is ironic that those to whom we look most for leadership, the more experienced engineers, are the ones who lack most the leadership skills at PWD. Demographic evaluations are made for age group, number of projects handled in one’s career, number of projects handled at PWD, years of experience, years with PWD, years of design experience, marital status, and family encouragement. Among other findings, it was discovered that older engineers, and those who had handled more than 20 projects at PWD, tended to fall in the impoverished manager’s zone more than other engineers. [5]
IV. QUALITIES OF LEADERSHIP
Another way to discuss leadership is in terms of characteristics associated with effective leaders. Fig illustrates nine qualities drawn from a variety of sources but heavily influenced by the work of Bethel and Walesh. An in depth understanding of these nine qualities is essential to defining not only what constitutes good leader, but also to present specific areas on which development can be focused. Leaders must be big thinkers in terms of both quality and responsibility. They must have high ethics because people still look for ethical leaders who have courage. Courage includes persisting, surviving, maintaining stamina as well as doing the right thing and making the right decisions. They must master change and be responsive to people in our culturally diverse society. Leaders are risk takers. They must have the courage to begin new projects, make changes, and so on. No other quality is more important for a leader than to have a mission that matters. This commitment, when effectively communicated, inspires and motivates others. It also produces the energy and dedication that are important throughout a professional career. If a leader is to make a difference, he or she must be able to make hard decisions after careful data and opinion gathering and analysis. They must also use power wisely because it is the prime mover of people and events. Team building is required to inspire the group to maximize people potential, productivity, morale, and creativity. These nine qualities as a framework for presenting techniques for developing leadership in engineers at all levels. [7]
III. METHODOLOGY
This study includes three major steps. The first step involves general information collection, including both firsthand and second-hand data, in order to identify major themes from the literature. Surveys and interviews are conducted, in which a list of important skills in successful leadership are identified. With these skills, expert interviews, conducted in the second step, are used to decide the most significant factors among them. The last step is the conclusions and suggestions for researchers or practitioners.

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ISSN: 2278-621X

International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)

IV.ANALYSIS OF DATA
In this chapter, a detail analysis of data and result will be shown and elaborated by using frequency analysis, average analysis and relative analysis. for completing this study 72 respondents like project managers, project head, Sr. Engineer were targeted . the questioner were send to all respondents among these 51 set replied with completed questionnaire form that cover 71% of the total 72 set questionnaire form in the study.
Frequency Analysis Frequency analysis will be using tabular form to represent result of data analysis of frequency of response that respondent give to the different variables in the questionnaires. The result was tabulated in the form of frequency number and percentages according to total respondents. Average Index Analysis The result will be further summarized to obtain the overall level of importance and evaluation in local construction industry. The respondent were requested to evaluate project manager's roles and responsibilities based on five-points scale starting with 1 for not important, 2 for less important, 3 for average, 4 for important, 5 for very important. The average index analysis for each variable is calculated by using:

Where x1 = number of respondents for not important, x2 = number of respondents for less important, x3= number of respondents for average, x4 = number of respondents for important, x5 = number of respondents for very important. The overall level of importance and evaluation in local construction industry are summarized under such categories:
Table-1 The level of importance and evaluation for Average Index Analysis

Average Index

Level of Importance

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International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)

0.00 Average Index 1.50 1.50 < Average Index 2.50 2.50 < Average Index 3.50 3.50 < Average Index 4.50 4.50 < Average Index 5.00

Not Important Less Important
Average Important Very important

Relative Index Analysis In average index analysis, the result will be further summarized to obtain the overall level of importance and evaluation in local construction industry. The respondent were requested to evaluate project manager's roles and responsibilities based on five-points scale starting with 1 for not important, 2 for less important, 3 for average, 4 for important, 5 for very important. The relative index analysis for each variable is calculated by using:

Where x1 = number of respondents for not important, x2 = number of respondents for less important, x3= number of respondents for average, x4 = number of respondents for important, x5 = number of respondents for very important.

V. RESULT The following is the brief discussion of the different groups and skills. Based on the relative importance index and ranking in table 2, Also the top 15 most important leadership skills were shown in table 3, the top 15 least important leadership skills were shown in table 4.
Table-2 The brief discussion of the different groups and skills

Sub No. group

Skills

% of Frequency

Relative Rank index

Not

Low

Average Important Very

important important

important

1 Communication skill

0

0

4

22

75

0.941

1

2 Interpersonal skill

0

2

4

53

41

0.867

13

3 Mentoring skill

0

2

10

61

27

0.827

28

4 Persuasion skill

0

4

8

63

25

0.820

30

Personal skill

5 Convincing skill

0

0

4

51

45

0.882

8

6 Composure skill

0

0

8

61

31

0.847

21

7 Cognitive skill

0

0

12

59

29

0.835

25

8 Being a quick learner

0

2

4

41

53

0.890

7

1 Controlling group performance

0

0

8

47

45

0.875

11

2 Setting an example

0

2

8

59

31

0.839

24

Team building

3 Conflict management

2

0

10

57

31

0.831

27

4 Listening skill

2

0

4

39

55

0.890

7

5 Dealing with difficult people

0

2

10

43

45

0.863

14

6 Compassion

0

0

16

69

16

0.800

32

7 Building & mending relationship 0

2

4

59

35

0.855

17

8 Confronting people

0

0

8

53

39

0.863

14

1 Decision making

0

0

4

41

55

0.902

4

Vision & Strategy

2 Planning skills

0

0

4

47

49

0.890

7

3 Ability to give influential pep talks 2

0

12

69

20

0.804

31

4 Motivational skills

2

0

6

55

39

0.854

18

5 Sharing leadership

0

0

12

65

24

0.824

29

6 Optimism

0

0

8

63

29

0.843

22

7 Inspiring a shared vision

0

0

16

53

31

0.831

27

8 Doing whatever it takes

0

0

22

55

24

0.804

31

1 knowedge

0

0

0

41

59

0.918

2

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International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)

Sub No. group

Skills

Decision making

Planning skill

Relationship magt skill

2 vision 3 problem solving 4 negotiation 5 courage 6 challenging the process 7 Culturably adaptable 8 Decisiveness 1 Goal setting 2 Crisis planning 3 Priortization 4 Strategizing 5 Confidence 6 Strategic planning 7 Networking skills 8 Resource fullness 1 Developing others 2 Influence 3 Communication 4 Conflict Management 5 Building bonds 6 Team work & collaboration 7 Respecting individual differences 8 Change catalyst 1 Understanding others 2 Developing others 3 Service orientation 4 Leveraging diversity 5 (Socio)-Political awareness 6 Sensitivity 7 Putting people at ease 8 Encouraging the heart

Empathy

% of Frequency

Not important 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Low important 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 2 0 0 2 0 0 0

Average
4 4 2 10 10 14 8 4 4 6 4 4 6 4 4 10 10 6 16 2 4 10 4 8 2 10 22 35 16 6 10

Important
47 33 47 45 59 49 59 45 53 51 61 39 61 43 53 53 65 47 39 63 53 65 61 45 63 59 59 49 67 73 49

Very important 49 63 51 45 31 37 31 51 41 39 35 57 35 53 41 29 24 47 45 35 43 25 25 25 33 31 20 14 18 22 41

Relative index
0.890 0.918 0.898 0.871 0.843 0.847 0.835 0.894 0.867 0.851 0.863 0.906 0.858 0.898 0.876 0.843 0.820 0.882 0.859 0.867 0.878 0.831 0.848 0.834 0.855 0.843 0.796 0.749 0.804 0.831 0.863

Rank
7 2 5 12 22 21 25 6 13 19 14 3 16 5 10 23 30 8 15 13 9 27 20 26 17 23 33 34 31 27 14

Table-3 The top 15 most important leadership skills

Sr

Top 15 most Important Leadership skills

no

1

Communication skill

2

knowledge

3

problem solving

4

Confidence

5

Decision making

6

negotiation

7

Networking skills

8

Goal setting

9

Being a quick learner

10

Listening skill

11

Planning skills

12

vision

leadership skill

Group

Sub group
Personal skill Decision making Decision making
Personal skill Vision & Strategy Decision making
Planning skill Planning skill Personal skill Team building Vision & Strategy Decision making

R.I. Rank
0.941 1 0.918 2 0.918 2 0.906 3 0.902 4 0.898 5 0.898 5 0.894 6 0.890 7 0.890 7 0.890 7 0.890 7

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International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)

13

Convincing skill

14

Communication

15

Team work & collaboration

Personal skill

0.882 8

Personal skill

0.882 8

Relationship management skill 0.878 9

Table-4 The top 15 least important leadership skills

Sr

Top 15 least Important Leadership skills

Group

no.

Sub group

R.I. Rank

1

(Socio)-Political awareness

2

Leveraging diversity

3

Compassion

4

Ability to give influential pep talks

5

Doing whatever it takes

6

Sensitivity

7

Persuasion skill

8

Influence

9

Sharing leadership

10

Mentoring skill

11

Conflict management

12

Inspiring a shared vision

13

Respecting individual differences

14

Putting people at ease

15

Understanding others

leadership skill

Empathy Empathy Team building Vision & Strategy Vision & Strategy Empathy Personal skill Relationship magt skill Vision & Strategy Personal skill Relationship magt skill Vision & Strategy Relationship magt skill Empathy Empathy

0.749 33 0.796 32 0.800 31 0.804 30 0.804 30 0.804 30 0.820 29 0.820 29 0.824 28 0.827 27 0.831 26 0.831 26 0.831 26 0.831 26 0.834 25

IV.CONCLUSION
Leadership is one of the most important and essential factors in good construction project management. Leadership is more than simply managing people or projects: it is the art of affecting other team members’ behavior in order to achieve the goals and accomplish the tasks successfully.
The importance of leadership skills has been achieved through questionnaire survey. Total 56 leadership skills under 7 sub groups as Personal skill, Team building, Vision & Strategy, Decision making, Planning skill, Relationship management skill, Empathy are studied .From the analysis, the top 15 important leadership skills are found from that personal skills in communication is the most important skill required to be an effective Leadership in construction industry. Second highest most important skill required is decision making in knowledge followed by decision making in problem solving as the third most important skills required in making a project really successful . and also the least 15 important leadership skills are found from that Empathy in (Socio)-Political awareness is the

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ISSN: 2278-621X

International Journal of Latest Trends in Engineering and Technology (IJLTET)
least important skill required .second least important skill required is Empathy in Leveraging diversity followed by Team building in Compassion as third least important skill.
REFERENCES
[1] By Malcom j. Todd¹ (JULY/AUGEST 1996) “21ST Century leadership and technology” 12:40-49 .
[2] Shamas-ur-rehman Toor¹ (JULY 2008) and Geoge² ofori “Developing construction professionals of the 21st century: renewed vision for leadership” 134:279-286.
[3] Riza yosia sunindijo¹; Bonaventura H. W. Hadikusmo²; and Stephan Ogunlana³ (october 2007)”Emotional intelligence and leadership styles in construction project Management”23:166-170
[4] By Michael J.Bresnen, ¹Alan E. Bryman, ²Janet R. Ford,³ Alan D.Beardsworth and E.Teresa Keil Leader orientation of construction site managers.112:370:386.
[5] amargit singh, f.asce¹; gempo jampel² (2005)”leadership flexibity space”26:176-188 [6] Francis E. Griccs Jr., F.asce (2009)”everything I needed to know about leadership I learned in the boy scouts”9:198-204. [7] By john v. farr, ¹MeMBER, ASCE, stuartg.walesh, ²member.asce, and geoge b. forsy the³ (1997)”leadership development for engineering
managers.13:38-41 [8] By Koorosh Gharehbagih and Kerry McManus (2003)”the construction manager as a leader”3:56:58 [9] Charles O.Skipper, M.ASCE¹; AND Lansford c. Bell, F.ASCE² (2006)”influences impacting leadership development”22:68-74 [10] Project Management and Leadership: Equal Partners for Project Success © 2004 by Ruffin Veal III, PMP
 

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Study the Importance of Leadership in Construction Projects