# Performance Evaluation Of A Forced Convection Solar Bagasse

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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FORCED CONVECTION SOLAR BAGASSE DRYER TO INCREASE THE BOILER EFFICIENCY.

Mr. Sandip. V. Borate1, Mr. P. S. Patil2

1Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering (ME Heat Power) JSPM’s NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.

2Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM’s RajarshiShahu College of Engineering Tathawade, Pune,

Maharashtra, India.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract-Conservation of energy in the boiler have need of

mode and mixed mode solar dryer for various agricultural

drying bagasse ,because there are more than 600 sugar

crop. From paper select the indirect type forced convection

factories in India and each sugar factory must have boiler

solar dryer for remove the moisture and increase the

for the production of steam for generation of electricity..

boiler efficiency.

Bagasse drying is one of the best solution of energy

conservation in boiler. Objective of this work is to reduce the moisture contents of bagasse by using solar energy. Efficiency of boiler increases by 1-2 % by reducing bagasse moisture 1-2%. Sugar cane bagasse have high GCV but due to 40- 50% moisture, it is not possible to achieve its full heat. So for improve the boiler efficiency by using solar energy is the work of experiment. Experimental setup is designed at least reduced the bagasse moisture by 2% and after drying

Chetan T. Patel et al [2] Inthis research paper from the data related to the boiler, if higher GCV coal is used, then the efficiency should be increased.Moisture content and ash inside the fuel which affects on the efficiency. In this paper using semi bituminous coal having efficiency is 80.30% because it’s high heating value and less moisture. WhileIndian lignite coal gives 78.21% efficiency on the same boiler because of it has more moisture contents than

of bagasse it is proven that moisture is reduced by 2%.

the semi bituminous coal.

Reduction of bagasse moisture from 50% to 48% and improved the boiler efficiency by 1.075%.

Lakshmi PathiJakkamputi et al [3] This paper present analytical calculations done to study the performance

Keywords-Bagasse Dryer, GCV, Boiler Efficiency, Moisture content of bagasse, Sugar Factory.

improvement ofthe jagerry making unit using solar collector and solar dryer. In the conventional process of jaggery preparation, dry bagasse is used as raw material

1. INTRODUCTION

for the combustion process. Around 45% of total energy

produced in the combustion process is effectively utilized

Bagasse is a byproduct of sugarcane after crushing into the mills. This bagasse are used in factory for boiler as a burning fuel. So this bagasse having moisture contents are

for jaggery preparation and remaining 55% of total energy is lost through flue gases, ash and walls.

40-50%. This moisture contents are effects on the boiler

SankalpShrivastav et al [4] In this research paper study of

efficiency due to low calorific value of wet bagasse. So here

Bagasse drying by using flue gases comes from air

try to minimize the moisture of bagasse and increase the

preheater to chimney is a best solution to improve

boiler efficiency and for that we design, fabricate solar

efficiency of boiler in sugar factory as bagasse has high

bagasse dryer. The objective of this work is to reduce the

calorific value but due to because its moisture about 50 %

moisture of bagasse at least 2%. As the gross calorific

not able to use its all heat. Improved GCV of bagasse about

value of bagasse increases the requirement of bagasse i.e.

790 KJ/Kg which improves boiler efficiency from 79 % to

fuel reduces for same output. Hence the boiler efficiency

81 % in sugar factory.

increases by 1 %. As the bagasse requirement of particular output reduced the bagasse energy can be saved, it is

1.1 Problem Statement

nothing but the energy conservation. Bagasse costs rupees 2 per kg in current market. If the sugar factories having cogeneration plants then bagasse dryer definitely considerable cost can be saved with low payback periods.

Bagasse having moisture contents is 40-50%, this moisture are effects on the efficiency of boiler due to lower calorific value of wet bagasse. This effects on consumption of bagasse are required more quantity & its affects on

Mr. Avesahemadet al [1]Experimentally it is proved that solar drying technology is economical viable and possible in this review paper we reviewed direct mode, indirect

other cogeneration plant for shortage of bagasse in sugar factory.For solution on this problem we “Design and Fabricate Forced Convection Solar Bagasse Dryer”.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2480

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

1.2 Objectives:

Mi= initial moisture of bagasse= 50 (%)

To use solar energy for drying bagasse. To develop a forced convection solar bagasse

dryer. Forced convection of air is to be used for efficient bagasse drying. To reduce bagasse moisture at least 2 %. To improve calorific value of bagasse and hence to decrease the losses associated with the moisture of bagasse. To improve boiler efficiency. As the losses decreases the efficiency of boiler increases.

1.3 Scope of the Project:

Today in this world of skyrocketing technology, it has become very difficult to have a hand on the control knob of worlds increasing pollution level every year.

Thus keeping a proper balance of present as well as sustainable development in mind, we have to take steps to reserve our natural resource.

This project has tremendous scope in future to avoid or at least reduce the use of coal (nonrenewable resource) in boilers by using the effective concept of cogeneration.

The bagasse (renewable source) availability is very high in India. Most of it goes in waste. Thus by using it in boilers instead of coal is a great idea.

We can reserve a lot of renewable source by using such alternate energy source if treated properly.

Bagasse being cheaper than any other source is most economical alternative fuel.

This solar dryer has large scope as it can be used to dry any of the other material for example chilies, tapioca, grains, fruits, bagasse etc.

2. DESIGNING OF EXPERIMENTAION

2.1 Mass of Water to be Evaporated from Bagasse Here we design the setup by assuming rate of 3 Kg/hr. of bagasse feed rate and for that how much percentage of water to be evaporated for reducing moisture to 48% will be calculate.

M w Mb Mi M f

(2.1)

100 M f

Where, Mb= initial mass of bagasse= 0.05 (kg) As required bagasse feed rate is 3 kg/hr

Mf= final moisture of bagasse= 48 (%) As required bagasse moisture is 48 % Therefore

Mw= 0.05×

Mw = 0.00192 kg

Here we design the setup by assuming rate of 3 Kg/hr of bagasse. For this feed rate how much heat energy are required for drying of bagasse to 48% and Heat energy required to dry bagasse at rate of 3 kg/hr to 48 % moisture is , Ha= Mw × L Where, L= Latent heat of evaporation of water= 2256 kJ/kg Ha= 0.00192 × 2256 Ha= 0.07219 kW

2.2 Solar Collector Area

Solar collector is blackened MS plate with 45 % collector efficiency. Considering sugar factory seasonal months i.e. from October to May.The average global solar radiation in Pune from month October to May is 0.2873 kW/m2(This is taken from Journal of Metrological Department of India).We get the heat collected at solar collector plate by 45 % collection efficiency is, Hc= 0.1293 kW For the requirement of 0.07219 kW heat energy, the minimum area of solar collector required is Ac= 0.558 m2

2.3 The Mass Flow Rate of Drying Air

The mass flow rate of drying air is expressed as

M

M

w

L

1

(2.3)

a C p a Ti T f

Where,

L= Latent heat of vaporization= 2256 kJ/kg

ρa= Density of air= 1.005 (kg/m3 )

Cp= Specific heat of air at constant pressure = 1.005

(kJ/kgK)

0.00192 2256

1

M a

1.005 1.225

51.5 44.5

Ma= 0.5026 kg/min Ma= 0.0084 kg/sec

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2481

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

2.4 Volume Flow Rate of Air

3. TEST SETUP

Volume flow rate of air is

Qa=

(2.4)

Qa=

Qa= 0.4 m3/min Qa= 0.0067 m3/sec

2.5 Air Velocity Calculation

Air velocity is,

V Qa (2.5) aA

Va 0.067 0.002784

Va= 2.24 m/s

2.6 The Useful Power of the Motor of Blower

The useful power of the motor of blower is

P 1 M V 2 kw 2 fa

(2.6)

P =

( )

P= 21.07 W Table 2. Design details of experimentation

NSro. Component 1 Scoolllaerctor 2 DChryaimnbger 3 Aplbastoerber

Solar 4 collector

glass cover

5 Air Blower

6 Strainer

Specification

L=1040 mm W=540 mm H=160 mm L=800 mm W=540mm H=160mm L=1040mm, W=540mm T=2mm L=1040mm W=540mm T=5mm L= 6 inches N=2400rpm (varying) Power -21watt

Various sizes, 5 qty.

Material

MS

MS MS Blackened

Glass

Fiber Stainless Steel

Fig 3. Actual experimental setup

Working of Solar Bagasse Dryer Solar drying refers to a technique that utilizes

incident solar radiation to convert it into thermal energy required for drying purposes. Most solar dryers use solar air heaters and the heated air is then passed through the drying chamber (containing material) to be dried. The air transfers its energy to the material causing evaporation of moisture of the material. In the process of drying, heat is necessary to evaporate moisture from the material and a flow of air helps in carrying away the evaporated moisture. There are two basic mechanisms involved in the drying process: the migration of moisture from the interior of an individual material to the surface, and the evaporation of moisture from the surface to the surrounding air.The bagasse and hot air get mix with each other and the moisture content in bagasse get evaporate. The bagasse dryer is so designed that the moisture of bagasse will reduced at least 2 %.The hot air and bagasse mixture leaves dryer box and enters in to the bagasse collector.

4. EFFICIENCY OF BOILER FOR VARYING MOISTURE CONTENT

The efficiency of boiler has been found out analytically for the existing and varying moisture content and calorific value which has been verified with the moisture content and calorific value obtained by experimental setup. This chapter discusses the efficiency of boiler for both the cases.

4.1 Observed Temperature at Various Times in a Day for Experimental Setup

4.1.1 May Month Readings

We taking of reading in two month after preparation of experimental setup but only optimum range readings are taken for calculations (Taken readings of May

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2482

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

month). In that time we get the temperature at outlet of solar collector and outlet of bagasse dryer are note down.The maximum temperature of air attained leaving collector is 61 0C.

Table 4.1.1: Temperature measured in May months at various times in a day

Sr. Time No.

1

8 am

2 10 am

3 12 pm

4

2 pm

5

4 pm

6

6 pm

Average

Temperature of air leaving collector °C 42 49 61 59 52 46 51.5

Temperature of air leaving dryer

°C 38 42 52 49 46 40 44.5

4.2 Boiler Efficiency by Indirect Method

Percentage heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3)

=

[

( )] [4.2]

= [

(

)]

= 13.913 % Total Heat Loss in %(L)= L1 +L2 + L3+ L4 + L5 + L6 = 6.01 + 9.917+ 13.913 + 0.198 + 0.492 + 1 = 31.53 %

Boiler Efficiency before Drying of bagasse is,

Here put the initial value of bagasse moisture which is 50% found in laboratory.Then for 50% moisture of bagasse boiler efficiency is, Boiler Efficiency =100 – Total Heat Loss in % = 68.47 %

4.3 Experimental Efficiency of Boiler From May month temperature observation

Improvement efficiency of Boiler after drying of bagasse is, The reduction on bagasse moisture is got 2 % Final GCV= 2368 kCl/kg Initial loss due to moisture (L3)i= 13.913 % Final loss due to moisture

(L3)f=

[

(

)]

[4.6]

Final loss due to moisture (L3)f= [

(

)]

Final loss due to moisture (L3)f= 12.8375 % Improvement in Boiler efficiency = (L3)i - (L3)f Improvement in Boiler efficiency =13.913-12.83 The improvement in boiler efficiency= 1.0755 For 5 April temperature observations

Here calculate the improvement of boiler efficiency by using above (4.6) formulas in which put the temperature values of collector panel found in 5 April days. The improvement in boiler efficiency= 0.71%

For 20 April temperature observations The improvement in boiler efficiency= 0.49%

4.4 Bagasse Saving Due To 2% Moisture Reduction

Bagasse Required Per Hour is,

Heat of steam required per hour= 68599542.33 kCal/hr

Bagasse required per hour = [4.4]

=

= 44019.8 kg/hr Bagasse Saving: Moisture of dried bagasse= 0.48%

= ( )[4.5]

=

Dried bagasse requirement= 41655.32 kg/hr Bagasse saving per hour=44019.8575 – 41655.32 Bagasse saving per hour= 2364.5375 kg

5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

1. Aim of this experiment is reduced the moisture of bagasse.

2. Design the experiment setup for the reduction of bagasse moisture at least 2%.Below are the designed values of setup.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2483

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Table 5.2. Design parameter and values

Notation

Parameter

Mw

Mass of Water to be

Evaporated

Ac

Solar Collector Area

Ma

Mass Flow Rate of

Drying Air

Qa

Volume Flow Rate

of Air

Va

Air Velocity

P

Power of the Motor

of Blower

Designed value with SI unit 0.00192 kg

0.558 m2 0.0084 kg/sec

0.0067 m3/sec

2.24 m/s 21.07

4. Experimental it is proven that bagasse moisture is reduced by 2%.

5. Improved maximum efficiency of boiler is 1.075% (68.47 % to 69.54%) this is achieve due to increase the GCV of bagasse and reduce the losses of fuel.

6. GCV of bagasse is increased from 2276 Kcal/Kg to 2368 Kcal/Kg due to reduction of bagasse moisture.Experimentally it is proven that bagasse saving is 2364.5375 kg/hr. due to reduction of bagasse moisture.Table 5.6 Bagasse saving and efficiency of boiler

3. First calculated analytical and experimental efficiency of boiler at getting moisture reduction values of bagasse. As per moisture reduced from bagasse, efficiency of boiler is increased.

Table: 5.3 Analytical and Experimental Efficiency of boiler

Efficiency of boiler % Bagasse saving (hr/kg)

1.2 1

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

0 1 1.5 2

Moisture reduction %

Moisture reduction % vs. Efficiency of boiler %

Graph No.5.3 Moisture reduction Vs Efficiency of boiler

2500

2000

1500 1000

500

Moisture reduction % vs. Saving og bagasse hr/kg

0 1 1.5 2

Moisture reduction %

Graph No.5.6 Moisture reduction Vs Bagasse saving

7. The maximum temperature of air attained at leaving collector is 61 0C.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2484

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

Temperature 0C

8:00 AM 10:00 AM 12:00 PM

2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM

80

[6] S.K.Amedorme, J.Apodi, (2013) Design and

60

construction of solar dryer for drying moringa leaves,

40

scholars journal of engineering and technology, issn 2321-

20

435x

0

Drying Air

[7] M. Mohanraj, P. Chandrasekar, (2009) performance of a

forced convection solar dryer integrated with gravel as

heat storage material for chili dryingvvol. 4 no. 3 305-314

Time

Graph No.5.7 Variation of air temperature after collector with time.

[8] Diemuodeke E. Oghenerurona, Momog O. L. Yusuf, (2011) Design and fabrication of solar bagasse dryer by direct natural convection for tapioca plant, leonardo electronic journal of practices and technologies, p. 95-104

6. CONCLUSION

Each sugar factory must have boiler for the generation of electricity. Sugar factories combined with co-generation have voluminous potential of energy conservation. Heredesigned and fabricated simple forced convection solar bagasse dryer. The temperature attained by air leaving solar collector is sufficient to dry the bagasse by 2 %. The boiler efficiency improved from 68.47 % to 69.5455 %, ultimately it tends to save bagasse.GCV (Gross calorific value) of bagasse is increased from 2276 Kcal/Kg to 2368 Kcal/Kg due to reduction of bagasse moisture.Due to increase of calorific value, bagasse will be save. Bagasse saving (against the requirement of 44019.8575 kg/hr.) is 2364.5375 kg/hr.

[9] A. N. Pathak, (1999) Energy conservation in sugar industries, journal of scientific research, vol. 58, pp-78-82

[10] C. V. Papade, M. A. Boda, “Design and development of Indirect solar dryer with energy storing material”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering, 2014 Volume 1 issue 22.

REFERENCES

[1] Mr.Avesahemad, S.N.Husainy “Review on direct, indirect and mixed mode solar dryer, 2017”,International journal of enginnering research in mechanical and civil engineering ,ISSN 2456-1290

[2] Chetan T. Patel, Dr. Bhavesh K. Patel, Vijay K. Patel, (2013) Efficinecy with different GCV of coal and efficiency improvement in boiler, International journal of innovative research in advanced engineering and technology IJIRSET ,2319-8753, vol. 2, issue 5

[3] J. Sudhakar, P.Vijay, (2013) Control of moisture content in bagasse by using bagasse dryer, international journal of engineering trends and technology, vol. 4, issue 5

[4] Lakshmi PathiJakkamputi, Mohan J.K.Mandapati “Improving the performance of jaggery using solar energy, 2016”journal of Elsevier 146-150

[5] SankalpShrivastav, Ibrahim Hussain, (2013) design of bagasse dryer to recover energy of water tube boiler in a sugar factory, international journal of science and research, India, 2319-7064

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal |

Page 2485

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A FORCED CONVECTION SOLAR BAGASSE DRYER TO INCREASE THE BOILER EFFICIENCY.

Mr. Sandip. V. Borate1, Mr. P. S. Patil2

1Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering (ME Heat Power) JSPM’s NTC Pune, Maharashtra, India.

2Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering, JSPM’s RajarshiShahu College of Engineering Tathawade, Pune,

Maharashtra, India.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------***-------------------------------------------------------------------------

Abstract-Conservation of energy in the boiler have need of

mode and mixed mode solar dryer for various agricultural

drying bagasse ,because there are more than 600 sugar

crop. From paper select the indirect type forced convection

factories in India and each sugar factory must have boiler

solar dryer for remove the moisture and increase the

for the production of steam for generation of electricity..

boiler efficiency.

Bagasse drying is one of the best solution of energy

conservation in boiler. Objective of this work is to reduce the moisture contents of bagasse by using solar energy. Efficiency of boiler increases by 1-2 % by reducing bagasse moisture 1-2%. Sugar cane bagasse have high GCV but due to 40- 50% moisture, it is not possible to achieve its full heat. So for improve the boiler efficiency by using solar energy is the work of experiment. Experimental setup is designed at least reduced the bagasse moisture by 2% and after drying

Chetan T. Patel et al [2] Inthis research paper from the data related to the boiler, if higher GCV coal is used, then the efficiency should be increased.Moisture content and ash inside the fuel which affects on the efficiency. In this paper using semi bituminous coal having efficiency is 80.30% because it’s high heating value and less moisture. WhileIndian lignite coal gives 78.21% efficiency on the same boiler because of it has more moisture contents than

of bagasse it is proven that moisture is reduced by 2%.

the semi bituminous coal.

Reduction of bagasse moisture from 50% to 48% and improved the boiler efficiency by 1.075%.

Lakshmi PathiJakkamputi et al [3] This paper present analytical calculations done to study the performance

Keywords-Bagasse Dryer, GCV, Boiler Efficiency, Moisture content of bagasse, Sugar Factory.

improvement ofthe jagerry making unit using solar collector and solar dryer. In the conventional process of jaggery preparation, dry bagasse is used as raw material

1. INTRODUCTION

for the combustion process. Around 45% of total energy

produced in the combustion process is effectively utilized

Bagasse is a byproduct of sugarcane after crushing into the mills. This bagasse are used in factory for boiler as a burning fuel. So this bagasse having moisture contents are

for jaggery preparation and remaining 55% of total energy is lost through flue gases, ash and walls.

40-50%. This moisture contents are effects on the boiler

SankalpShrivastav et al [4] In this research paper study of

efficiency due to low calorific value of wet bagasse. So here

Bagasse drying by using flue gases comes from air

try to minimize the moisture of bagasse and increase the

preheater to chimney is a best solution to improve

boiler efficiency and for that we design, fabricate solar

efficiency of boiler in sugar factory as bagasse has high

bagasse dryer. The objective of this work is to reduce the

calorific value but due to because its moisture about 50 %

moisture of bagasse at least 2%. As the gross calorific

not able to use its all heat. Improved GCV of bagasse about

value of bagasse increases the requirement of bagasse i.e.

790 KJ/Kg which improves boiler efficiency from 79 % to

fuel reduces for same output. Hence the boiler efficiency

81 % in sugar factory.

increases by 1 %. As the bagasse requirement of particular output reduced the bagasse energy can be saved, it is

1.1 Problem Statement

nothing but the energy conservation. Bagasse costs rupees 2 per kg in current market. If the sugar factories having cogeneration plants then bagasse dryer definitely considerable cost can be saved with low payback periods.

Bagasse having moisture contents is 40-50%, this moisture are effects on the efficiency of boiler due to lower calorific value of wet bagasse. This effects on consumption of bagasse are required more quantity & its affects on

Mr. Avesahemadet al [1]Experimentally it is proved that solar drying technology is economical viable and possible in this review paper we reviewed direct mode, indirect

other cogeneration plant for shortage of bagasse in sugar factory.For solution on this problem we “Design and Fabricate Forced Convection Solar Bagasse Dryer”.

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2480

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

1.2 Objectives:

Mi= initial moisture of bagasse= 50 (%)

To use solar energy for drying bagasse. To develop a forced convection solar bagasse

dryer. Forced convection of air is to be used for efficient bagasse drying. To reduce bagasse moisture at least 2 %. To improve calorific value of bagasse and hence to decrease the losses associated with the moisture of bagasse. To improve boiler efficiency. As the losses decreases the efficiency of boiler increases.

1.3 Scope of the Project:

Today in this world of skyrocketing technology, it has become very difficult to have a hand on the control knob of worlds increasing pollution level every year.

Thus keeping a proper balance of present as well as sustainable development in mind, we have to take steps to reserve our natural resource.

This project has tremendous scope in future to avoid or at least reduce the use of coal (nonrenewable resource) in boilers by using the effective concept of cogeneration.

The bagasse (renewable source) availability is very high in India. Most of it goes in waste. Thus by using it in boilers instead of coal is a great idea.

We can reserve a lot of renewable source by using such alternate energy source if treated properly.

Bagasse being cheaper than any other source is most economical alternative fuel.

This solar dryer has large scope as it can be used to dry any of the other material for example chilies, tapioca, grains, fruits, bagasse etc.

2. DESIGNING OF EXPERIMENTAION

2.1 Mass of Water to be Evaporated from Bagasse Here we design the setup by assuming rate of 3 Kg/hr. of bagasse feed rate and for that how much percentage of water to be evaporated for reducing moisture to 48% will be calculate.

M w Mb Mi M f

(2.1)

100 M f

Where, Mb= initial mass of bagasse= 0.05 (kg) As required bagasse feed rate is 3 kg/hr

Mf= final moisture of bagasse= 48 (%) As required bagasse moisture is 48 % Therefore

Mw= 0.05×

Mw = 0.00192 kg

Here we design the setup by assuming rate of 3 Kg/hr of bagasse. For this feed rate how much heat energy are required for drying of bagasse to 48% and Heat energy required to dry bagasse at rate of 3 kg/hr to 48 % moisture is , Ha= Mw × L Where, L= Latent heat of evaporation of water= 2256 kJ/kg Ha= 0.00192 × 2256 Ha= 0.07219 kW

2.2 Solar Collector Area

Solar collector is blackened MS plate with 45 % collector efficiency. Considering sugar factory seasonal months i.e. from October to May.The average global solar radiation in Pune from month October to May is 0.2873 kW/m2(This is taken from Journal of Metrological Department of India).We get the heat collected at solar collector plate by 45 % collection efficiency is, Hc= 0.1293 kW For the requirement of 0.07219 kW heat energy, the minimum area of solar collector required is Ac= 0.558 m2

2.3 The Mass Flow Rate of Drying Air

The mass flow rate of drying air is expressed as

M

M

w

L

1

(2.3)

a C p a Ti T f

Where,

L= Latent heat of vaporization= 2256 kJ/kg

ρa= Density of air= 1.005 (kg/m3 )

Cp= Specific heat of air at constant pressure = 1.005

(kJ/kgK)

0.00192 2256

1

M a

1.005 1.225

51.5 44.5

Ma= 0.5026 kg/min Ma= 0.0084 kg/sec

© 2018, IRJET | Impact Factor value: 7.211 | ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal | Page 2481

International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

Volume: 05 Issue: 07 | July-2018

www.irjet.net

e-ISSN: 2395-0056 p-ISSN: 2395-0072

2.4 Volume Flow Rate of Air

3. TEST SETUP

Volume flow rate of air is

Qa=

(2.4)

Qa=

Qa= 0.4 m3/min Qa= 0.0067 m3/sec

2.5 Air Velocity Calculation

Air velocity is,

V Qa (2.5) aA

Va 0.067 0.002784

Va= 2.24 m/s

2.6 The Useful Power of the Motor of Blower

The useful power of the motor of blower is

P 1 M V 2 kw 2 fa

(2.6)

P =

( )

P= 21.07 W Table 2. Design details of experimentation

NSro. Component 1 Scoolllaerctor 2 DChryaimnbger 3 Aplbastoerber

Solar 4 collector

glass cover

5 Air Blower

6 Strainer

Specification

L=1040 mm W=540 mm H=160 mm L=800 mm W=540mm H=160mm L=1040mm, W=540mm T=2mm L=1040mm W=540mm T=5mm L= 6 inches N=2400rpm (varying) Power -21watt

Various sizes, 5 qty.

Material

MS

MS MS Blackened

Glass

Fiber Stainless Steel

Fig 3. Actual experimental setup

Working of Solar Bagasse Dryer Solar drying refers to a technique that utilizes

incident solar radiation to convert it into thermal energy required for drying purposes. Most solar dryers use solar air heaters and the heated air is then passed through the drying chamber (containing material) to be dried. The air transfers its energy to the material causing evaporation of moisture of the material. In the process of drying, heat is necessary to evaporate moisture from the material and a flow of air helps in carrying away the evaporated moisture. There are two basic mechanisms involved in the drying process: the migration of moisture from the interior of an individual material to the surface, and the evaporation of moisture from the surface to the surrounding air.The bagasse and hot air get mix with each other and the moisture content in bagasse get evaporate. The bagasse dryer is so designed that the moisture of bagasse will reduced at least 2 %.The hot air and bagasse mixture leaves dryer box and enters in to the bagasse collector.

4. EFFICIENCY OF BOILER FOR VARYING MOISTURE CONTENT

The efficiency of boiler has been found out analytically for the existing and varying moisture content and calorific value which has been verified with the moisture content and calorific value obtained by experimental setup. This chapter discusses the efficiency of boiler for both the cases.

4.1 Observed Temperature at Various Times in a Day for Experimental Setup

4.1.1 May Month Readings

We taking of reading in two month after preparation of experimental setup but only optimum range readings are taken for calculations (Taken readings of May

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month). In that time we get the temperature at outlet of solar collector and outlet of bagasse dryer are note down.The maximum temperature of air attained leaving collector is 61 0C.

Table 4.1.1: Temperature measured in May months at various times in a day

Sr. Time No.

1

8 am

2 10 am

3 12 pm

4

2 pm

5

4 pm

6

6 pm

Average

Temperature of air leaving collector °C 42 49 61 59 52 46 51.5

Temperature of air leaving dryer

°C 38 42 52 49 46 40 44.5

4.2 Boiler Efficiency by Indirect Method

Percentage heat loss due to moisture present in fuel (L3)

=

[

( )] [4.2]

= [

(

)]

= 13.913 % Total Heat Loss in %(L)= L1 +L2 + L3+ L4 + L5 + L6 = 6.01 + 9.917+ 13.913 + 0.198 + 0.492 + 1 = 31.53 %

Boiler Efficiency before Drying of bagasse is,

Here put the initial value of bagasse moisture which is 50% found in laboratory.Then for 50% moisture of bagasse boiler efficiency is, Boiler Efficiency =100 – Total Heat Loss in % = 68.47 %

4.3 Experimental Efficiency of Boiler From May month temperature observation

Improvement efficiency of Boiler after drying of bagasse is, The reduction on bagasse moisture is got 2 % Final GCV= 2368 kCl/kg Initial loss due to moisture (L3)i= 13.913 % Final loss due to moisture

(L3)f=

[

(

)]

[4.6]

Final loss due to moisture (L3)f= [

(

)]

Final loss due to moisture (L3)f= 12.8375 % Improvement in Boiler efficiency = (L3)i - (L3)f Improvement in Boiler efficiency =13.913-12.83 The improvement in boiler efficiency= 1.0755 For 5 April temperature observations

Here calculate the improvement of boiler efficiency by using above (4.6) formulas in which put the temperature values of collector panel found in 5 April days. The improvement in boiler efficiency= 0.71%

For 20 April temperature observations The improvement in boiler efficiency= 0.49%

4.4 Bagasse Saving Due To 2% Moisture Reduction

Bagasse Required Per Hour is,

Heat of steam required per hour= 68599542.33 kCal/hr

Bagasse required per hour = [4.4]

=

= 44019.8 kg/hr Bagasse Saving: Moisture of dried bagasse= 0.48%

= ( )[4.5]

=

Dried bagasse requirement= 41655.32 kg/hr Bagasse saving per hour=44019.8575 – 41655.32 Bagasse saving per hour= 2364.5375 kg

5. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

1. Aim of this experiment is reduced the moisture of bagasse.

2. Design the experiment setup for the reduction of bagasse moisture at least 2%.Below are the designed values of setup.

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Table 5.2. Design parameter and values

Notation

Parameter

Mw

Mass of Water to be

Evaporated

Ac

Solar Collector Area

Ma

Mass Flow Rate of

Drying Air

Qa

Volume Flow Rate

of Air

Va

Air Velocity

P

Power of the Motor

of Blower

Designed value with SI unit 0.00192 kg

0.558 m2 0.0084 kg/sec

0.0067 m3/sec

2.24 m/s 21.07

4. Experimental it is proven that bagasse moisture is reduced by 2%.

5. Improved maximum efficiency of boiler is 1.075% (68.47 % to 69.54%) this is achieve due to increase the GCV of bagasse and reduce the losses of fuel.

6. GCV of bagasse is increased from 2276 Kcal/Kg to 2368 Kcal/Kg due to reduction of bagasse moisture.Experimentally it is proven that bagasse saving is 2364.5375 kg/hr. due to reduction of bagasse moisture.Table 5.6 Bagasse saving and efficiency of boiler

3. First calculated analytical and experimental efficiency of boiler at getting moisture reduction values of bagasse. As per moisture reduced from bagasse, efficiency of boiler is increased.

Table: 5.3 Analytical and Experimental Efficiency of boiler

Efficiency of boiler % Bagasse saving (hr/kg)

1.2 1

0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2

0 1 1.5 2

Moisture reduction %

Moisture reduction % vs. Efficiency of boiler %

Graph No.5.3 Moisture reduction Vs Efficiency of boiler

2500

2000

1500 1000

500

Moisture reduction % vs. Saving og bagasse hr/kg

0 1 1.5 2

Moisture reduction %

Graph No.5.6 Moisture reduction Vs Bagasse saving

7. The maximum temperature of air attained at leaving collector is 61 0C.

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Temperature 0C

8:00 AM 10:00 AM 12:00 PM

2:00 PM 4:00 PM 6:00 PM

80

[6] S.K.Amedorme, J.Apodi, (2013) Design and

60

construction of solar dryer for drying moringa leaves,

40

scholars journal of engineering and technology, issn 2321-

20

435x

0

Drying Air

[7] M. Mohanraj, P. Chandrasekar, (2009) performance of a

forced convection solar dryer integrated with gravel as

heat storage material for chili dryingvvol. 4 no. 3 305-314

Time

Graph No.5.7 Variation of air temperature after collector with time.

[8] Diemuodeke E. Oghenerurona, Momog O. L. Yusuf, (2011) Design and fabrication of solar bagasse dryer by direct natural convection for tapioca plant, leonardo electronic journal of practices and technologies, p. 95-104

6. CONCLUSION

Each sugar factory must have boiler for the generation of electricity. Sugar factories combined with co-generation have voluminous potential of energy conservation. Heredesigned and fabricated simple forced convection solar bagasse dryer. The temperature attained by air leaving solar collector is sufficient to dry the bagasse by 2 %. The boiler efficiency improved from 68.47 % to 69.5455 %, ultimately it tends to save bagasse.GCV (Gross calorific value) of bagasse is increased from 2276 Kcal/Kg to 2368 Kcal/Kg due to reduction of bagasse moisture.Due to increase of calorific value, bagasse will be save. Bagasse saving (against the requirement of 44019.8575 kg/hr.) is 2364.5375 kg/hr.

[9] A. N. Pathak, (1999) Energy conservation in sugar industries, journal of scientific research, vol. 58, pp-78-82

[10] C. V. Papade, M. A. Boda, “Design and development of Indirect solar dryer with energy storing material”, International Journal of Innovative Research in Advanced Engineering, 2014 Volume 1 issue 22.

REFERENCES

[1] Mr.Avesahemad, S.N.Husainy “Review on direct, indirect and mixed mode solar dryer, 2017”,International journal of enginnering research in mechanical and civil engineering ,ISSN 2456-1290

[2] Chetan T. Patel, Dr. Bhavesh K. Patel, Vijay K. Patel, (2013) Efficinecy with different GCV of coal and efficiency improvement in boiler, International journal of innovative research in advanced engineering and technology IJIRSET ,2319-8753, vol. 2, issue 5

[3] J. Sudhakar, P.Vijay, (2013) Control of moisture content in bagasse by using bagasse dryer, international journal of engineering trends and technology, vol. 4, issue 5

[4] Lakshmi PathiJakkamputi, Mohan J.K.Mandapati “Improving the performance of jaggery using solar energy, 2016”journal of Elsevier 146-150

[5] SankalpShrivastav, Ibrahim Hussain, (2013) design of bagasse dryer to recover energy of water tube boiler in a sugar factory, international journal of science and research, India, 2319-7064

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