The Articulation Of Korean Coronal Obstruents: Data From


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THE ARTICULATION OF KOREAN CORONAL OBSTRUENTS: DATA FROM HERITAGE SPEAKERS AND SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNERS
A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE GRADUATE DIVISION OF THE UNIVERSITY OF HAWAI‘I IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS
FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY
IN LINGUISTICS
MAY 2013
By Insung Ko
Dissertation Committee: William O’Grady, Co-Chairperson
Ho-min Sohn, Co-Chairperson Victoria Anderson
Robert Bley-Vroman Edward J. Shultz

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my gratitude to many people whom I have met during my days as a graduate student. First, I appreciate my teachers in both Hawai‘i and Korea from whom I have learned so much. I cannot thank Professor William O’Grady enough. He was an enlightening and inspiring scholar from our first meeting and a constantly encouraging adviser throughout my years in graduate school. Some time ago, I had the privilege of assisting him with his research on Korean pronunciation, and he encouraged me to continue working in this rewarding field for my doctoral dissertation. I have also been blessed to have Professor Ho-Min Sohn as my co-chair. I cannot imagine how I could have been able to view my native language as an intellectual object if I had not taken Korean linguistics courses from him. Whenever I met him in class, in his office, at his home, or even in his books and articles, I learned not only about studies in Korean linguistics but also about a life in academia. When I began exploring the Korean language from a linguistic perspective, Victoria Anderson provided me with training in experimental phonetics, for which I am very grateful. She trained me as a graduate assistant when the department first opened the phonetics lab, where I started analyzing speech sounds. Professor Robert Bley-Vroman expanded my understanding of second language acquisition through his classes. I am honored to have had on my dissertation committee Professor Edward J. Shultz through whose devotion to Korean studies I observed the globalization of Korean study in advance. I would also like to thank Professor Kyung-ja Park, my former adviser in Korea, who took care of my first steps as a graduate student in Korea and guided me to the current doctorate program.
I was fortunate to have had good friends with whom I discussed life and scholarship both inside and outside the classroom. For sharing their encouragement, friendship, and wisdom, I offer my appreciation to Professors Seok-hoon You, Jae-keun Lee, Miseon Lee, Sang Yee Cheon, Hangtae Cho, Youngkyu Kim, Hikyoung Lee, EunJoo Lee, Mikyung Chang, Seung Bong Baek, Sangseok Yoon, DongKwan Kong, Hisun H. Kim and Ebru Turker. I would also like to thank my colleagues in various institutions—Professors Ok-sook Park, Haewon Cho, Sangkyung Han, Mijeong M. Kim, Ji-Eun Lee, and Robert E. Hegel who not only understood my situation but also helped me complete important procedures for this study. Finally, I am very grateful to those who agreed to participate in this study and endured the investigative processes that they had to undergo.
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My sincere thanks go to all my family in Korea—my parents, sisters and brothersin-law—for their love, support, and prayers over many years. Having left home during high school, I also feel sorry that I have had to be away from them for so long. I now have another family in the United States. I am proud of my two precious children, Habin and Sunbin, who have been the delights on those tiring days and occasionally provided linguistic data during their language acquisition. Last but not least, my special thanks go to my best friend, love and personal consultant, Kyung Hee. I have finished this long journey thanks to her endless understanding and sacrifice.
I give thanks to God for the journey that was allowed to me with these people.
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ABSTRACT
This study investigated where the consonantal constrictions take place when Korean coronal obstruents are articulated since there is disagreement over the place of articulation of these consonants. Unlike other studies in Korean phonetics, which focus on various acoustic features, the current study used static palatography (SPG) in the form of linguograms and palatograms to measure the linguo-palatal contact in the production of Korean coronal stops, affricates, and fricatives.
Unlike many phonetic studies on the place of articulation of Korean obstruents, however, no significant difference was observed among phonemes in three-way contrast. Based on the results of Korean native speakers, the palatograms showed that the place of articulation of the Korean stops /t, th, t*/ is (denti-)alveolar, which is similar to that of English coronal stops. Unlike English affricates, which are palato-alveolar sounds, Korean coronal affricates /c, ch, c*/ are simply alveolar sounds. In addition, the linguograms showed that Korean native speakers use the tongue blade as well as the tongue tip to articulate Korean coronal stops and affricates while English speakers prefer the tongue tip for English coronal obstruents. As for the Korean coronal fricatives /s, s*/, the fricative gap is made between the alveolar ridge region and the tongue tip.
This study also examined whether experience in the first language (L1) influences the pronunciation of coronal consonants in three groups of second language (L2) learners of Korean: non-heritage language learners at the first-year level (NHL1) and the secondyear or higher level (NHL2), and heritage learners at the first-year level (HL1). First, Korean native speakers tend to make a smaller linguo-palatal contact than the three groups of L2 learners of Korean. Second, NHL1 learners were significantly different from NHL2 learners but were frequently similar to HL1 learners. Third, the movement of the tongue seems to be influenced in the L2 pronunciation. Compared to Korean native speakers, who tend to articulate Korean coronals as laminal or apico-laminal dentialveolar sounds, NHL1 learners and NHL2 learners preferred apical contacts for Korean stops and affricates, as they do in English.
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ................................................................................................ ii ABSTRACT....................................................................................................................... iv TABLE OF CONTENTS .................................................................................................... v LIST OF TABLES ............................................................................................................ vii LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................... ix LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ............................................................................................. x CHAPTER 1 PHONETIC PROFILE OF KOREAN SPEAKERS..................................... 1
1.1 Korean as a Native Language ................................................................................... 2 1.1.1 Adult Native Speakers........................................................................................ 2 1.1.1.1 Acoustic features ......................................................................................... 4 1.1.1.2 Place of Articulation ................................................................................... 7 1.1.2 Child First Language Learners..........................................................................11
1.2 Korean as a Non-Native Language ......................................................................... 14 1.2.1 Non-Heritage Language Learners.................................................................... 17 1.2.2 Heritage Language Learners ............................................................................ 21
1.3 Purpose of the Present Study .................................................................................. 26 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY – STATIC PALATOGRAPHY.................................... 29
2.1 Participants.............................................................................................................. 34 2.2 Materials ................................................................................................................. 38
2.2.1 Elicited production for auditory assessment .................................................... 38 2.2.2 Static Palatography .......................................................................................... 40
2.2.2.1 Test items .................................................................................................. 40 2.2.2.2 Materials ................................................................................................... 42 2.3 Procedures ............................................................................................................... 44 2.3.1 Elicited production for auditory assessment .................................................... 44 2.3.2 Static palatography study................................................................................. 45 2.4 Analysis................................................................................................................... 48 CHAPTER 3 RESULTS ................................................................................................... 55 3.1 Language Use by Korean Speakers ........................................................................ 55 3.2 Auditory assessment of the elicited production test................................................ 57 3.3 Place of Articulation of Stops ................................................................................. 61 3.3.1 Korean stops /t, th, t*/....................................................................................... 61 3.3.2 English stops /d, t/............................................................................................ 66
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3.4 Place of Articulation of Affricates .......................................................................... 70 3.4.1 Korean affricates /c, ch, c*/ .............................................................................. 70 3.4.2 English affricates /ʤ, ʧ / .................................................................................. 75
3.5 Place of Articulation of Fricatives .......................................................................... 78 3.5.1 Korean fricatives /s, s*/.................................................................................... 78 3.5.2 English fricative /s/ .......................................................................................... 83
3.6 Comparisons across Variables................................................................................. 85 CHAPTER 4 DISCUSSION............................................................................................. 96
4.1 Korean Coronal Obstruents..................................................................................... 97 4.1.1 Three-way Laryngeal Features......................................................................... 98 4.1.2 Manner of Articulation................................................................................... 101 4.1.3 Place of Articulation ...................................................................................... 102
4.2 First Language Transfer ........................................................................................ 108 4.2.1 Language Experience..................................................................................... 108 4.2.2 Effect of Native Language on L2 Pronunciation ............................................116
4.3 Limitations and Suggestions ..................................................................................118 CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION......................................................................................... 121 REFERENCES ............................................................................................................... 126 APPENDIX: DEMOGRAPHIC QUESTIONNAIRE .................................................... 131
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LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Korean consonant phonemes .............................................................................. 9 Table 1.2 Studies on the PoA of Korean coronal obstruents............................................. 10 Table 2.1 Demographic information of participants ......................................................... 37 Table 2.2 Static palatography wordlist.............................................................................. 41 Table 3.1 Language use in Korean as an L2 ..................................................................... 56 Table 3.2 Results of the elicited production test ............................................................... 58 Table 3.3 MANOVA results of the elicited production test of coronals ........................... 60 Table 3.4 Measurement on palatograms for Korean coronal stops................................... 63 Table 3.5 MANOVA Results of palatograms of Korean coronal stops ............................ 63 Table 3.6 Results of linguograms of Korean coronal stops .............................................. 65 Table 3.7 Measurement on palatograms for English coronal stops .................................. 68 Table 3.8 MANOVA Results of palatograms of English coronal stops ............................ 68 Table 3.9 Linguo-palatal contact for English coronal stops ............................................. 69 Table 3.10 Measurement on palatograms for Korean coronal affricates .......................... 71 Table 3.11 MANOVA Results of palatograms of Korean coronal affricates ................... 71 Table 3.12 Results of linguograms of Korean coronal affricates...................................... 73 Table 3.13 Measurement on palatograms for English coronal affricates.......................... 76 Table 3.14 Linguo-palatal contact for English coronal affricates ..................................... 77 Table 3.15 Measurement on palatograms for Korean coronal fricatives .......................... 79 Table 3.16 MANOVA Results of palatograms of Korean coronal fricatives ................... 80 Table 3.17 Results of linguograms of Korean coronal fricatives...................................... 82 Table 3.18 Measurement on palatograms for English coronal fricative ........................... 84 Table 3.19 Results of linguograms of English coronal fricative....................................... 85 Table 3.20 Comparison of palatograms between stops and affricates .............................. 86 Table 3.21 The rearmost contact of coronal sounds – stops and affricates....................... 87 Table 3.22 The rearmost contact of affricates and fricatives ............................................ 88 Table 3.23 Relative place of articulation by Korean native speakers (%) ........................ 89 Table 3.24 Comparison between Korean and English coronals ....................................... 93 Table 3.25 Comparison of side contact length for lax consonants by NS ........................ 93 Table 3.26 Summary of linguographic analysis – stop and affricate ................................ 95 Table 4.1 Midsagittal contact of Korean and English coronals by NSs.......................... 105 Table 4.2 Korean and English coronal consonant (proposed) ........................................ 108
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Table 4.3 Results of the elicited production test ............................................................. 108 Table 4.4 Effects of the first language on the place of articulation .................................110
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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1.1 The distribution of Korean obstruents in VOT-F0 plot .................................... 7 Figure 1.2 Midsagittal articulatory profile.......................................................................... 8 Figure 2.1 Midsagittal MRI images .................................................................................. 29 Figure 2.2 Overlays of traced tongue contours ................................................................. 30 Figure 2.3 EPG linguo-palatal contact profiles................................................................. 31 Figure 2.4 Sample palatograms......................................................................................... 46 Figure 2.5 Sample linguograms ........................................................................................ 47 Figure 2.6 Palate impression............................................................................................. 49 Figure 2.7 Contour map of the palate ............................................................................... 49 Figure 2.8 Measurement of permanent palate impression ................................................ 50 Figure 2.9 Measurement of stops and affricates ............................................................... 51 Figure 2.10 Measurement of fricatives ............................................................................. 52 Figure 2.11 Measurement of linguograms ........................................................................ 53 Figure 3.1 Palatograms of Korean coronal stops .............................................................. 62 Figure 3.2 Linguograms of Korean coronal stops ............................................................ 65 Figure 3.3 Palatograms and linguograms of English coronal stops.................................. 67 Figure 3.4 Palatograms of Korean coronal affricates ....................................................... 70 Figure 3.5 Linguograms of Korean coronal affricates ...................................................... 73 Figure 3.6 Palatograms and linguograms of English coronal affricates ........................... 76 Figure 3.7 Palatograms of Korean coronal fricatives ....................................................... 79 Figure 3.8 Linguograms of Korean coronal fricatives...................................................... 81 Figure 3.9 Palatograms and linguograms of English coronal fricative /s/ ........................ 83 Figure 3.10 Representative palatograms of coronal consonants....................................... 88 Figure 3.11 Relative place of articulation of Korean coronal consonants ........................ 91 Figure 3.12 Relative place of articulation of Korean and English coronals ..................... 92
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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

ANOVA AoA AP CPH EN EPG F0 GLM H H1 H2 HL IP KO L L1 L2 M MANOVA MoA MRI NHL NS PoA SD SEM SPG VOT

Analysis of Variance Age of arrival Accentual phrase Critical Period Hypothesis English Electropalatography Fundamental frequency General Linear Model High tone First harmonic Second harmonic Heritage language Intonation phrase Korean Low tone First language Second language Mean Multivariate analysis of variance Manner of articulation Magnetic resonance imaging Non-heritage language Native speakers Place of articulation Standard deviation Standard error of the mean Static palatography Voice onset time

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The Articulation Of Korean Coronal Obstruents: Data From